Indeed,the word “phage” is derived from the Greek φαγειν, meaning to eat or
devour (Stent, 1963). D'H ́erelle's 1949 retrospective on his 30-plus years
studying bacteriophages is very phage-ecological: “The bacteriophage is
Author: Stephen T. Abedon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Bacteriophages, or phages, are viruses that infect bacteria and are believed to be the most abundant and genetically diverse organisms on Earth. As such, their ecology is vast both in quantitative and qualitative terms. Their abundance makes an understanding of phage ecology increasingly relevant to bacterial ecosystem ecology, bacterial genomics and bacterial pathology. Abedon provides the first text on phage ecology for almost 20 years. Written by leading experts, synthesizing the three key approaches to studying phage ecology, namely studying them in natural environments (in situ), experimentally in the lab, or theoretically using mathematical or computer models. With strong emphasis on microbial population biology and distilling cutting-edge research into basic principles, this book will complement other currently available volumes. It will therefore serve as an essential resource for graduate students and researchers, particularly those with an interest in phage ecology and evolutionary biology.
Of course, bacteriophage (or phage, for short) do not devour their hosts.
Bacteriophage, like all viruses, depend on host replication machinery to multiply,
a process explained in greater detail in Chapter 1. Bacteriophage ecology might
Author: Joshua S. Weitz
Publisher: Princeton University Press
When we think about viruses we tend to consider ones that afflict humans—such as those that cause influenza, HIV, and Ebola. Yet, vastly more viruses infect single-celled microbes. Diverse and abundant, microbes and the viruses that infect them are found in oceans, lakes, plants, soil, and animal-associated microbiomes. Taking a vital look at the "microscopic" mode of disease dynamics, Quantitative Viral Ecology establishes a theoretical foundation from which to model and predict the ecological and evolutionary dynamics that result from the interaction between viruses and their microbial hosts. Joshua Weitz addresses three major questions: What are viruses of microbes and what do they do to their hosts? How do interactions of a single virus-host pair affect the number and traits of hosts and virus populations? How do virus-host dynamics emerge in natural environments when interactions take place between many viruses and many hosts? Emphasizing how theory and models can provide answers, Weitz offers a cohesive framework for tackling new challenges in the study of viruses and microbes and how they are connected to ecological processes—from the laboratory to the Earth system. Quantitative Viral Ecology is an innovative exploration of the influence of viruses in our complex natural world.
The same may be said of the second important area for cyanophage biology,
namely the interaction between phage infection and ... In: Abedon ST (ed)
Bacteriophage ecology: population growth, evolution, and impact of bacterial
Author: Brian A. Whitton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Cyanobacteria have existed for 3.5 billion years, yet they are still the most important photosynthetic organisms on the planet for cycling carbon and nitrogen. The ecosystems where they have key roles range from the warmer oceans to many Antarctic sites. They also include dense nuisance growths in nutrient-rich lakes and nitrogen-fixers which aid the fertility of rice-fields and many soils, especially the biological soil crusts of arid regions. Molecular biology has in recent years provided major advances in our understanding of cyanobacterial ecology. Perhaps for more than any other group of organisms, it is possible to see how the ecology, physiology, biochemistry, ultrastructure and molecular biology interact. This all helps to deal with practical problems such as the control of nuisance blooms and the use of cyanobacterial inocula to manage semi-desert soils. Large-scale culture of several organisms, especially "Spirulina" (Arthrospira), for health food and specialist products is increasingly being expanded for a much wider range of uses. In view of their probable contribution to past oil deposits, much attention is currently focused on their potential as a source of biofuel. Please visit http://extras.springer.com/ to view Extra Materials belonging to this volume. This book complements the highly successful Ecology of Cyanobacteria and integrates the discoveries of the past twelve years with the older literature.
One can additionally consider the phage-encoding of bacterial toxins (see
chapter 47) from the perspective of ecosystem ecology: toxin exposure can free
up nutrients from the tissues of bacteria-infected eukaryotes (see 20 for a review
Author: Richard Calendar
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
This book describes the fundamental biology and applications of the bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria. It provides a current guide to each major phage family, highlights interesting topics, and provides a description of the kinds of phages that are associated with the major classes of eubacteria and archaea.
While S.T.A. dabbled in what eventually would be all things phage ecological,
P.H. followed a much more molecular, then ... of his career at the Ohio State
University, in 1995 – founded what would become the Bacteriophage Ecology
Author: P. Hyman
This book, Bacteriophages in health and disease, is an effort to provide an introduction to the breadth of roles that phages play or can play in our everyday lives. To capture this variety of phage roles in human conditions, both natural and applied, the book is divided into three parts. A brief introduction to various concepts and terminology associated with phages is provided in chapter 1. Part I (chapters 2-6) considers the role of phages in the natural state. That is, where phages are, how they contribute directly to disease, the underlying mechanism by which phages do this, and how they can contribute indirectly to disease, that is, to pathogen evolution. Part II (chapters 7-11) considers various phage-based technologies other than the use of whole phages to combat bacterial infections (i.e. besides phage therapy). This includes in particular the use of both modified and 'disembodied' phage parts. Phages thus can serve as carriers and delivery vehicles of DNA and also of other chemicals, including serving as vectors for either gene therapy or DNA vaccines. Part III (chapters 12-17) covers phage-based antibacterial strategies. It includes chapters on: phage translocation, safety and immunomodulation; phage therapy of wounds and related purulent infections; phage therapy of non-wound infections; phage-based enzybiotics; and phage-based control of bacterial pathogens in food. The final chapter of this book is targeted to would-be phage therapy experimentalists, one that considers, in light of phage properties, how phage therapy protocols may be developed in terms of the use of animal models of bacterial disease.
EVALUATION OF PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF MARINE BACTERIOPHAGE
ECOLOGY Although the number of reports dealing with the isolation of PHS from
various estuarine and marine habitats is still low , it seems reasonable to assume
Author: Sagar M. Goyal
This book is the first to explore the distribution, fate, and ecology of phage in the environment and point up the important applications of this information. The text begins with an historical overview, followed by a discussion of the current state of phage taxonomy. Next is covered the distribution patterns and fate of phage in diverse environments, e.g. soil, fresh water, marine water, and water and wastewater treatment plants. Factors that can influence the numbers and activity of phage populations, e.g. host and phage density, association of a phage with solids, presence of organic matter, temperature, pH, ultraviolet and visible light, concentration and types of ions present, and the metabolic activities of bacteria other than the phage host are examined. One chapter is devoted to the occurrence and implications of phage in various industries, e.g. dairy, wine, sausage, and antibiotic industries.
ROBERT V . MILLER Methods for Enumeration and Characterization of
Bacteriophages from Environmental Samples The natural ecology of bacteria -
bacteriophage interactions is not well known . For many years , microbiologists
Author: Robert S. Burlage
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
This is the bench and field scientist's guide to well-established, reliable techniques for use in microbiology and microbial ecology. It provides a good starting place for those who are beginning to investigate aspects of the microbial community, and a refresher for more experienced researchers. Chapters on bacteria with interesting metabolic traits are augmented with chapters on molecular techniques, lipis analysis, and appropriate sampling techniques. A special section includes valuable information on biofilm development, bioremediation, modeling of biological systems, and the study of phylogenetics. Unlike other texts, which present theory in microbial ecology, this one contains the applications that can be used throughout one's research.
Linking genetic change to community evolution: Insights from studies of bacteria
and bacteriophage. Ecology Letters 3: 362– 377. This paper shows how
microorganisms in vials can evolve in the laboratory to partition resources and
Author: David A. Baum
Publisher: Princeton University Press
The Princeton Guide to Evolution is a comprehensive, concise, and authoritative reference to the major subjects and key concepts in evolutionary biology, from genes to mass extinctions. Edited by a distinguished team of evolutionary biologists, with contributions from leading researchers, the guide contains some 100 clear, accurate, and up-to-date articles on the most important topics in seven major areas: phylogenetics and the history of life; selection and adaptation; evolutionary processes; genes, genomes, and phenotypes; speciation and macroevolution; evolution of behavior, society, and humans; and evolution and modern society. Complete with more than 100 illustrations (including eight pages in color), glossaries of key terms, suggestions for further reading on each topic, and an index, this is an essential volume for undergraduate and graduate students, scientists in related fields, and anyone else with a serious interest in evolution. Explains key topics in some 100 concise and authoritative articles written by a team of leading evolutionary biologists Contains more than 100 illustrations, including eight pages in color Each article includes an outline, glossary, bibliography, and cross-references Covers phylogenetics and the history of life; selection and adaptation; evolutionary processes; genes, genomes, and phenotypes; speciation and macroevolution; evolution of behavior, society, and humans; and evolution and modern society
Coverage: 1982- current; updated: monthly. This database covers current ecology research across a wide range of disciplines, reflecting recent advances in light of growing evidence regarding global environmental change and destruction. Major ares of subject coverage include: Algae/lichens, Animals, Annelids, Aquatic ecosystems, Arachnids, Arid zones, Birds, Brackish water, Bryophytes/pteridophytes, Coastal ecosystems, Conifers, Conservation, Control, Crustaceans, Ecosyst em studies, Fungi, Grasses, Grasslands, High altitude environments, Human ecology, Insects, Legumes, Mammals, Management, Microorganisms, Molluscs, Nematodes, Paleo-ecology, Plants, Pollution studies, Reptiles, River basins, Soil, TAiga/tundra, Terrestrial ecosystems, Vertebrates, Wetlands, Woodlands.
Key words : ASM , American Society for Microbiology , BEG , Bacteriophage
Ecology Group , EM , Database , NCBI , EMBL - EBI , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage
Institute , T4 , taxonomy , nomenclature , ATCC , DSMZ , Felix d ' Herelle
Author: Martha R. J. Clokie
This resource pulls together the vast body of knowledge from top international bacteriophage researchers to provide both classical and state-of-the-art molecular techniques. Coverage includes the bacteriophage genomics, metagenomics, and proteomics.
Studies on the virulence of bacteriophage - infected strains of Corynebacterium
diphtheriae . J . Bacteriol . 61 , 675 - 688 . Fuhrman , J . A . ( 1999 ) . Marine
viruses and their biogeochemical and ecological effects . Nature 399 , 541 - 548 .
Author: Stephen Mc Grath
Publisher: Horizon Scientific Press
Written by eminent international researchers actively involved in the disparate areas of bacteriophage research this book focuses on the current rapid developments in this exciting field.
Figure 3 Microbial loop as short circuited by virus-(particularly phage-) induced
lysis. ... Phage Ecosystem Ecology Phage ecosystem ecology is more firmly
rooted in considerations of phage environmental interactions than in the theory of
Author: Brian W. J. Mahy
Covers biological, molecular, and medical topics concerning viruses in animals, plants, bacteria and insects ... this new ed. has been extensively revised and updated to reflect the 50 % increase in identified and accepted viruses since 2000. Includes information on avian flu, SARS and West Nile and the ability of some viruses to be used as agents of bioterrorism.
Abedon, S.T. (Ed.). (2008). Bacteriophage ecology: population growth, evolution,
and impact of bacterial viruses (pp. 302–332). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511541483 Ackerman, J.T., & Eagles-
Author: Soni, Shivani
Publisher: IGI Global
As a paradigm for the future, micro-scale technology seeks to fuse revolutionary concepts in science and engineering and then translate it into reality. Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to connect what is seen with the naked eye and what is unseen on the molecular level. The Handbook of Research on Diverse Applications of Nanotechnology in Biomedicine, Chemistry, and Engineering examines the strengths and future potential of micro-scale technologies in a variety of industries. Highlighting the benefits, shortcomings, and emerging perspectives in the application of nano-scale technologies, this book is a comprehensive reference source for synthetic chemists, engineers, graduate students, and researchers with an interest in the multidisciplinary applications, as well as the ongoing research in the field.
Ó 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
SECTION II VIRUSES OF OTHER MICROORGANISMS BACTERIOPHAGE AND
VIRAL ECOLOGY. CHAPTER 4 OF VIRUSES MICHAEL J. ALLEN Plymouth
Author: Christon J. Hurst
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This book explains the ecology of viruses by examining their interactive dynamics with their hosting species (in this volume, in microbes and plants), including the types of transmission cycles that viruses have evolved encompassing principal and alternate hosts, vehicles, and vectoring species. Examining virology from an organismal biology approach and focusing on the concept that viral infections represent areas of overlap in the ecologies of the involved species, Viral Ecology is essential for students and professionals who either may be non-virologists or virologists whose previous familiarity has been very specialized.
Bacteriophages and actinophages , for example , parasitise the cells of
eubacteria and actinomycetes , respectively . Some viruses are active against
particular plants and can sometimes be the cause of considerable economic loss
to the ...
Author: Ken Killham
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
An exciting textbook for all those concerned with the environment, which presents an integrated approach to soil ecology.
Killham K ( 1994 ) Soil Ecology . ... Leveau JHJ and Lindow SE ( 2002 )
Bioreporters in microbial ecology . ... Kinetics Further Reading Ashelford KE , Day
MJ , and Fry JC ( 2003 ) Elevated abundance of bacteriophage infecting bacteria
in soil .
Author: Daniel Hillel
Publisher: Academic Press
Provides a wide range of scientific knowledge on all aspects of soil science, as well as the links of soils and soil science to environmental management, food production, biodiversity, climate change, and many other areas of significant concern.