INCORPORATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT IN THE STUDY OF
CANCER ISSUES AND IMPLICATIONS A. NOVOGRADEC and S. HARRIS ALI
Faculty of Environmental Studies , York University 355 Lumbers Building , 4700
Author: P. Nicolopoulou-Stamati
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
These pages contain a number of chapters from specialists in the field who consider, from a number of different perspectives, the currently available evidence that supports the environmental cancer aetiology hypothesis. This constitutes the first part of the book. In the second part of the book, an examination of the policy implications of accepting that the cancer epidemic may essentially be preventable is presented. This will pose some difficult problems for politicians and decision-makers, who will have to consider adopting policies that may damage the economy in the short term in order to reap health benefits which will only become apparent several decades in the future.
Epidemiologists by and large have agreed that environmental factors are
implicated in the vast majority of cancer deaths (Dolland Peto, 1981; Perera,
1995; Moeller, 2009). In other words, cancer is considered an “environmental”
disease in ...
Author: Anya Plutynski
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In Explaining Cancer, Anya Plutynski addresses a variety of philosophical questions that arise in the context of cancer science and medicine. She begins with the following concerns: · How do scientists classify cancer? Do these classifications reflect nature's "joints"? · How do cancer scientists identify and classify early stage cancers? · What does it mean to say that cancer is a "genetic" disease? What role do genes play in "mechanisms for" cancer? · What are the most important environmental causes of cancer, and how do epidemiologists investigate these causes? · How exactly has our evolutionary history made us vulnerable to cancer? Explaining Cancer uses these questions as an entrée into a family of philosophical debates. It uses case studies of scientific practice to reframe philosophical debates about natural classification in science and medicine, the problem of drawing the line between disease and health, mechanistic reasoning in science, pragmatics and evidence, the roles of models and modeling in science, and the nature of scientific explanation.
Gene–environment interactions in breast cancer Kee-Seng Chia Centre for
Molecular Epidemiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore Abstract.
Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in women. It
Author: Sir Michael J. Rutter
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Much research has attempted to show direct linear relations between genes and disorder. However, scientists have been discouraged by inconsistent findings based on this simple gene-phenotype approach. The alternative approach is to incorporate information about the environment. A gene-environment interaction approach assumes that environmental pathogens cause disorder, whereas genes influence susceptibility to environmental pathogens. This book brings together contributions from experts from multiple disciplines who discuss: How epidemiological cohort studies can better integrate physiological (mechanistic) measures; How best to characterise subjects’ vulnerability versus resilience by moving beyond single genetic polymorphisms; How gene hunters can benefit from recruiting samples selected for known exposures; How environmental pathogens can be used as tools for gene hunting; How to deal with potential spurious (statistical) interactions, and How genes can help explain fundamental demographic properties of disorders (e.g. sex distribution, age effects).
In most situations, however, especially when environmental exposures are
associated with long-latency illness (cancer, nephropathy, etc.), the outcomes of
epidemiological studies are rarely so dramatic and satisfying. Instead, the public
Author: Y. Hasegawa
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
Describes practical methodology that is applicable in countries with limited resources. The advantages and disadvantages of different epidemiological approaches are described, and there are references to more detailed sources of information. The language is clear and not technical in order to make the manual a useful resource document for public health officers in the field, who may not have received training in epidemiology. Covers: initial response to reports of a disease outbreak, descriptive stage, analytic stage, intervention stage, resources and support needed, and evaluation stage. Extensive references. Illustrations.
Genes and Environment Traditionally diseases are separated according to their
cause into two categories : hereditary and acquired disorders . In fact these two
groups only define the ends of a spectrum . Most disorders are caused by a ...
Author: Fred H. Menko
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Colorectal cancer is a collective term for a heterogeneous group of diseases. In a large proportion of cases, the condition is attributable to genetic predisposition. Those directly involved in the treatment of patients with cancer of the large bowel are confronted to an increasing degree with the genetic aspects of the disease. In familial and hereditary forms of the disorder periodic screening of the close relatives of the patients can in principle prevent disease and death from colorectal cancer. Presymptomatic diagnosis by means of DNA technology is now possible in many cases of familial adenomatous polyposis. Genetic diagnosis will be increasingly important for the identification of high-risk groups. This book summarizes those aspects of the genetics of colorectal cancer that are important for clinical pracice. It has been stated that clinicians can contribute to the goal of reducing mortality from cancer by asking each patient about his or her family history of cancer. The aim of this book is to provide a guideline for the management of those situations in which the family history of colorectal cancer is found to be positive.
Group II: Cancers for which epidemiological data suggest a relationship to
environment This group includes neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract (stomach
, colon and rectum) and of the endocrine-dependent systems (prostate, breast,
Author: David Evered
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The Novartis Foundation Series is a popular collection of the proceedings from Novartis Foundation Symposia, in which groups of leading scientists from a range of topics across biology, chemistry and medicine assembled to present papers and discuss results. The Novartis Foundation, originally known as the Ciba Foundation, is well known to scientists and clinicians around the world.
There is no doubt that cancer is an environmental disease and it is estimated that
while 5À10% of cancers (and other chronic diseases) can be accounted for by
genetic defects, around 90À95% are due to the environment with the important.
Author: Graham Dellaire
Publisher: Academic Press
Cancer Genomics addresses how recent technological advances in genomics are shaping how we diagnose and treat cancer. Built on the historical context of cancer genetics over the past 30 years, the book provides a snapshot of the current issues and state-of-the-art technologies used in cancer genomics. Subsequent chapters highlight how these approaches have informed our understanding of hereditary cancer syndromes and the diagnosis, treatment and outcome in a variety of adult and pediatric solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. The dramatic increase in cancer genomics research and ever-increasing availability of genomic testing are not without significant ethical issues, which are addressed in the context of the return of research results and the legal considerations underlying the commercialization of genomic discoveries. Finally, the book concludes with "Future Directions", examining the next great challenges to face the field of cancer genomics, namely the contribution of non-coding RNAs to disease pathogenesis and the interaction of the human genome with the environment. Tools such as sidebars, key concept summaries, a glossary, and acronym and abbreviation definitions make this book highly accessible to researchers from several fields associated with cancer genomics. Contributions from thought leaders provide valuable historical perspective to relate the advances in the field to current technologies and literature.
The most common measures of effect are the difference in disease occurrence
between exposed and unexposed and the ratio ... It was estimated that
environmental factors account for 31% of the global disease burden of lung
cancer and 30% ...
Author: Irene A. Kreis
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Essentials of Environmental Epidemiology for Health Protection guides front line public health practitioners through the decisions they are likely to face when dealing with environmental health problems. It does this by showing how to integrate relevant aspects of environmental science, communication sciences, toxicology, and most importantly environmental epidemiology skills to conduct initial investigations which encompass all relevant issues. The book uses a problem orientated style, using case studies, to provide practical examples of how to plan and carry out investigations or research projects. It emphasises the scoping and planning stages of a study in order to avoid common pitfalls, and includes discussions of the limitations of epidemiological studies, how to communicate with the public and funders, ethics and handling large datasets. Through the case studies the book also covers the practice of environmental public health in developed countries. Each chapter is written by knowledgeable practitioners in the topic, making Essentials of Environmental Epidemiology for Health Protection essential reading for all professionals in environmental public health in the UK and abroad.
There are minimal data that identify and quantify the links between environmental
hazards and illhealth, particularly ... However, noncommunicable diseases such
as cancer and heart disease are becoming the dominant causes of death and ...
Author: Naima Bradley
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Environmental public health is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the direct and indirect impact of exposure to environmental hazards on the public's health and wellbeing. Assessing and addressing the risks of chemical, ionising and non-ionising radiation, and noise hazards requires a sound knowledge of toxicology, environmental epidemiology, environmental science, health risk assessment, and public health principles. Essentials of Environmental Science for Public Health provides practical guidance on the technical aspects of environmental and public health investigations. Written by leaders in the field, the authors provide practical, expert advice on a range of topics from key concepts and framework for investigation to contaminated land and waste management. Case studies are used to aid learning and understand of the topics discussed. Produced by Health Protection England, Essentials of Environmental Science for Public Health offers a comprehensive and structured approach to understanding environmental public health issues and will be essential reading for all students and professionals in environmental public health.
The Report of the California Environmental Protection Agency Lauren Zeise, Amy
J. Dunn ... Lung cancer was the first fatal disease linked to ETS, but in recent
years, evidence that ETS exposure causes other major diseases — particularly ...
Author: Lauren Zeise
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
In response to rapidly accumulating evidence that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure causes disease beyond lung cancer & respiratory effects in children, the Calif. Environmental Protection Agency undertook a comprehensive assessment of the total range of health effects correlated with exposure to ETS. Chapters: impact of ETS on the health of Californians; exposure measurement & prevalence; developmental toxicity I: perinatal manifestations; developmental toxicity II: postnatal manifestations; reproductive effects; respiratory health effects; carcinogenic effects; & cardiovascular effects. Dozens of tables & figures.
However , by 1894 , Unna ( 2 ) reported the association of sunlight and epidermal
manifestations including skin cancer . Findley ( 3 ) experimentally produced the
first UV - induced skin cancers in mice in 1928 and epidemiological studies in ...
Author: Jörgen Fuchs
Publisher: CRC Press
This volume illustrates the impact of environmental oxidants on the tissues of the eyes, lungs and skin, as well as on the immune system - highlighting common illnesses, injuries and pathologies induced by pro-oxidant environmental xenobiotics such as inflammation, immune response, signal transduction, regulation of gene expression, and carcinogene
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC 607 250 -5 10 15 20 25
30 35 Table 49.1 ... Breast cancer incidence Breast cancer mortality Gynecologic
cancers Reproductive system infection rates Genetic diseases and other chronic
Author: Marlene B. Goldman
Women and Health is a comprehensive reference which addresses health issues affecting women of all ages--adolescence through maturity. It goes far beyond other books on this topic which concentrate only on reproductive health, and has a truly international perspective. It covers key issues ranging from osteoporosis to breast cancer and other cancers, domestic violence, sexually transmitted diseases, occupational hazards, eating disorders, heart disease and other chronic illnesses, substance abuse, and societal and behavioral influences on health. Women and Health covers not only those conditions that are unique to or occur more frequently in women, but also those that present differently or are treated differently in women. Key Features: * Comprehensive, in-depth review of all aspects of women's health * Highlights key women's health issues including osteoporosis, domestic violence, breast cancer, menopause, infertility, heart disease, and many others * Addresses international women's health issues from a human rights and cultural perspective * Presents the latest research and clinical findings from leaders in their respective fields * Highlights controversies in treatment modalities * Challenges the medical community to address the impact of gender on health * Expands our thinking about the perceptions of disease and disorders in women * Challenges current status quo in health care delivery
... important to differentiate between the two—environmental factors are a “
hypothesized” source of risk. For example, the author of a paper entitled “
Epidemiology of breast cancer: an environmental disease?” explains that the
goal of the paper ...
Publisher: Am Cncl on Science, Health
Science does not support the popular image of traces of chemical contamination elevating the cancer risk of everyone who lives in a neighborhood regardless of where they work, what sort of lives they lead, and what hereditary influences may predispose them to cancer. The absence of conclusive scientific evidence in this area may be partially explained by the myriad challenges that bedevil cancer cluster investigations--challenges that are explored in this report.
Childhood cancer clusters have been the subject of much concern and
investigation because cancer is uncommon among ... This step usually involves
the review of death certificates, cancer incidence databases and other disease
Author: Barbara Sattler, RN, DrPH
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
This is the first book for nurses on how the environment affects nursing practice. Nurses should be concerned with environmental issues for two reasons: 1. Many diseases (such as asthma, lead poisoning, and some cancers) are caused by exposures to toxins in the environment; and 2. Hospitals themselves are sources of pollutants, through release of mercury and dioxin (a byproduct of incinerating plastic PVC products). The book includes information on basic environmental health principles and common environmental health hazards (e.g., in our water, air, schools, hospitals, and homes). It offers a patient assessment tool for exposure to these hazards and strategies for ìgreenerî use of hospital resources. This is both a nursing textbook and a practice manual.
If this non-specific abnormality was excluded, the sensitivity of thin-section CT for
detection of beryllium disease was 75%. ... 10.5 Beryllium and Lung Cancer
Animal studies have demonstrated that beryllium can induce cancer in a number
Author: Pierre Alain Gevenois
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Offers a comprehensive approach to modern imaging of environmental and occupational diseases of the chest Pays particular attention to the role of computed tomography in the detection of early subclinical abnormalities Considers new groups of workers at risk of exposure to agents that may cause pneumoconiosis Written by internationally acclaimed experts
Cancer Elizabeth M. Ward C. ancer encompasses a broad spectrum of diseases
that arise in various organs and tissues throughout the body and have in
common the uncontrolled growth of abnormal and potentially lethal cells that lose
Author: Barry S. Levy
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
This thoroughly updated Fifth Edition is a comprehensive, practical guide to recognizing, preventing, and treating work-related and environmentally-induced injuries and diseases. Chapters by experts in medicine, industry, labor, government, safety, ergonomics, environmental health, and psychology address the full range of clinical and public health concerns. Numerous case studies, photographs, drawings, graphs, and tables help readers understand key concepts. This edition features new chapters on environmental health, including water pollution, hazardous waste, global environmental hazards, the role of nongovernmental organizations in environmental health, and responding to community environmental health concerns. Other new chapters cover conducting workplace investigations and assessing and enforcing compliance with health and safety regulations.