Apoptosis in Carcinogenesis and Chemotherapy

Therefore, this book will be not only for laboratory-based molecular and cell biologists and biochemists in cancer research but also for clinical oncologists and those working in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries.

Apoptosis in Carcinogenesis and Chemotherapy

Author: George G. Chen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 140209597X

Page: 384

View: 342

Although research on carcinogenesis has focused more on cellular proliferation than on cell death, yet understanding the mechanism of apoptosis may have important implications for cancer therapy. This book brings together experts from around the world who will discuss the common cancers encountered in clinical practice in the laboratory setting. During the induction of these common cancers, the role of apoptosis in cellular and molecular changes is emphasized, critically highlighting possible anti-cancer strategies. For those who are interested in carcinogenesis and for those who are seeking new approaches to anti-cancer therapy, this book is an important reference. It serves not only as a reference of the current understanding of apoptosis in common cancers but also an important bridge between the laboratory and clinical practice. The editors and contributors are to be congratulated in bringing together an important pool of up-to-date knowledge to light and further our interest in this exciting and expanding ?eld. Arthur K. C. Li Emeritus Professor of Surgery The Chinese University of Hong Kong v Preface The role of apoptosis in cancer development and emerging treatment strategies has rapidly expanded over the past few years. The novel discovery in the apoptotic pa- ways and their relevant molecules provides us not only the knowledge how tumors develop but also the opportunity to design new therapeutic tools to prevent or inhibit the growth of tumors with minimal side-effects. Undoubtedly, understanding the events involved at a molecular level can permit the manipulation of apoptosis for therapeutic purposes.

Targets for Cancer Chemotherapy

Apoptin, a protein derived from chicken anemia virus, induces a p53-
independent apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells. Cancer Res 1995; 55:486–
489. 16. Noteborn MHM, Danen-van Oorschot AAAM, Van der Eb AJ. The
Apoptin® gene of ...

Targets for Cancer Chemotherapy

Author: Nicholas B. La Thangue

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592591531

Page: 352

View: 534

In Targets for Cancer Chemotherapy: Transcription Factors and Other Nuclear Proteins, a panel of leading basic researchers, pharmaceutical scientists, and clinical oncologists explain in detail the therapeutically-relevant protein targets that contribute to cancer pathology and spell out their implications for cancer drug discovery and clinical application. The authors identify and illuminate selected transcription factor oncoproteins and tumor suppressors, together with nuclear proteins that are central to the phenotype of the tumor cell involved in chromatin control. The emphasis is on new targets and approaches to cancer treatment derived from the cancer cell cycle, gene control targets, and angiogenesis.

Novel Apoptotic Regulators in Carcinogenesis

Therefore, therapeutic targeting of apoptotic genes and proteins has been
regarded as an attractive approach for the development of cancer therapy. In fact,
most anticancer strategies currently used in clinics including chemotherapy and ...

Novel Apoptotic Regulators in Carcinogenesis

Author: George G. Chen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400749171

Page: 300

View: 906

Our recent understanding of the cellular and molecular defects and the regulation of the apoptotic signalling pathways has resulted in rationally designed anticancer strategies and the development of novel agents that regulates apoptosis. A comprehensive review of all apoptotic-related anticancer therapies is not the purpose of this book. However, in the volume of this book with 11 chapters, we have described a number of novel apoptotic regulators that have shown promising value and also great feasibility for cancer treatment. These novel agents either occur naturally or are chemically synthesized. While we are excited about the discovery and development of these novel apoptotic regulators as potential anticancer agents, a degree of caution should be always borne in mind when interpreting the success of preclinical pro-apoptotic candidates since potential problems inevitably lie ahead. These problems usually include target specificity, unanticipated toxicity, compound stability, formulation issues, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. Nevertheless, we believe that this collection of 11 chapters by established leaders in the area of apoptosis will be of great interest to not only academics working in the field of cancer research and apoptosis but also pharmaceutical and pharmacological industries that . We are looking forward to the further development to push these potential agents toward clinical stage.

Principles of Molecular Oncology

Samimi G, Fink D, Varki NM, et al. Analysis of MLH1 and MSH2 expression in
ovarian cancer before and after platinum drug-based chemotherapy. Clin Cancer
Res. 2000; 6:1415–1421. Hengartner MO. The biochemistry of apoptosis. Nature.

Principles of Molecular Oncology

Author: Miguel H. Bronchud

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592596649

Page: 709

View: 830

At the midpoint of the 20th century, our knowledge of cancer was based on epide- ology and pathology, and treatment consisted of surgery and radiation therapy. At mid-century, Medawar and colleagues initiated the understanding of transplantation immunology, Farber described the first use of an antifolic drug to treat leukemia, and Jacobson and coworkers described the irradiation-protection effect of spleen cells. These observations opened the door to the development of chemotherapy and tra- plantation in the treatment of cancer. Despite the rapid development of these new disciplines, progress was usually based on empiric observations and clinical trials. The rapid advances in molecular biology at the end of the 20th century mark a new era in our knowledge of cancer. Molecular immunology, molecular genetics, mole- lar pharmacology, and the Human Genome Project are in the process of providing a level of understanding of cancer undreamed of in the past. Optimism is based on the firm belief that understanding at the molecular level will lead to better and earlier di- nosis, to new forms of treatment, and, most importantly, eventually to prevention of many types of cancer.

Cancer Immunotherapy at the Crossroads

MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF APOPTOSIS IN CANCER CELLS Anticancer
therapeutic regimens such as chemo-, radiation-, and immunotherapy may
trigger tumor-cell death through the induction of apoptosis. Alterations in the
apoptotic ...

Cancer Immunotherapy at the Crossroads

Author: James H. Finke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592597432

Page: 386

View: 677

Leading investigators and clinicians detail the different mechanisms used by tumors to escape and impair the immune system and then spell out possible clinical strategies to prevent or reverse tumor-induced immune dysfunction. The authors review the mechanisms of immune dysfunction and evasion mechanisms in histologically diverse human tumors, focusing on tumor-induced molecular defects in T cells and antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells and tumors), that may serve as biomarkers for patient prognosis. They discuss the means by which these immune functions may be protected or restored in order to more effectively support the process of tumor rejection in situ. Cutting-edge techniques are outlined with the capacity to monitor the strength and quality of patients' immune responses using immunocytometry, MHC-peptide tetramers combined with apoptosis assay, ELISPOT assay, and detection of MHC-TAA peptide complexes on tumor cells.

Hormonal Carcinogenesis V

by. Cancer. Cells. Can. Enhance. Apoptosis-dependent. Chemo-sensitivity.
Independently. of. Its. Catalytic. Activity. Melanie Beaujouin and Emmanuelle
Liaudet-Coopman Summary The aspartic protease cathepsin D (CD) is a key
mediator of ...

Hormonal Carcinogenesis V

Author: Jonathan J. Li

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387690803

Page: 658

View: 419

Information gathered from cell-free systems, cell cultures, animal models, and human studies, together provide important insights to our understanding of hormonal cancer causation, development, and prevention; the primary objective of these Symposia. A special emphasis is placed on the two major endocrine-related cancers, that is, breast and prostate. The emerging fields of colon, lung, and pancreatic cancers in relation to hormones are examined.

Cell Apoptosis Research Progress

... treatment changed to chemotherapy and radiotherapy , which preserved organ
function without affecting the survival of the patient . It is now accepted that the
ability of cells to evade apoptosis is an essential hallmark of carcinogenesis , and
 ...

Cell Apoptosis Research Progress

Author: Calvin V. Burnside

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781604560664

Page: 329

View: 541

Apoptosis is the regulated form of cell death. It is a complex process defined by a set of characteristic morphological and biochemical features that involves the active participation of affected cells in a self-destruction cascade. This programmed cell death plays a critical role in physiological functions such as cell deletion during embryonic development, balancing cell number in continuously renewing tissues and immune system development. Additionally, a dysregulation of apoptosis is underlying in numerous pathological situations such as Parkinson, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. A number of studies have pointed out an association between consumption of fruits and vegetables, and certain beverages such as tea and wine, which are rich in polyphenols, with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including cancer. Apoptosis is also the regulatory mechanism involved in the removal of unnecessary cells during development and in tissue homeostasis in a wide range of organisms from insects to mammals.

Cumulated Index Medicus

Cancer Lett 1998 Chemotherapy augments TRAIL - induced apoptosis in breast
Phenobarbital promotes liver growth in c - myc / TGF - alpha Dec 25 ; 134 ( 2 ) :
163-8 cell lines . Keane MM , et al . Cancer Res 1999 Feb 1 ; transgenic mice by
 ...

Cumulated Index Medicus

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 776

Mitochondrial Genetics and Cancer

Apoptosis. and. Cancer. Abstract Cell death processes are important to cancer
initiation, progression and chemotherapy resistance. While the importance of the
extrinsic apoptotic pathway is not diminished in this chapter, the primary focus is
 ...

Mitochondrial Genetics and Cancer

Author: Gabriel D. Dakubo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642114168

Page: 356

View: 133

With very few exceptions, eukaryotic cells possess two interdependent genomes, chromosomal and extra-chromosomal. Over the past several decades, cancer - search has focused primarily on deciphering the intricate alterations in the chro- somal genome, with until recently, very little attention to its cytoplasmic counterpart. In spite of the enormous complexity of the nuclear genome, which we now fully appreciate after completion of the human genome project, the efforts of cancer researchers are commendable in terms of the tremendous gains made in unraveling the numerous genetic changes in cancer. These changes include d- coveries of tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, and caretaker genes that are often mutated in cancer. Recent studies of genomic pro?les are uncovering even more altered and mutated genes in cancer. Besides these ?ndings, several therapeutic targets for chemotherapy are currently made from studies of altered nuclear genetic pathways. Inspite of all these positive efforts, the war on cancer, declared in 1971 by Richard Nixon, is far from being worn. Indeed, the failure of chemotherapy is obvious to clinicians, oncologists, and their patients alike. Moreover, the global incidence and prevalence of cancer continue to rise. What are we missing? Which direction should we be taking? Of course, modern integrated nuclear genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics should provide important clues to carcinogenesis, but the contribution of cytoplasmic genetic alterations to carcinogenesis cannot be neglected.

Dietary Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cancer

Conjugated docosahexaenoic acid is a potent inducer of cell cycle arrest and
apoptosis and inhibits growth of colo ... 2005; 229(1):43–8. 109. Nagane M,
Huang HJ, Cavenee WK. The potential of TRAIL for cancer chemotherapy.
Apoptosis.

Dietary Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cancer

Author: Gabriella Calviello

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048135790

Page: 241

View: 336

Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cancer provides all the latest information on the possible benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) against a wide series of cancers. Several influential scientists in this field have contributed to make this book unique amongst the others published so far in this field. The chapters give detailed information about the results obtained in this field through experimental studies conducted on both animals and cultured cells, as well as through human intervention trials and epidemiological observational studies. This book represents an important tool for researchers working in nutrition and oncology, since it collects all the knowledge about omega-3 PUFAs and cancer, even the most recent, in a single publication. For the first time controversies among the different studies are also covered with great detail in this book. The book enables physicians to clearly understand on a scientific basis if their oncologic patients or patients at risk of cancer could actually benefit from a diet enriched in omega-3 PUFAs or from a dietary supplementation with these fatty acids. The book represents also a good resource for ordinary individuals as well as cancer patients to learn more about omega-3 PUFAs and understand how these dietary components may affect cancer growth.

Cell Apoptosis Research Trends

Cancer. Takeo Nomura and Hiromitsu Mimata Department of Oncological
Science (Urology), Oita University Faculty of ... expression with prostate
carcinogenesis, and analyzes the roles of IAPs in chemotherapy In: Cell
Apoptosis Research ...

Cell Apoptosis Research Trends

Author: Charles V. Zhang

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781600214240

Page: 293

View: 300

Apoptosis is the regulated form of cell death. It is a complex process defined by a set of characteristic morphological and biochemical features that involves the active participation of affected cells in a self-destruction cascade. This programmed cell death plays a critical role in physiological functions such as cell deletion during embryonic development, balancing cell number in continuously renewing tissues and immune system development. Additionally, a dysregulation of apoptosis is underlying in numerous pathological situations such as Parkinson, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. A number of studies have pointed out an association between consumption of fruits and vegetables, and certain beverages such as tea and wine, which are rich in polyphenols, with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including cancer. Apoptosis is also the regulatory mechanism involved in the removal of unnecessary cells during development and in tissue homeostasis in a wide range of organisms from insects to mammals. This book presents exciting research in this related field.

Malignant Liver Tumors

that apoptosis is inhibited in cancer cells indicates the need for new strategies to
restore the blocked pathway . Administration of the ... as a low oxygen
environment . In addition , most traditional anticancer therapies , such as
chemotherapy or ...

Malignant Liver Tumors

Author: H. Kim Lyerly

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 9780763718572

Page: 482

View: 279

This classic reference has been completely revised and updated by a renowned team of editors to produce the most current, comprehensive, and authoritative book available on treating liver cancer. Clearly written, carefully edited, and impeccably referenced, Malignant Liver Tumors, Second Edition, provides the latest information on traditional and cutting-edge surgical approaches, new and emerging drugs and their new generation of delivery systems, radiation therapy, approach to "special" patients, and much more. Expanded to 36 comprehensive but concise chapters by more than 60 world experts, and with over 200 illustrations, this new edition is an invaluable resource for all cancer care professionals who treat patients with liver tumors.This new edition will cover, in 36 concise chapters with over 200 illustrations, the latest drugs and their delivery systems (new generation of pumps), including biotherapies, advances in radiation oncology, and the most recent surgical approaches. This book is an essential resource for anyone who treats cancer patients, including oncologists, radiotherapists, and surgeons.

Cancer Drug Resistance Research Perspectives

After the 1990's , the standard treatment changed to chemotherapy and
radiotherapy , which preserved organ function without affecting the survival of the
patient . It is now accepted that the ability of cells to evade apoptosis is an
essential ...

Cancer Drug Resistance Research Perspectives

Author: Liman S. Torres

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781600215728

Page: 223

View: 525

One of the main causes of failure in the treatment of cancer is the development of drug resistance by the cancer cells. The design of cancer chemotherapy has become increasingly sophisticated, yet there is no cancer treatment that is 100% effective against disseminated cancer. Resistance to treatment with anticancer drugs results from a variety of factors including individual variations in patients and somatic cell genetic differences in tumours, even those from the same tissue of origin. Frequently resistance is intrinsic to the cancer, but as therapy becomes more and more effective, acquired resistance has also become common. The most common reason for acquisition of resistance to a broad range of anticancer drugs is expression of one or more energy-dependent transporters that detect and eject anticancer drugs from cells, but other mechanisms of resistance including insensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis and induction of drug-detoxifying mechanisms probably play an important role in acquired anticancer drug resistance. Studies on mechanisms of cancer drug resistance have yielded important information about how to circumvent this resistance to improve cancer chemotherapy and have implications for pharmacokinetics of many commonly used drugs. This book presents new and important research in this field.

Protein Kinase C in Cancer Signaling and Therapy

Apoptosis and the dilemma of cancer chemotherapy. Blood, 89, 1845–1853.
Hecht, S. S. (1999). Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer. Journal of the
National Cancer Institute, 91, 1194–1210. Herbst, R. S., Oh, Y., Wagle, A., et al.

Protein Kinase C in Cancer Signaling and Therapy

Author: Marcelo G. Kazanietz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1607615436

Page: 494

View: 488

Protein kinase C (PKC), a family of serine-threonine kinases, rocketed to the forefront of the cancer research field in the early 1980’s with its identification as an effector of phorbol esters, natural products with tumor promoting activity. Phorbol esters had long been of interest to the cancer research field due to early studies in the mouse skin carcinogenesis model, which showed that prolonged topical application of phorbol esters promoted the formation of skin tumors on mice previously treated with mutagenic agents. Research in the last years has established key roles for PKC isozymes in the control of cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, and malignant transformation. In addition, there is a large body of evidence linking PKC to invasion and cancer cell metastasis. Moreover, it is now well established that the expression of PKC isozymes is altered in various types of cancers. More importantly, small molecule inhibitors have been developed with significant anti-cancer activity. The relevance of PKC isozymes in cancer signaling is therefore remarkable. This book will have 4 sections. There will be 23 chapters. Each section will have a brief introduction by an expert in the field (~ 1-2 pages).

Anticancer Research

Carcinogenesis , intestine , retinol , vitamin D , Min / + mouse , 4353
Carcinogenesis , Ku80 , polymorphism , bladder cancer , 1275 ... 1951
Carcinoma , biliary tract , chemotherapy , surgical resection , 1783 Carcinoma ,
breast , clusterin , relapse - free survival , 3909 ... EGCG , apoptosis , human
adrenal cancer NCI - H295 cells , 1435 Caspase , aloe - emodin , apoptosis ,
human tongue cancer SCC - 4 ...

Anticancer Research

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 398

Progress in Cancer Drug Resistance Research

However, the current regimens of cisplatin-based chemotherapy have no
advantages for survival due to the less sensitivity or ... That is to say, the
development of cisplatin resistance in cancer cells is related with alterations in
apoptosis, and ...

Progress in Cancer Drug Resistance Research

Author: Robert A. Parsons

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781600218224

Page: 223

View: 982

One of the main causes of failure in the treatment of cancer is the development of drug resistance by the cancer cells. The design of cancer chemotherapy has become increasingly sophisticated, yet there is no cancer treatment that is 100 percent effective against disseminated cancer. Resistance to treatment with anticancer drugs results from a variety of factors including individual variations in patients and somatic cell genetic differences in tumours, even those from the same tissue of origin. Frequently resistance is intrinsic to the cancer, but as therapy becomes more and more effective, acquired resistance has also become common.The most common reason for acquisition of resistance to a broad range of anticancer drugs is expression of one or more energy-dependent transporters that detect and eject anti-cancer drugs from cells, but other mechanisms of resistance including insensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis and induction of drug-detoxifying mechanisms probably play an important role in acquired anticancer drug resistance. Studies on mechanisms of cancer drug resistance have yielded important information on how to circumvent this resistance to improve cancer chemotherapy and have implications for pharmacokinetics of many commonly used drugs.

Clinical Pharmacology

The very real limitations of cytotoxic chemotherapy have forced a concentration of
cancer research on trying to ... Cytotoxic drugs ultimately induce cell death by
apoptosis,2 a process by which single cells are removed from living tissue by ...

Clinical Pharmacology

Author: Morris J. Brown

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0702051136

Page: 640

View: 220

A thorough knowledge of pharmacological and therapeutic principles is vital if drugs are to be used safely and effectively for increasingly informed patients. Those who clearly understand how drugs get into the body, how they produce their effects, what happens to them in the body, and how evidence of their therapeutic effect is assessed, will choose drugs more skilfully, and use them more safely and successfully than those who do not. Now in a fully revised 11th edition, Clinical Pharmacology is essential reading for undergraduate medical students, junior doctors and anyone concerned with evidence-based drug therapy. Introductory first three sections cover general principle of clinical pharmacology; five subsequent sections cover drug treatment of disease organised by body system. Retains approachable style set by the original author, Professor Laurence. Emphasis throughout is on evidence-based and safe drug prescribing. Indian Advisory Board will ensure content reflects the needs of the devloping world.

Proposed guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment

2 3 Bellamy, C.O.C.; Malcomson, R.D.G.; Harrison, D.J.; Wyllie, A.H. (1995) Cell
death in health and disease: The 4 biology and regulation of apoptosis. Seminars
in cancer biology, Apoptosis in oncogenesis and chemotherapy 6: 5 3-16.

Proposed guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment

Author:

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1428903852

Page:

View: 282

Pharmaceutical Perspectives of Cancer Therapeutics

Apoptosis. Signaling. Pathways. and. Their. Mediators. for. Cancer. Therapy.
Arun K. Rishi, Xinbo Zhang, and Anil Wali ... Apoptosis is considered a major
mechanism of chemotherapy-induced cell death, and many currently utilized
cytotoxic ...

Pharmaceutical Perspectives of Cancer Therapeutics

Author: Yi Lu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441901316

Page: 694

View: 957

Pharmaceutical Perspectives of Cancer Therapeutics covers a wide variety of therapeutic approaches including gene therapy, immunological therapy; cancer vaccines; strategy for solid tumors as well as for hematological cancers; methods to suppress tumor angiogenesis and metastasis; development and utilization of relevant animal models; introduction of new concepts such as cancer stem cells and new technologies, such as DNA and tissue microarrays; and RNA interference. In addition, clinical application, the development of DNA diagnosis biomarkers and cancer prevention, as well as the utilization of imaging in cancer therapy are also discussed. The use of synthetic carriers, such as lipids, polymers, and peptides for delivery and targeting of small molecules, proteins, and nucleic acids to cancer cells in vivo are discussed. Pharmaceutical Perspectives of Cancer Therapeutics also includes cancer therapy modality in surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, as well as in combination or multi-modality, giving our book a more focused view of cancer therapy.

Trends in Cervical Cancer Research

Treatment is with surgery ( including local exicision ) in early stages and
chemotherapy and radiotherapy in advanced stages of ... Current understanding
of apoptosis and regulators of apoptosis as well as their implication in
carcinogenesis is ...

Trends in Cervical Cancer Research

Author: Hector T. Varaj

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781600212994

Page: 221

View: 605

Cervical cancer is a malignancy of the cervix. World-wide, it is the second most common cancer of women. It may present with vaginal bleeding but symptoms may be absent until the cancer is in advanced stages, which has made cervical cancer the focus of intense screening efforts utilising the Pap smear. Most scientific studies point to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection which is responsible for 90% of the cases of cervical cancer. There are 7 most common types of HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58. Types 16 and 18 being the most common cause of the cancer. Treatment is with surgery (including local excision) in early stages and chemotherapy and radiotherapy in advanced stages of the disease. This book presents cutting edge research in this study of cervical cancer. This involves, new perspectives in pharmacological treatments, anti-hormonal agents, therapeutic trends for patients, nerve sparing treatments, antibodies in single chain formats, predictors of radiation response, lymphatic mapping and docetaxel labelling with radionuclides.