A History of Smuggling across the Rio Grande George T. Díaz. border, with the
exception of notable works by James Sandos, Gabriela Recio, and Peter
Andreas, very little scholarship considers its history there.9 Rachel St. John's
Author: George T. Díaz
Publisher: University of Texas Press
Present-day smuggling across the U.S.-Mexico border is a professional, often violent, criminal activity. However, it is only the latest chapter in a history of illicit business dealings that stretches back to 1848, when attempts by Mexico and the United States to tax commerce across the Rio Grande upset local trade and caused popular resentment. Rather than acquiesce to what they regarded as arbitrary trade regulations, borderlanders continued to cross goods and accepted many forms of smuggling as just. In Border Contraband, George T. Díaz provides the first history of the common, yet little studied, practice of smuggling across the U.S.-Mexico border. In Part I, he examines the period between 1848 and 1910, when the United States' and Mexico's trade concerns focused on tariff collection and on borderlanders' attempts to avoid paying tariffs by smuggling. Part II begins with the onset of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, when national customs and other security forces on the border shifted their emphasis to the interdiction of prohibited items (particularly guns and drugs) that threatened the state. Díaz's pioneering research explains how greater restrictions have transformed smuggling from a low-level mundane activity, widely accepted and still routinely practiced, into a highly profitable professional criminal enterprise.
Structural corruption is a pressing problem in Bulgaria's current politics. Now that
privatization has been nearly accomplished, the factor that continues to sustain it
is the trans-border contraband networks. Countering contraband activities is a ...
Author: Lyubov Grigorova Mincheva
This book examines the trans-border connections between militant and criminal networks and the relationship between these and the states in which they operate. "Unholy alliances" is a term used to describe hybrid trans-border militant and criminal networks that pose serious threats to security in Europe and elsewhere. Identity networks provide the basis for militant organizations using violent strategies – insurgency and terrorism – for political objectives. To gain funds and weapons militant networks may establish criminal enterprises, or align with existing trans-border criminal and financial networks. This book extends the concept of unholy alliances to include the trans-state criminal syndicates that arise in failed and dysfunctional states, exemplified by Serbia and Bulgaria during their post-Communist transitions. To deal with this complex and unconventional subject, the authors develop a theoretical framework that looks at four kinds of factors conditioning the interaction between the political and the criminal: trans-state identity networks, armed conflict, the balance of market opportunities and constraints, and the role of unstable and corrupt states. The volume also examines actors at two levels of analysis: the structure and activities of militant (and/or criminal) networks, and the policies of state actors that shape and reshape the interaction of opportunities and constraints. This book will be of much interest to students of terrorism, insurgency, transnational crime, war and conflict studies, and IR in general.
Tony Payan, “How a Forgotten Border Dispute Tormented U.S.-Mexico Relations
for 100 Years,” Americas Quarterly ... George T. Dıaz, Border Contraband: A
History of Smuggling across the Rio Grande (Austin: University of Texas Press, ...
Author: Tony Payan
This book addresses the three central issues that continue to dominate the U.S.-Mexico relationship today: drugs, immigration, and security. Nowhere is this more palpable than at the 2,000-mile border shared by the two countries. • Provides a historical perspective that is necessary to understand today's border conflicts • Includes new coverage of weapons trafficking, human trafficking, the diversified activities of organized crime, the role of drug consumption in America, the decay of the border infrastructure, the militarization of the border, and the effects of Arizona's immigration policy changes • Challenges current views about the border as unsafe, unstable, crime-riddled, and a burden on the nation • Portrays the border as a place of hope in need of better management rather than reinforcement of the security regime that has prevailed in the last decades • Includes a chapter on the Peña government and its effect on the binational relationship, the war on the Cartels, and escalation of violence • Draws on the author's current research and interviews with new government actors • Offers penetrating analysis and sound policy recommendations, particularly on how to achieve a truly binational border management system • Features a new final chapter that projects the future of the border over the next 25 years
New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008. De León, Jason. The Land of Open
Graves: Living and Dying on the Migrant Trail. Berkeley: University of California
Press, 2015. Díaz, George T. Border Contraband: A History of Smuggling across
Author: C. J. Alvarez
Publisher: University of Texas Press
From the boundary surveys of the 1850s to the ever-expanding fences and highway networks of the twenty-first century, Border Land, Border Water examines the history of the construction projects that have shaped the region where the United States and Mexico meet. Tracing the accretion of ports of entry, boundary markers, transportation networks, fences and barriers, surveillance infrastructure, and dams and other river engineering projects, C. J. Alvarez advances a broad chronological narrative that captures the full life cycle of border building. He explains how initial groundbreaking in the nineteenth century transitioned to unbridled faith in the capacity to control the movement of people, goods, and water through the use of physical structures. By the 1960s, however, the built environment of the border began to display increasingly obvious systemic flaws. More often than not, Alvarez shows, federal agencies in both countries responded with more construction—“compensatory building” designed to mitigate unsustainable policies relating to immigration, black markets, and the natural world. Border Land, Border Water reframes our understanding of how the border has come to look and function as it does and is essential to current debates about the future of the US-Mexico divide.
Ω Here, as in the Río Bravo region along the Texas-Mexico border, contraband
helped stitch borderland populations together across the international boundary.
But Métis traders who ventured onto the reservation to do business with the ...
Author: Benjamin Johnson
Publisher: Duke University Press
Despite a shared interest in using borders to explore the paradoxes of state-making and national histories, historians of the U.S.-Canada border region and those focused on the U.S.-Mexico borderlands have generally worked in isolation from one another. A timely and important addition to borderlands history, Bridging National Borders in North America initiates a conversation between scholars of the continent’s northern and southern borderlands. The historians in this collection examine borderlands events and phenomena from the mid-nineteenth century through the mid-twentieth. Some consider the U.S.-Canada border, others concentrate on the U.S.-Mexico border, and still others take both regions into account. The contributors engage topics such as how mixed-race groups living on the peripheries of national societies dealt with the creation of borders in the nineteenth century, how medical inspections and public-health knowledge came to be used to differentiate among bodies, and how practices designed to channel livestock and prevent cattle smuggling became the model for regulating the movement of narcotics and undocumented people. They explore the ways that U.S. immigration authorities mediated between the desires for unimpeded boundary-crossings for day laborers, tourists, casual visitors, and businessmen, and the restrictions imposed by measures such as the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the 1924 Immigration Act. Turning to the realm of culture, they analyze the history of tourist travel to Mexico from the United States and depictions of the borderlands in early-twentieth-century Hollywood movies. The concluding essay suggests that historians have obscured non-national forms of territoriality and community that preceded the creation of national borders and sometimes persisted afterwards. This collection signals new directions for continental dialogue about issues such as state-building, national expansion, territoriality, and migration. Contributors: Dominique Brégent-Heald, Catherine Cocks, Andrea Geiger, Miguel Ángel González Quiroga, Andrew R. Graybill, Michel Hogue, Benjamin H. Johnson, S. Deborah Kang, Carolyn Podruchny, Bethel Saler, Jennifer Seltz, Rachel St. John, Lissa Wadewitz Published in cooperation with the William P. Clements Center for Southwest Studies, Southern Methodist University.
Every day for thirty years a man drove a wheelbarrow full of sand over the
Tijuana border crossing. The customs inspector dug through the sand each
morning but could not discover any contraband. He remained, of course,
convinced that he ...
Author: Daniel Boyarin
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
The historical separation between Judaism and Christianity is often figured as a clearly defined break of a single entity into two separate religions. Following this model, there would have been one religion known as Judaism before the birth of Christ, which then took on a hybrid identity. Even before its subsequent division, certain beliefs and practices of this composite would have been identifiable as Christian or Jewish.In Border Lines, however, Daniel Boyarin makes a striking case for a very different way of thinking about the historical development that is the partition of Judaeo-Christianity. There were no characteristics or features that could be described as uniquely Jewish or Christian in late antiquity, Boyarin argues. Rather, Jesus-following Jews and Jews who did not follow Jesus lived on a cultural map in which beliefs, such as that in a second divine being, and practices, such as keeping kosher or maintaining the Sabbath, were widely and variably distributed. The ultimate distinctions between Judaism and Christianity were imposed from above by "border-makers," heresiologists anxious to construct a discrete identity for Christianity. By defining some beliefs and practices as Christian and others as Jewish or heretical, they moved ideas, behaviors, and people to one side or another of an artificial border—and, Boyarin significantly contends, invented the very notion of religion.
Some of these illegal aliens,1 on more than one occasion, have evaded
detection at the border ports of entry2 by hiding themselves, drugs, or other
contraband in vehicles. Others trekked through the Arizona desert, waded across
the Rio ...
Author: Richard M. Stana
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
The U.S. Border Patrol operates checkpoints on U.S. roads, mainly in the southwest border states where most illegal entries occur. As part of a three-tiered strategy to maximize detection and apprehension of illegal aliens, Border Patrol agents at checkpoints screen vehicles for illegal aliens and contraband. This report assesses:(1) checkpoint performance and factors affecting performance; (2) checkpoint performance measures; (3) community impacts considered in checkpoint placement and design; and (4) the impact of checkpoint operations on nearby communities. Research included a review of Border Patrol data and guidance, and visits to checkpoints and communities in five Border Patrol sectors across four southwest border states. Illus.
INHABITED a vast underworld of smuggling. ... dealed behind the scenes,
merchants provisioned traffickers beyond the border, peasants funneled
contraband across the frontier into towns, and urban dealers hawked illicit wares
in bars, cafés, ...
Author: Michael Kwass
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Louis Mandrin led a gang of bandits who brazenly smuggled contraband into eighteenth-century France. Michael Kwass brings new life to the legend of this Gallic Robin Hood, exposing the dark side of early modern globalization. Decades later, the memory of Mandrin inspired ordinary subjects and Enlightened philosophers alike to challenge royal power.
So, while improvements have made the border more secure and reduced the
flow of contraband, smuggling has not been eradicated. Indeed, as long as
borders separate jurisdictions with different laws and different levels of taxation, it
will no ...
Author: Matthew Farfan
Publisher: Arcadia Publishing
The Vermont-Quebec Border: Life on the Line is a visual record of life in the villages, towns, and countryside in this unique and special part of the world. In recent years, issues relating to the border have been thrust to the forefront as never before. This is due not only to growing security concerns but also to an increasing scrutiny in the media of border issues and of how heightened security is impacting life in communities all along the border. The border has played an important role in the history and everyday lives of the people living along its length, both in Vermont and Quebec, and it will undoubtedly continue to shape these communities in the years to come.
Similarly, the gambian port of Banjul was a point through which contraband was
traded across the Senegambian subregion. The bustling gambian town of
Brikama, which is slightly set back from the southern border with Senegal,
became (and ...
Author: Thomas M. Wilson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
A Companion to Border Studies introduces an exciting and expanding field of interdisciplinary research, through the writing of an international array of scholars, from diverse perspectives that include anthropology, development studies, geography, history, political science and sociology. Explores how nations and cultural identities are being transformed by their dynamic, shifting borders where mobility is sometimes facilitated, other times impeded or prevented Offers an array of international views which together form an authoritative guide for students, instructors and researchers Reflects recent significant growth in the importance of understanding the distinctive characteristics of borders and frontiers, including cross-border cooperation, security and controls, migration and population displacements, hybridity, and transnationalism
However, much of the army's contraband interdiction work has been against
small-scale transfers of goods across the border. As part of this work, army
personnel have confiscated small amounts of food or other goods transported
Author: Maiah Jaskoski
Publisher: JHU Press
Military Politics and Democracy in the Andes challenges conventional theories regarding military behavior in post-transition democracies. Through a deeply researched comparative analysis of the Ecuadorian and Peruvian armies, Maiah Jaskoski argues that militaries are concerned more with the predictability of their missions than with sovereignty objectives set by democratically elected leaders. Jaskoski gathers data from interviews with public officials, private sector representatives, journalists, and more than 160 Peruvian and Ecuadorian officers from all branches of the military. The results are surprising. Ecuador’s army, for example, fearing the uncertainty of border defense against insurgent encroachment in the north, neglected this duty, thereby sacrificing the state’s security goals, acting against government orders, and challenging democratic consolidation. Instead of defending the border, the army has opted to carry out policing functions within Ecuador, such as combating the drug trade. Additionally, by ignoring its duty to defend sovereignty, the army is available to contract out its policing services to paying, private companies that, relative to the public, benefit disproportionately from army security. Jaskoski also looks briefly at this theory's implications for military responsiveness to government orders in democratic Bolivia, Colombia, and Venezuela, and in newly formed democracies more broadly.
Even though the smuggling of drugs and migrants has received the most media
and policy attention in recent years, it should be emphasized that these
clandestine activities are part of an old and diverse border smuggling economy
Author: Peter Andreas
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Yet the unprecedented buildup of border policing has taken place in an era otherwise defined by the opening of the border, most notably through NAFTA. This contrast creates a borderless economy with a barricaded border.".
Thus, the Allies threatened to withhold contraband merchandise unless the
border states guaranteed genuine domestic consumption. “Explanatory”
memoranda to each of the border neutral states followed within a few weeks.
These notes ...
Author: M.M. Farrar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The historical literature on the first world war has devoted relatively little attention to the Allied blockade of the Central Powers. The few published studies have concentrated either on the blockade's naval aspects or exclusively on the British contribution. Little effort has been made heretofore to distinguish the French role. This study focuses on the French contribution to the diplomatic, as contrasted with the maritime, blockade of the Central Powers. It discusses primarily French relations with the so-called European border neutral states : principally Switzerland, but also the Netherlands and the three Scandinavian countries. Only in the diplomatic aspects of the Allied blockade program did the French play a distinctive role. Their token contribution to maritime blockade activity remained subordinate to the British. An examination of Franco-neutral rela tions involves not only a study of those diplomatic contacts per se but also a comparison of French and British tactics as a reflection of differing economic warfare concepts. This study also investigates the development of a French blockade organization to meet the demands of this new weapon, the diplomatic blockade.
The profits of the contraband trade helped perpetuate the regional conflicts.2 This
chapter examines smuggling in Abkhazia ... Both of these secessionist territories
border Russia: Abkhazia's border with Russia is 197 km long (with 200 km of ...
Author: Louise Shelley
Georgia is one of the most corrupt and crime-ridden nations of the former Soviet Union. In the Soviet period, Georgians played a major role in organized crime groups and the shadow economy operating throughout the Soviet Union, and in the post-Soviet period, Georgia continues to be important source of international crime and corruption. Important changes have been made since the Rose Revolution in Georgia to address the organized crime and pervasive corruption. This book, based on extensive original research, surveys the most enduring aspects of organized crime and corruption in Georgia and the most important reforms since the Rose Revolution. Endemic crime and corruption had a devastating effect on government and everyday life in Georgia, spurring widespread popular discontent that culminated with the Rose Revolution in 2003. Some of the hopes of the Rose Revolution have been realized, though major challenges lie ahead as Georgia confronts deep-seated crime and corruption issues that will remain central to political, economic, and social life in the years to come.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo obligated the United States to prevent Indian
forays into Mexico, to suppress cross-border contraband trade, and to reclaim
and repatriate Mexican captives held by Indians. But policing the long border
Author: Pekka Hamalainen
Publisher: Yale University Press
A groundbreaking history of the rise and decline of the vast and imposing Native American empire. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, a Native American empire rose to dominate the fiercely contested lands of the American Southwest, the southern Great Plains, and northern Mexico. This powerful empire, built by the Comanche Indians, eclipsed its various European rivals in military prowess, political prestige, economic power, commercial reach, and cultural influence. Yet, until now, the Comanche empire has gone unrecognized in American history. This compelling and original book uncovers the lost story of the Comanches. It is a story that challenges the idea of indigenous peoples as victims of European expansion and offers a new model for the history of colonial expansion, colonial frontiers, and Native-European relations in North America and elsewhere. Pekka Hämäläinen shows in vivid detail how the Comanches built their unique empire and resisted European colonization, and why they fell to defeat in 1875. With extensive knowledge and deep insight, the author brings into clear relief the Comanches’ remarkable impact on the trajectory of history. 2009 Winner of the Bancroft Prize in American History “Cutting-edge revisionist western history…. Immensely informative, particularly about activities in the eighteenth century.”—Larry McMurtry, The New York Review of Books “Exhilarating…a pleasure to read…. It is a nuanced account of the complex social, cultural, and biological interactions that the acquisition of the horse unleashed in North America, and a brilliant analysis of a Comanche social formation that dominated the Southern Plains.”—Richard White, author of The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815