Genetic and Metabolic Engineering for Improved Biofuel Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass

instance, sewage treatment sludge, wood trimmings, the organic fraction of
municipal solid waste (MSW), and so forth (Fischer and Schrattenholzer, 2001).
Overall, the final accessibility of organic wastes and residues may be change and
is ...

Genetic and Metabolic Engineering for Improved Biofuel Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass

Author: Arindam Kuila

Publisher:

ISBN: 0128179538

Page: 254

View: 580

Genetic and Metabolic Engineering for Improved Biofuel Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass describes the different aspects of biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. Each chapter presents different technological approaches for cost effective liquid biofuel production from agroresidues/biomass. Two chapters cover future direction and the possibilities of biomass-based biofuel production at the industrial level. The book provides a genetic and metabolic engineering approach for improved cellulase production and the potential of strains that can ferment both pentose and hexose sugars. The book also gives direction on how to overcome challenges for the further advancement of lignocellulosic biomass-based biofuel production. Covers genetic engineering approaches for higher cellulase production from fungi Includes genetic and metabolic engineering approaches for development of potential pentose and hexose fermenting strain which can tolerate high ethanol and toxic phenolic compounds Describe different bioreactors used in different steps of biomass-based biofuel production Outlines future prospects and potential of biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass

Microalgal Growth and Lipid Production from Organic Waste

The scale of biodiesel production is limited by the inexpensive lipid feedstock available. The aim of this research work is to produce microalgal lipids from organic waste and wastewater as biodiesel feedstock.

Microalgal Growth and Lipid Production from Organic Waste

Author: Zhongye Lin

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 156

View: 228

Biodiesel becomes an attractive alternative fuel because the reserve of crude oil is diminishing and the need to reduce carbon emission is increasing. The scale of biodiesel production is limited by the inexpensive lipid feedstock available. The aim of this research work is to produce microalgal lipids from organic waste and wastewater as biodiesel feedstock. The process is very environmentally friendly and requires little arable land and only renewable resources. Firstly a new approach that combines wastewater treatment and lipid production was evaluated. The main hypothesis was that bacteria can be easily grown while treating organic wastewater and then fed to phagotrophic algae such as Ochromonas danica for lipid production. Growth and lipid content of O. danica fed with Escherichia coli cells were evaluated in 19 systems under various conditions. It was confirmed that the alga can prey on the bacterium and grow actively with a doubling time as low as 7 h in a wide range of pH and light conditions. The intracellular lipid content of the algal cells reached about 34%. Finding ways to further increase the lipid content is desirable. O. danica was then grown with waste ketchup, which contains high carbohydrate concentrations and is very viscous, making the waste or wastewater treatment difficult. The growth was systematically optimized by evaluating the effects of various culture factors in 20 experimental systems. Under the optimized condition the alga grew with a doubling time of about 10 h and an intracellular lipid content as high as 40%. The maximum cell concentration, limited by the oxygen transfer rate in the bioreactor, reached 30 g/L in 5 days of cultivation. The possibility of further enhancing the algal lipid production by supplementing glycerol and/or acetic acid was next investigated. While carefully controlled addition of acetic acid was crucial, the intracellular lipid content could be raised to a very high level of 80% after 2 days of stimulation. The microalgal lipids were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and triglycerides were found to be the main components. Two major lipid extraction methods were also compared during the study. Overall this research supported the feasibility of using microalgae-based processes to treat waste/wastewater and produce lipids. It offers an effective route to produce biofuel feedstock from various organic wastes. Future studies are desirable on (1) inexpensive O. danica collection methods applicable for large-scale operation, (2) more complete characterization of microalgal lipids, and (3) development of industrial, nutritional and/or pharmaceutical applications of the lipids beyond the biodiesel production.

Biofuels Production Sustainability and Advances in Microbial Bioresources

Organic waste has several adverse effects on biodiversity, land and water bodies
leading to different social and environmental issues across the globe.
Reprocessing of food wastes for biodiesel production is a concept to create fuel,
thereby ...

Biofuels Production   Sustainability and Advances in Microbial Bioresources

Author: Ajar Nath Yadav

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 3030539334

Page: 387

View: 414

This book focuses on the different kinds of biofuels and biofuel resources. Biofuels represent a major type of renewable energy. As part of a larger bio-economy, they are closely linked to agriculture, forestry and manufacturing. Biofuels have the potential to improve regional energy access, reduce dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to climate protection. Further, this alternative form of energy could revitalize the forestry and agricultural sector and promote the increased use of renewable resources as raw materials in a range of industrial processes. Efforts are continuously being made to develop economically competitive biofuels, and microbes play important roles in the production of biofuels from various bioresources. This book elaborates on recent advances in existing microbial technologies and on sustainable approaches to improving biofuel production processes. Additionally, it examines trends in, and the limitations of, existing processes and technologies. The book offers a comprehensive overview of microbial bioresources, microbial technologies, advances in bioconversion and biorefineries, as well as microbial and metabolic engineering for efficient biofuel production. Readers will also learn about the environmental impacts and the influence of climate change on the sustainability of biofuel production. This book is intended for researchers and students whose work involves biorefinery technologies, microbiology, biotechnology, agriculture, environmental biology and related fields.

Advances in Cyanobacterial Biology

The residual biomass that remains as an organic waste product after biofuel
production is converted into biogas via anaerobic digestion (Chisti, 2007), a
process that increases total energy recovery and biofuel production efficacy. This
process ...

Advances in Cyanobacterial Biology

Author: Prashant Kumar Singh

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128193115

Page: 420

View: 183

Advances in Cyanobacterial Biology presents the novel, practical, and theoretical aspects of cyanobacteria, providing a better understanding of basic and advanced biotechnological application in the field of sustainable agriculture. Chapters have been designed to deal with the different aspects of cyanobacteria including their role in the evolution of life, cyanobacterial diversity and classification, isolation, and characterization of cyanobacteria through biochemical and molecular approaches, phylogeny and biogeography of cyanobacteria, symbiosis, Cyanobacterial photosynthesis, morphological and physiological adaptation to abiotic stresses, stress-tolerant cyanobacterium, biological nitrogen fixation. Other topics include circadian rhythms, genetics and molecular biology of abiotic stress responses, application of cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial mats in wastewater treatments, use as a source of novel stress-responsive genes for development of stress tolerance and as a source of biofuels, industrial application, as biofertilizer, cyanobacterial blooms, use in Nano-technology and nanomedicines as well as potential applications. This book will be important for academics and researchers working in cyanobacteria, cyanobacterial environmental biology, cyanobacterial agriculture and cyanobacterial molecular biologists. Summarizes the various aspects of cyanobacterial research, from primary nitrogen fixation, to advanced nano-technology applications Addresses both practical and theoretical aspects of the cyanobacterial application Includes coverage of biochemical and molecular approaches for the identification, use and management of cyanobacteria

Bioenergy

Bioenergy: Biomass to Biofuels and Waste to Energy, 2nd Edition presents a complete overview of the bioenergy value chain, from feedstock to end products.

Bioenergy

Author: Anju Dahiya

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128154985

Page: 890

View: 943

Bioenergy: Biomass to Biofuels and Waste to Energy, 2nd Edition presents a complete overview of the bioenergy value chain, from feedstock to end products. It examines current and emerging feedstocks and advanced processes and technologies enabling the development of all possible alternative energy sources. Divided into seven parts, bioenergy gives thorough consideration to topics such as feedstocks, biomass production and utilization, life-cycle analysis, energy return on invested, integrated sustainability assessments, conversions technologies, biofuels economics, business, and policy. In addition, contributions from leading industry professionals and academics, augmented by related service-learning case studies and quizzes, provide readers with a comprehensive resource that connect theory to real-world implementation. Bioenergy: Biomass to Biofuels and Waste to Energy, 2nd Edition provides engineers, researchers, undergraduate and graduate students, and business professionals in the bioenergy field with valuable, practical information that can be applied to implementing renewable energy projects, choosing among competing feedstocks, technologies, and products. It also serves as a basic resource for civic leaders, economic development professionals, farmers, investors, fleet managers, and reporters interested in an organized introduction to the language, feedstocks, technologies, and products in the biobased renewable energy world. • Includes current and renewed subject matter, project case studies from real world, and topic-specific sections on the impacts of biomass use for energy production from all sorts of biomass feedstocks including organic waste of all kinds. • Provides a comprehensive overview and in-depth technical information of all possible bioenergy resources: solid (wood energy, grass energy, waste, and other biomass), liquid (biodiesel, algae biofuel, ethanol, waste to oils, etc.), and gaseous/electric (biogas, syngas, biopower, RNG), and cutting-edge topics such as advanced fuels. • Integrates current state of art coverage on feedstocks, cost-effective conversion processes, biofuels economic analysis, environmental policy, and triple bottom line. • Features quizzes for each section derived from the implementation of actual hands-on biofuel projects as part of service learning.

Sustainable Bioenergy Production

However, it is also imperative to address sustainability in the bioenergy industry in order to avoid depleting necessary biomass resources. Sustainable Bioene

Sustainable Bioenergy Production

Author: Lijun Wang

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466505567

Page: 583

View: 764

Given the environmental concerns and declining availability of fossil fuels, as well as the growing population worldwide, it is essential to move toward a sustainable bioenergy-based economy. However, it is also imperative to address sustainability in the bioenergy industry in order to avoid depleting necessary biomass resources. Sustainable Bioene

Energy Conservation and Use of Renewable Energies in the Bio industries 2

KEYWORDS Agricultural wastes ; biofuels ; biofuels policy ; energy and
agriculture ; energy crops ; fuel crops . ... Other potential sources of biological
materials for biofuel production include organic wastes ( other than those
occurring within ...

Energy Conservation and Use of Renewable Energies in the Bio industries 2

Author: Frederick Vogt

Publisher: Pergamon

ISBN:

Page: 750

View: 998

Verzameling symposiumverslagen met een ruime variatie aan onderzoekservaringen uit diverse delen van de wereld

Solar Energy Update

Production Elements affecting the feasibility of manure - to - methane plants , 83 :
7037 ( BA ; US ) Energy considerations of biofuels production , 83 : 774 ( BA ; GB
) Energy crops to methanc , 83 : 2841 ( BA ; GB ) Energy ... Methane and compost
from straw , 83 : 10827 ( R ; XE ) Methane and ethyl alcohol from refuse , 83 : 558
( BA ; GB ) Methane and ammonia extraction from organic waste , 83 : 4117 ( P ...

Solar Energy Update

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 257

Gas Biofuels from Waste Biomass

This book provides a state-of-the-art technological insight into the production of gas biofuels from waste biomass. Specifically, this book consists of three parts.

Gas Biofuels from Waste Biomass

Author: Zhidan Liu

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781634831925

Page: 237

View: 866

Waste biomass includes agricultural residues, livestock wastes, municipal wastes and industrial organic wastes. It should be utilised or otherwise, it will cause the pollution of water, soil and even the atmosphere. Gas biofuels have attracted growing attention as a renewable and clean energy carrier. Gas biofuels include biogas, biohydrogen and its mixture i.e. biohythane, which can be produced via anaerobic fermentation or other processes from waste biomass. This book focuses on the principles of gas biofuels in terms of types of biofuels, biomass species, and reactor configuration and production pathway. A number of books focus on the production of biogas or biohydrogen alone. In comparison, this book emphasizes the interactions and common knowledge of both. In addition, the potential of new technologies, such as microbial electrochemical technologies, and two-stage fermentation on gas biofuel production are highlighted and specifically discussed based on the authors research basis. This book provides a state-of-the-art technological insight into the production of gas biofuels from waste biomass. Specifically, this book consists of three parts. In Part I, the principles for gas biofuels production from waste biomass, including biogas production (Chapter 1) and biohydrogen production (Chapter 2). Part II focuses on the technical advances on gas biofuels production. Pre-treatment of biomass was firstly introduced in Chapter 3, whereas the advances of biogas production from high-solid wastes were discussed in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5. In comparison, biohydrogen production is reviewed not only through dark fermentation (Chapter 6) but also emerging microbial electrochemical technology (Chapter 7). The co-production of biohydrogen and biomethane is reviewed in Chapter 8. In addition to the utilisation of carbon and hydrogen stored in biomass, nutrients recycling through algae technology is discussed in Chapter 9. Part III discusses the scale-up and industrialization of biofuels. An industrial case is introduced to analyse the bottlenecks and perspectives for development of gas biofuels.

Organic Waste Recycling

This book covers the principles and practices of technologies for the control of pollution originating from organic wastes (e.g. human faeces and urine, wastewater, solid wastes, animal manure and agro-industrial wastes) and the recycling ...

Organic Waste Recycling

Author: Chongrak Polprasert

Publisher: IWA Publishing

ISBN: 184339121X

Page: 516

View: 399

This book covers the principles and practices of technologies for the control of pollution originating from organic wastes (e.g. human faeces and urine, wastewater, solid wastes, animal manure and agro-industrial wastes) and the recycling of these organic wastes into valuable products such as fertilizer, biofuels, algal and fish protein and irrigated crops. Each recycling technology is described with respect to: -Objectives -Benefits and limitations -Environmental requirements -Design criteria of the process -Use of the recycled products -Pubic health aspects This new edition, an update of the previous book, is a response to the emerging environmental problems caused by rapid population growth and industrialization. It describes the current technology and management options for organic waste recycling which are environmentally friendly, effective in pollution control and yield valuable by-products. Every chapter has been revised to include successful case studies, new references, design examples and exercises. New sections added to the 3rd edition include: Millennium development goals, waste minimization and cleaner production, methanol and ethanol production, chitin and chitosan production, constructed wetlands, management and institutional development. This is a textbook for environmental science, engineering and management students who are interested in the current environmental problems and seeking solutions to the emerging issues. It should be a valuable reference book for policy makers, planners and consultants working in the environmental fields.

Advances in Biofuels and Bioenergy

A possible solution to today's energy challenges can be provided by biofuels. This book intends to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the current status and the future implications of biofuels.

Advances in Biofuels and Bioenergy

Author: Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 1789232864

Page: 292

View: 809

The worldwide consumption of fossil fuel continues to increase at unsustainable levels, which will lead to progressive scarcity, if immediate and innovative measures are not taken for its sustainable use. This scarcity necessitates the development of renewable and sustainable alternatives for fossil fuels. A possible solution to today's energy challenges can be provided by biofuels. This book intends to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the current status and the future implications of biofuels. Diverse and aptly covered comprehensive information in this book will directly enhance both basic and applied research in biofuels and will particularly be useful for students, scientists, breeders, growers, ecologists, industrialists and policy makers. It will be a valuable reference point to improve biofuels in the areas of ecologically and economically sustainable bioenergy research.

Promoting Biofuels in Europe

Organic wastes such as biofuels and their conversion technologies are livestock
manure , food - processing residues , as well as described below and illustrated
in the production municipal sewage sludge , are used as raw material to process
 ...

Promoting Biofuels in Europe

Author: European Commission. Directorate-General for Energy and Transport

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 13

View: 687

Recoge:1. Introducing the EU biofuels directive - 2. Cleaner transport-the wider context - 3. What are biofuels? - 4. Biofuels-the journey so far - 5. The EU directive on biofules - Steering future policy developments.

Biofuel Production Technologies Critical Analysis for Sustainability

This book offers an overview of existing biofuels and the technologies to solve the problems associated with their practical implementation.

Biofuel Production Technologies  Critical Analysis for Sustainability

Author: Neha Srivastava

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9811386374

Page: 342

View: 489

Production and utilization of sustainable energy toward maintaining a clean environment is a major challenge. At the same time, the continued depletion of fossil fuels and the global dependency on non-renewable fuels is a chief concern. Moreover, the long-term economic and environmental issues associated with the high utilization of fossil fuel, such as global warming, are also important, particularly in the context of the predicted increase in the global population to around 5 billion by 2050. In recent years, researchers have been investigating alternative, renewable fuels to replace fossil fuels. Of the various options, biofuels are especially attractive due to their low production costs and the fact that they are pollution free. Also known as transportation fuels, their energy is derived from biological resources or through the biological processes. Biofuels such as biohydrogen, biomethane, biogas, ethanol and butanol offer a number of advantages and can be economically produced from cellulosic biomass. As such, they can play a vital role in sustainably meeting future energy demands. Biofuels have the potential to become a global primary energy source, offering significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions as well as opportunities to increase economic and social development in rural communities and reduce the problems associated with waste disposal. However, low yields and lack of process technology are some of the aspects that need to be addressed. This book offers an overview of existing biofuels and the technologies to solve the problems associated with their practical implementation. Evaluating the biofuel options and discussing the opportunities and risks in relation to resources, technologies, practices, markets and policy, it provides insights into the development of economically viable bioenergy industries.

Bioenergy Production by Anaerobic Digestion

These are all systematically reviewed in terms of their suitability from a biological, technical and economic perspective.

Bioenergy Production by Anaerobic Digestion

Author: Nicholas Korres

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136489649

Page: 472

View: 296

Interest in anaerobic digestion (AD), the process of energy production through the production of biogas, has increased rapidly in recent years. Agricultural and other organic waste are important substrates that can be treated by AD. This book is one of the first to provide a broad introduction to anaerobic digestion and its potential to turn agricultural crops or crop residues, animal and other organic waste, into biomethane. The substrates used can include any non-woody materials, including grass and maize silage, seaweeds, municipal and industrial wastes. These are all systematically reviewed in terms of their suitability from a biological, technical and economic perspective. In the past the technical competence and high capital investment required for industrial-scale anaerobic digesters has limited their uptake, but the authors show that recent advances have made smaller-scale systems more viable through a greater understanding of optimising bacterial metabolism and productivity. Broader issues such as life cycle assessment and energy policies to promote AD are also discussed.

Duckweed Ethanol

The smallest flowering plant, on Earth, is one of the most powerful, and widespread: duckweed.

Duckweed Ethanol

Author: Christopher Kinkaid

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781500485764

Page: 62

View: 121

The smallest flowering plant, on Earth, is one of the most powerful, and widespread: duckweed. Usually, considered a nuisance, duckweed, upon close examination, is an impressive crop, in photosynthetic value. Ethanol, an industry dominated by the Corn Industry (King Corn), faces many challenges, including large water draws, rising fertilizer costs, large diesel fuel bills, and unintended impacts on Food markets. Corn, as a choice for ethanol production, pits food, versus fuel, for agricultural resources, increasing stresses between fundamental markets. An ideal source of biomass, for ethanol production, would not be a food crop, rather, a waste-crop. King Corn, dominates current domestic ethanol production markets, worth billions, each year. Supported with Federal Farm Subsidies, worth billions of dollars annually, the corn industry dictates the US ethanol markets, using Corn as the principle feedstock crop. At first glance, Corn, is an odd choice for ethanol production. Corn, began as a wild seed crop, domesticated by ancient man. Before the modern age, thousands of years of selective breeding, produced a Corn rich in proteins, and high in nutritional value. Modern Corn, has been engineered to go "the other direction," and reduce Corn's Protein, and increase Corn's Starch (Carbohydrate) production. The "Starch" in corn, is used for Ethanol production, and other by-products, such as Corn Syrup, and Distillers Dried Grains and Solubles (DDGS). Duckweed, is a choice for bulk biomass, which offers significant advantages over corn. Duckweed advantages include, lower energy costs, lower water resources, lower fertilizer costs, doesn't require valuable farmland, doesn't compete in Food markets, has higher Starch yield, per acre. Duckweed, in a controlled environment, can be grown, year round, and in diverse locations. Corn, as a bulk source of Starch production, competes with Food markets, drinks thousands of gallons of water, per gallon Ethanol produced, requires large diesel fuel bills for growing, and harvesting, requires large amounts of fertilizers, and lower's the nutritional value of Corn on purpose, to produce more starch, reducing protein production, and nutritional value.

The Chemical Engineer

According to the pair , the isolated enzyme was shown to break down cellulosic
materials into biofuel - ready sugars - a process that took one ... University of
Maryland president Dan Mote Junior says : “ [ This new process ) makes
affordable ethanol production a reality and makes it from waste materials . ...
Furthermore , the organic groups on the surface were stable in the temperature
range between ...

The Chemical Engineer

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 194

Algae and Environmental Sustainability

Other aspects of the book include the role of remote sensing technology in the monitoring of algae and a life cycle assessment of algal biofuels. This book presents the dynamic role of algae in a sustainable environment.

Algae and Environmental Sustainability

Author: Bhaskar Singh

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 8132226410

Page: 181

View: 471

This book presents the dynamic role of algae in a sustainable environment. Two major aspects, namely bioenergy and bioremediation, have been elaborated in various chapter contributed by scientists and teachers from different geographical areas throughout the world. Algal biofuels is an emerging area of equal interest to researchers, industries, and policy makers working or focusing on alternative (i.e. renewable) fuels. Algae have been an area of interest due to their wide range of applications. Over the last 5 decades, eukaryotic algae have been used in the aquaculture industry as feed for invertebrates, providing a rich source of antioxidants, dietary fiber, minerals and protein. More recently, there has been a focus on the use of algal biomass in the development of alternative fuels. The extraction of oil from algae has been widely explored as a much more viable feedstock than plant-based oils in large-scale fuel production. using algae as feedstock has the advantages that it doesn’t require arable land and that wastewater can be used as a source of nutrients in their culture. The multifunctional approach of algae includes pollution remediation, carbon sequestration, biofuels production, and delivery of value-added products. However, there are still some obstacles that need to be overcome to make their use as potential feedstock for biofuels techno-economically feasible. In order to maintain the sustainability aspect of algal biofuels, various aspects have to be studied and critically analyzed to assess the long-term sustainability of algal derived biofuels. This book discusses the role of algae as a promising future feedstock for biofuels. They are known to sequester carbon in much larger amounts than plants and as such the book also describes their phycoremediation potential for conventional as well as emerging contaminants. It describes the role of anaerobic digestion in algal biorefineries; bioreactions and process parameters; biogas recovery and reuse. The role of algal biofilm based technology in wastewater treatment and transforming waste into bio-products is discussed, and remediation of sewage water through algae is assessed. The book also describes the production of biohydrogen, bio-oil, biodiesel; and the major bottlenecks in their usage. The emerging characterization techniques of these biofuels (bio-oil and biodiesel) are described, as are the decolorizing potential of algae and the genetic engineering techniques that could enhance the production of lipids in algae. Other aspects of the book include the role of remote sensing technology in the monitoring of algae and a life cycle assessment of algal biofuels.

Research EU

SPECIAL FEATURE BIOFUELS PRODUCED SUSTAINABLY FROM WASTE
Biofuels are seen as an important ... Added advantages are the utilisation of
increasing quantities of organic waste and the minimised impact of energy
production on ...

Research EU

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 338