Biogeography and Adaptation

In this thoughtful and wide-ranging discussion of evolutionary process and adaptive response, Geerat Vermeij elucidates the general principles that underlie the great diversity of marine forms found in the world's great oceans.

Biogeography and Adaptation

Author: Geerat J. Vermeij

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674073760

Page: 332

View: 489

The driving forces of natural selection leave their traces in the shapes of living creatures and their patterns of distribution. In this thoughtful and wide-ranging discussion of evolutionary process and adaptive response, Geerat Vermeij elucidates the general principles that underlie the great diversity of marine forms found in the world's great oceans.

Analytical Biogeography

... 'Absence' data 300, 301,448 Acacia 421 'Accidental dispersal 5 Aciphylla 409
Adaptation and biogeographic patterns 4, ... mole rats (Spalaxehrenbergi) 173–4
of island species 203 See also Adaptive radiation and species' distributions 49, ...

Analytical Biogeography

Author: Paul Giller

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400911998

Page: 578

View: 322

Biogeography may be defined simply as the study of the geographical distribution of organisms, but this simple definition hides the great complexity of the subject. Biogeography transcends classical subject areas and involves a range of scientific disciplines that includes geogra phy, geology and biology. Not surprisingly, therefore, it means rather different things to different people. Historically, the study of biogeogra phy has been concentrated into compartments at separate points along a spatio-temporal gradient. At one end of the gradient, ecological biogeography is concerned with ecological processes occurring over short temporal and small spatial scales, whilst at the other end, historical biogeography is concerned with evolutionary processes over millions of years on a large, often global scale. Between these end points lies a third major compartment concerned with the profound effects of Pleistocene glaciations and how these have affected the distribution of recent organisms. Within each of these compartments along the scale gradient, a large number of theories, hypotheses and models have been proposed in an attempt to explain the present and past biotic distribution patterns. To a large extent, these compartments of the subject have been non-interactive, which is understandable from the different interests and backgrounds of the various researchers. Nevertheless, the distribu tions of organisms across the globe cannot be fully understood without a knowledge of the full spectrum of ecological and historical processes. There are no degrees in biogeography and today's biogeographers are primarily born out of some other discipline.

Evolutionary Biology

Ronquist, F, 1997, Dispersal-vicariance analysis: a new approach to the
quantification of historical biogeography. Syst. Biol. 46:195–203. Ronquist, F ...
Vermeij, G., 1978, Biogeography and Adaptation. Harvard University Press,
Cambridge, ...

Evolutionary Biology

Author: Ross J. MacIntyre

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475751907

Page: 205

View: 778

After volume 33, this book series was replaced by the journal "Evolutionary Biology." Please visit www.springer.com/11692 for further information. This volume is the 33rd in this series, which includes 32 numbered volumes and an unnumbered supplement. Several special volumes have also been published as separate monographs. This volume, like the others in the series, has chapters devoted to a broad spectrum of topics. Indeed, the editors continue to solicit manuscripts on subjects covered by the encompassing rubric of Evolutionary Biology. "Volume 33 continues the grand tradition of Evolutionary Biology in being the most comprehensive series in the field. The chapters are always up-to-date, informative, and stimulating; sometimes infuriating. Just what good scientific literature should be! Particularly attractive is the free-wheeling spirit of the series: no style or length is imposed. If you want to remain cognizant of contemporary evolutionary advances in general and have time to read only one volume a year outside your own specialty, make it Evolutionary Biology." (Jeffrey R. Powell, Ph.D., Yale University)

Speciation and Biogeography of Birds

tion through local adaptation , followed by re - contact and further differentiation ,
could in theory be repeated again and ... The original colonists could thus
undergo a process of ' adaptive radiation ' , defined as the diversification of a
single ...

Speciation and Biogeography of Birds

Author: Ian Newton

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 9780125173759

Page: 668

View: 502

This book should be of value to anyone interested in bird evolution and taxonomy, biogeography, distributional history, dispersal and migration patterns. It provides an up-to-date synthesis of current knowledge on species formation, and the factors influencing current distribution patterns. It draws heavily on new information on Earth history, including past glacial and other climatic changes, on new developments in molecular biology and palaeontology, and on recent studies of bird distribution and migration patterns, to produce a coherent account of the factors that have influenced bird species diversity and distribution patterns worldwide. Received the Best Bird Book of the Year award for 2004 from British Birds magazine. * Winner of the British Birds/British Trust for Ornithology, Bird Book of the Year 2004! * The first book to deal comprehensively with bird speciation and biogeography * Up-to-date synthesis of new information * Clearly written * No previous book covers the same ground * Many maps and diagrams * Makes difficult and widely scattered information accessible and easily understood * A sound base for future research * Takes full account of recent developments in molecular biology

Dynamic Biogeography

To judge to what extent actual species ranges reflect preferred ecological
conditions , one must estimate their possible adaptation to these conditions . The
more their preferences fit local conditions , the less we need to consider historical
 ...

Dynamic Biogeography

Author: R. Hengeveld

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521437561

Page: 249

View: 892

Biogeography is an increasingly important area for ecology, dynamic biogeography being the study of biological patterns and processes on a broad scale both geographically and temporally. In this book, the spatial patterns and processes studied in dynamic biogeography are presented from an ecological perspective. Dynamic Biogeography opens with a survey of the different approaches encountered within the subject. The remainder of the book is arranged into four parts. The first is concerned with patterns of concordance; both quantitative and qualitative classifications are discussed. Geographical trends in species' diversity and biological traits are viewed, with Part 3 leading into areography or the analysis of species ranges. The book is drawn together by an overview of all the scales of variation and a glimpse into the future of biogeography.

Evolutionary Paleoecology

Biogeography and Adaptation. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. Vermeij
, G. J. 1987a. Interoceanic differences in architecture and ecology: The effects of
history and productivity. UNESCO Reports in Marine Science 46:105–125.

Evolutionary Paleoecology

Author: Warren D. Allmon

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231528523

Page: 320

View: 179

One of the most important questions we can ask about life is "Does ecology matter?" Most biologists and paleontologists are trained to answer "yes," but the exact mechanisms by which ecology matters in the context of patterns that play out over millions of years have never been entirely clear. This book examines these mechanisms and looks at how ancient environments affected evolution, focusing on long-term macroevolutionary changes as seen in the fossil record. Evolutionary paleoecology is not a new discipline. Beginning with Darwin, researchers have attempted to understand how the environment has affected evolutionary history. But as we learn more about these patterns, the search for a new synthetic view of the evolutionary process that integrates species evolution, ecology, and mass extinctions becomes ever more pressing. The present volume is a benchmark sampler of active research in this ever more active field.

Molecular Systematics of Plants II

... biogeography, and adaptation (Harvey and Pagel, 1991; Philippe and Adoutte,
1996). Thus, improving the resolution of pteridophyte phylogeny will enhance our
understanding of vascular plant diversification and the evolution of terrestrial ...

Molecular Systematics of Plants II

Author: Douglas E. Soltis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780412111211

Page: 574

View: 998

In the five years since the publication of Molecular Systematics of Plants, the field of molecular systematics has advanced at an astonishing pace. This period has been marked by a volume of new empirical data and advances in theoretical and analytical issues related to DNA. Comparative DNA sequencing, facilitated by the amplification of DNA via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has become the tool of choice for molecular systematics. As a result, large portions of the Molecular Systematics of Plants have become outdated. Molecular Systematics of Plants II summarizes these recent achievements in plant molecular systematics. Like its predecessor, this completely revised work illustrates the potential of DNA markers for addressing a wide variety of phylogenetic and evolutionary questions. The volume provides guidance in choosing appropriate techniques, as well as appropriate genes for sequencing, for given levels of systematic inquiry. More than a review of techniques and previous work, Molecular Systematics of Plants II provides a stimulus for developing future research in this rapidly evolving field. Molecular Systematics of Plants II is not only written for systematists (faculty, graduate students, and researchers), but also for evolutionary biologists, botanists, and paleobotanists interested in reviewing current theory and practice in plant molecular systematics.

Evolution and Escalation

Here is one biologist's interpretation of the chronology of life during the last six hundred million years of earth history: an extended essay that draws on the author's own data and a wide-ranging literature survey to discuss the nature ...

Evolution and Escalation

Author: Geerat J. Vermeij

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691000800

Page: 544

View: 739

Here is one biologist's interpretation of the chronology of life during the last six hundred million years of earth history: an extended essay that draws on the author's own data and a wide-ranging literature survey to discuss the nature and dynamics of evolutionary change in organisms and their biological surroundings. Geerat Vermeij demonstrates that escalation--the process by which species adapt to, or are limited by, their enemies as the latter increase in ability to acquire and retain resources--has been a dominant theme in the history of life despite frequent episodes of extinction.

Human Biogeography

Here, therefore, it is potential adaptations to oxygen deprivation that is the topic.
... An explanation for the apparent lack of adaptation of these high-elevation
animals is that climatic warming and an increasing human population in the
region ...

Human Biogeography

Author: Alexander Harcourt

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520951778

Page: 328

View: 689

In this innovative, wide-ranging synthesis of anthropology and biogeography, Alexander Harcourt tells how and why our species came to be distributed around the world. He explains our current understanding of human origins, tells how climate determined our spread, and describes the barriers that delayed and directed migrating peoples. He explores the rich and complex ways in which our anatomy, physiology, cultural diversity, and population density vary from region to region in the areas we inhabit. The book closes with chapters on how human cultures have affected each other’s geographic distributions, how non-human species have influenced human distribution, and how humans have reduced the ranges of many other species while increasing the ranges of others. Throughout, Harcourt compares what we understand of human biogeography to non-human primate biogeography.

Island Biogeography

Studies of island biotas are important because the relationships among
distribution , speciation , and adaptation are easier to see and comprehend . (
Brown and Gibson 1983 , p . 11 , citing one of A. R. Wallace's general
biogeographic ...

Island Biogeography

Author: Robert J. Whittaker

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198500209

Page: 285

View: 922

Islands, being discrete, internally quantifiable, numerous, and varied entities, provide us with natural laboratories for developing theories and models of how evolution works. Work on evolution on islands has a long-established biogeographical pedigree, stretching back to the work of Darwinand Wallace, and generating ideas, theories, and models that have played a central role in the development of mainstream ecology, evolutionary biology, and biogeography. Island Biogeography is a new textbook, aimed at advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The first comprehensive book to bewritten on the topic since 1981, it provides a much needed synthesis of recent developments across the discipline, linking current theoretical debates with applied island ecology. The book covers the following diverse themes: the nature and formation of island environments, and their specialcontribution to global biodiversity; micro- and macro- evolutionary change on islands, and the frameworks by which these changes may be understood; island ecological theories concerning species numbers, species assembly, and composition; a critical assessment of the contribution of island theoriesto conservation biology; and finally, an assessment of the human impact on island biodiversity, setting out the tremendous scale of anthropogenic extinctions, and assessing the current threats and remedies. Written by an author who has been researching and teaching island biogeography for manyyears, Island Biogeography is wide-ranging, authoritative, and accessible to students from across geography and the life sciences. The first truly modern textbook on a fascinating and important subject in evolution and ecology.

Biological Resources and Migration

Biogeography is a late Victorian term which refers to the major influence that
geography can exert over botany and zoology (Winchester 2003). ... 5
Biogeography, Local Adaptation, Vavilov, and Genetic Diversity in Soybean 51
XXXVII.

Biological Resources and Migration

Author: Dietrich Werner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540214700

Page: 363

View: 403

Migration of humans and animals, plants and even microbes is a ubiquitous global phenomenon. This book covers all forms of migration - plant, microbial, animal or human - and their mutual impact in detail. The contributions in this book are the result of an innovative International Conference and OECD Workshop aimed at triggering off the interdisciplinary dialogue between natural scientists and socioeconomists.

Biogeography and Ecology in South America

distinguish two groups, i.e. the cool-adapted group of the mountainous streams
and torrents (rhithron) and the warm-adapted group of the water bodies of the
tropical plains (potamon). Cool-adapted, oligostenothermic groups reveal a
rather ...

Biogeography and Ecology in South America

Author: E.J. Fittkau

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789061930716

Page: 497

View: 126

With 'Biogeography and Ecology in South America' as the general theme, a total of twenty-nine contributions by thirty authors is offered here in two volumes, being volumes 18 and 19 of the Monographiae Biologicae. Most of these discussions deal with decidedly specialist themes and the editors have been particularly concerned to ensure that the authors enjoyed the greatest possible freedom in the preparation of their work in order that different points of view and interpretations, together with some questions of controversy, may be clarified. This also applies, of course, to the several chapters in which general themes (geographical substance, climate, geology, vegetation, amongst others) are discussed. Since the amount of material available is too great to enable one to aspire to a presentation of the complete biogeographical and ecological picture, this procedure seems expedient. However, these two volumes could well be regarded as being a preparatory work for just such a complete description. Each of the separate technical contributions refers to the continent as a whole, in order to characterise it as such from the viewpoint of the specialist. For this reason it was necessary to forgo special discussions of particular regions or types of landscape, although South America of all places is remarkably rich in unique regional phenom- ena, the altiplano of Peru and Bolivia, the relict forests of Fray Jorge, the shrub formations of Tierra del Fuego, the lakes of the High Andes, for example.

Primate Adaptation and Evolution

Biogeography. FIGURE 8.7 Plots of the ecological distribution of individual
species. Living primates are found in four major ... We will compare and contrast
the numbers and the ecological adaptations of primates that are found on
different ...

Primate Adaptation and Evolution

Author: John G. Fleagle

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123786339

Page: 464

View: 875

Primate Adaptation and Evolution, Third Edition, is a thorough revision of the text of choice for courses in primate evolution. The book retains its grounding in the extant primate groups as the best way to understand the fossil trail and the evolution of these modern forms. However, this coverage is now streamlined, making reference to the many new and excellent books on living primate ecology and adaptation - a field that has burgeoned since the first edition of Primate Adaptation and Evolution. By drawing out the key features of the extant families and referring to more detailed texts, the author sets the scene and also creates space for a thorough updating of the exciting developments in primate palaeontology - and the reconstruction through early hominid species - of our own human origins. This updated version covers recent developments in primate paleontology and the latest taxonomy, and includes over 200 new illustrations and revised evolutionary trees. This text is ideal for undergraduate and post-graduate students studying the evolution and functional ecology of primates and early fossil hominids. Long-awaited revision of the standard student text on primate evolution Full coverage of newly discovered fossils and the latest taxonomy Over 200 new illustrations and revised evolutionary trees

An Introduction to Applied Biogeography

... of climate change on physical and ecological systems , human health and
socioeconomic sectors . The Group also reviewed information on the technical
and economic feasibility of a range of potential adaptation and mitigation
strategies .

An Introduction to Applied Biogeography

Author: Ian F. Spellerberg

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521457125

Page: 243

View: 586

Species distribution, conservation management, landscape planning.

Biogeography Time and Place Distributions Barriers and Islands

Some predictions of evolutionary theory about speciation and adaptation are
tested in an island setting, with also palaeoislands taken into account. Allopatry
may result in differentiation and speciation, but whether, when, and how this ...

Biogeography  Time and Place  Distributions  Barriers and Islands

Author: Willem Renema

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402063741

Page: 416

View: 924

This book offers exchanges between the fields of paleontology and zoology as patterns of biodiversity have long attracted the attention of both biologists and paleontologists. It covers the development of isolated island faunas, paleogeography and zoomorphology. The book shows that patterns are not always what they seem if looked at without a spatial or temporal reference.

The Biogeography of the Australian North West Shelf

Species adjust their physiology and behavior, rearrange themselves spatially,
and adapt. When the degree or rate of change is so great that species or
communities of species fail to do this, they become locally extinct. Better adapted
kinds ...

The Biogeography of the Australian North West Shelf

Author: Barry Wilson

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0124114881

Page: 640

View: 125

The Biogeography of the Australian North West Shelf provides the first assembly of existing information of the North West Shelf in terms of geological, oceanographic and climatological history and current understanding of such issues as biodiversity, connectivity, larval dispersal and speciation in the sea that determine the distribution patterns of its invertebrate fauna. It is intended as a source of information and ideas on the biota of the shelf and its evolutionary origins and affinities and the environmental drivers of species’ ecology and distribution and ecosystem function. Regulators and industry environmental managers worldwide, but especially on the resource-rich North West Shelf, are faced with having to make decisions without adequate information or understanding of conservation values or the factors that drive ecosystem processes and resilience in the face of increasing anthropogenic and natural change. This book will provide a resource of information and ideas and extensive references to issues of primary concern. It will provide a big-picture narrative, putting the marine biota into a geological, evolutionary, and regional biodiversity context. The first book to cover the major benthic habitats and physical and ecological condition of the North West Shelf of Australia Covers new information on geomorphology and biota of coral reefs and other invertebrate habitats that are key species and functional groups of the North West Shelf Introduces new ideas on biogeographic processes and patterns in tropical seas

High Altitude Tropical Biogeography

ADAPTATIONS According to Bock ( 1965 ) , three concepts of adaptation can be
defined . The first , universal adaptation , “ best describes the essential interaction
between living organisms and their environment . ” The second was called by ...

High Altitude Tropical Biogeography

Author: François Vuilleumier

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN:

Page: 649

View: 510

High Altitude Tropical Biogeography provides research workers and academics with a comprehensive overview of the biogeography of high tropical mountains, covering the origin, ecology, and evolution of plants and animals of this unique ecological zone. The climate in the high altitude mountain regions of the tropics is cold, resulting in flora and fauna which more closely resemble their counterparts thousand of miles to the north or south than comparable species in the lowland jungles only a few thousand meters below. These ecological "islands", besides being very important to the economies of the tropics, pose interesting questions of physiological adaptation, biogeography, and evolutionary relationships. With contributions from twenty-four international specialists who have devoted years to the study of cold mountain tropics, this book describes some of the most characteristic plant and animal components of the ecosystem. No other book of this scope and content exists on these tropical biotas.

Foundations of Biogeography

Among features which are exhibited by waif biotas are adaptive radiation,
flightlessness in animals, loss of dispersal mechanism in plants, and
development of new ecological habits and growth forms. Each of these
adaptations is evidently ...

Foundations of Biogeography

Author: Mark V. Lomolino

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226492377

Page: 1291

View: 369

Foundations of Biogeography provides facsimile reprints of seventy-two works that have proven fundamental to the development of the field. From classics by Georges-Louis LeClerc Compte de Buffon, Alexander von Humboldt, and Charles Darwin to equally seminal contributions by Ernst Mayr, Robert MacArthur, and E. O. Wilson, these papers and book excerpts not only reveal biogeography's historical roots but also trace its theoretical and empirical development. Selected and introduced by leading biogeographers, the articles cover a wide variety of taxonomic groups, habitat types, and geographic regions. Foundations of Biogeography will be an ideal introduction to the field for beginning students and an essential reference for established scholars of biogeography, ecology, and evolution. List of Contributors John C. Briggs, James H. Brown, Vicki A. Funk, Paul S. Giller, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Lawrence R. Heaney, Robert Hengeveld, Christopher J. Humphries, Mark V. Lomolino, Alan A. Myers, Brett R. Riddle, Dov F. Sax, Geerat J. Vermeij, Robert J. Whittaker

Biogeography

limited and precise area and biota of islands provide us with three unique fields
of biogeographic research. The first of these includes the ways in which their
isolation and unusual, unbalanced biota provoke changes in the adaptations of
their ...

Biogeography

Author: C. Barry Cox

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470637943

Page: 506

View: 410

Biologists searching for a resource that explores all of the exciting changes that have occurred recently in the field will turn to this eighth edition. It offers insight into the multidisciplinary nature of the field, presenting a sound historical base, up-to-date coverage, and a look at the latest controversies. The authors evaluate conflicting theories and provide a reasoned judgment as to which is preferable. In a new chapter the authors examine marine biogeography, so that biologists can compare and analyze the data, patterns and problems arising from continental, marine and island biogeography.