The unique feature of this handbook is that it provides practical guidance on carbon inventory methods for four kinds of projects, namely, 1) development, implementation and monitoring of carbon mitigation in forest, agriculture and ...
Author: N.H. Ravindranath
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Carbon Inventory Methods Handbook fills the need for a handbook that provides guidelines and methods required for carbon inventory. It provides detailed step-by-step information on sampling procedures, field and laboratory measurements, application of remote sensing and GIS techniques, modeling, and calculation procedures along with sources of data for carbon inventory. The book is driven by a growing need for ‘carbon inventory’ for land use sections such as forests.
Didion M, Thürig E (2017) Data on soil carbon stock change, carbon stock and
stock change in surface litter and in coarse deadwood ... FOEN (Federal Office for
the Environment) (2017) Switzerland's greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2015.
Author: Christoph Fischer
Publisher: Springer Nature
The Swiss National Forest Inventory (NFI) is a forest survey on national level which started in 1982 and has already reached its 5th survey cycle (NFI5). It can be characterized as a multisource and multipurpose inventory where information is mainly collected from terrestrial field surveys using permanent sample plots. In addition, data from aerial photography, GIS and forest service questionnaires are also included. The NFI's main objective is to provide statistically reliable and sound figures to stakeholders such as politicians, researchers, ecologists, forest service, timber industry, national and international organizations as well as to international projects such as the Forest Resources Assessment of the United Nations. For Switzerland, NFI results are typically reported on national and regional level. State of the art methods are applied in all fields of data collection which have been proven to be of international interest and have even served as a basis for other European NFIs. The presented methods are applicable to any sample based forest inventory around the globe. In 2001 the Swiss NFI published its methods for the first time. Since then, many methodological changes and improvements have been introduced. This book describes the complete set of methods and revisions since NFI2. It covers various topics ranging from inventory design and statistics to remote sensing, field survey methods and modelling. It also describes data quality concepts and the software framework used for data storage, statistical analysis and result presentation.
The book establishes the need for standardized methods that can be used by anyone, and helps us better understand the link between the pedosphere (soils) and the atmosphere.
Author: John M. Kimble
Publisher: CRC Press
Since carbon sequestration in soils reduces the amount of carbon available to the atmosphere, the Kyoto Protocols have heightened interest in soil carbon pools and their effect on carbon fluxes. Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon addresses many of the questions related to the measurement, monitoring, and verification of organic and inorganic carbon in soils. The major topics covered are: carbon pools; soil sampling and preparation, analytical techniques for soil carbon; soil erosion and sedimentation; remote sensing, GIS and modeling; procedures for scaling carbon data from point and local measurements to regional and even national scales; and economic and policy issues. In Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon, leading researchers show that we now have the ability to measure, monitor, and verify changes to soil carbon. The book establishes the need for standardized methods that can be used by anyone, and helps us better understand the link between the pedosphere (soils) and the atmosphere. It also shows the importance of developing links between the economics of carbon sequestration and the amounts sequestered, and highlights the need for scientists and policy makers to interact to ensure that policies fit within the scope of present technologies.
Estimates of forest ecosystem carbon as reported here are based on the stock-
change method, which uses forest inventory data to produce a series of
successive carbon stock estimates for an individual state, for example (Penman
et al. 2003 ...
Author: William Hohenstein
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
In 2008, agricultural greenhouse gas sources accounted for about 6% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2008 was developed to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contribution of U.S. agriculture and forestry to greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. It provides extensive, in-depth emissions and sinks estimates for livestock, cropland, and forests, as well as energy consumption in livestock and cropland agriculture. Estimates are provided at State, regional, and national scales, categorized by land ownership and management practices where possible. Charts and tables. This is a print on demand edition of an important, hard-to-find publication.
FAO, Rome MacDicken KG (1997) A guide to monitoring carbon storage in
forestry and agroforestry projects. ... Agric Ecosyst Environ 47:237–264
Ravindranath NH, Ostwald M (2008) Carbon inventory methods: handbook for
Author: Todd S. Rosenstock
This book provides standards and guidelines for quantifying greenhouse gas emissions and removals in smallholder agricultural systems and comparing options for climate change mitigation based on emission reductions and livelihood trade-offs. Globally, agriculture is directly responsible for about 11% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and induces an additional 17% through land use change, mostly in developing countries. Farms in the developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are predominately managed by smallholders, with 80% of land holdings smaller than ten hectares. However, little to no information exists on greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potentials in smallholder agriculture. Greenhouse gas measurements in agriculture are expensive, time consuming, and error prone, challenges only exacerbated by the heterogeneity of smallholder systems and landscapes. Concerns over methodological rigor, measurement costs, and the diversity of approaches, coupled with the demand for robust information suggest it is germane for the scientific community to establish standards of measurements for quantifying GHG emissions from smallholder agriculture. Standard guidelines for use by scientists, development organizations will help generate reliable data on emissions baselines and allow rigorous comparisons of mitigation options. The guidelines described in this book, developed by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS) and partners, are intended to inform anyone conducting field measurements of agricultural greenhouse gas sources and sinks, especially to develop IPCC Tier 2 emission factors or to compare mitigation options in smallholder systems.
GHG Inventory Methodology Utilized by Cities Guidelines for National
Greenhouse Gas Inventories GHG Protocol—Corporate Standard Bilan Carbone
—Methodological Guide for Companies and Local Authorities Greenhouse Gas (
Author: Jinyue Yan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The Handbook of Clean Energy Systems brings together an international team of experts to present a comprehensive overview of the latest research, developments and practical applications throughout all areas of clean energy systems. Consolidating information which is currently scattered across a wide variety of literature sources, the handbook covers a broad range of topics in this interdisciplinary research field including both fossil and renewable energy systems. The development of intelligent energy systems for efficient energy processes and mitigation technologies for the reduction of environmental pollutants is explored in depth, and environmental, social and economic impacts are also addressed. Topics covered include: Volume 1 - Renewable Energy: Biomass resources and biofuel production; Bioenergy Utilization; Solar Energy; Wind Energy; Geothermal Energy; Tidal Energy. Volume 2 - Clean Energy Conversion Technologies: Steam/Vapor Power Generation; Gas Turbines Power Generation; Reciprocating Engines; Fuel Cells; Cogeneration and Polygeneration. Volume 3 - Mitigation Technologies: Carbon Capture; Negative Emissions System; Carbon Transportation; Carbon Storage; Emission Mitigation Technologies; Efficiency Improvements and Waste Management; Waste to Energy. Volume 4 - Intelligent Energy Systems: Future Electricity Markets; Diagnostic and Control of Energy Systems; New Electric Transmission Systems; Smart Grid and Modern Electrical Systems; Energy Efficiency of Municipal Energy Systems; Energy Efficiency of Industrial Energy Systems; Consumer Behaviors; Load Control and Management; Electric Car and Hybrid Car; Energy Efficiency Improvement. Volume 5 - Energy Storage: Thermal Energy Storage; Chemical Storage; Mechanical Storage; Electrochemical Storage; Integrated Storage Systems. Volume 6 - Sustainability of Energy Systems: Sustainability Indicators, Evaluation Criteria, and Reporting; Regulation and Policy; Finance and Investment; Emission Trading; Modeling and Analysis of Energy Systems; Energy vs. Development; Low Carbon Economy; Energy Efficiencies and Emission Reduction. Key features: Comprising over 3,500 pages in 6 volumes, HCES presents a comprehensive overview of the latest research, developments and practical applications throughout all areas of clean energy systems, consolidating a wealth of information which is currently scattered across a wide variety of literature sources. In addition to renewable energy systems, HCES also covers processes for the efficient and clean conversion of traditional fuels such as coal, oil and gas, energy storage systems, mitigation technologies for the reduction of environmental pollutants, and the development of intelligent energy systems. Environmental, social and economic impacts of energy systems are also addressed in depth. Published in full colour throughout. Fully indexed with cross referencing within and between all six volumes. Edited by leading researchers from academia and industry who are internationally renowned and active in their respective fields. Published in print and online. The online version is a single publication (i.e. no updates), available for one-time purchase or through annual subscription.
Measuring tropical forest carbon stocks VALERIO AVITABILE 3.1 Defining
tropical forest carbon stocks The forest carbon ... N. H. Ravindranath and M.
Ostwald, Carbon Inventory Methods, Handbookfor Greenhouse Gas Inventory,
Author: Rosemary Lyster
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Emerging from the scientific parameters underpinning REDD+ (including the measurement of carbon stocks, reporting and verification), Law, Tropical Forests and Carbon considers the crucial challenges for global and national governance and the legal rights and interests of indigenous people and local communities, all of which have fundamental implications for development and poverty alleviation. With contributions from leading experts in the fields of law, governance, science, development studies and geography, it sheds light on the complexity of REDD+ and offers perspectives on the extent to which REDD+ agreements can be enforced under international law and in concert with new private and public domestic institutions.
Second, the methods treat all biomass removed from “managed forests and other
woody biomass stocks” as an emission in the inventory year, rather than explicitly
tracking the decay of wood products. This simplification is based on the ...
Author: John F. Fitzgerald
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
As atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases continue to increase, so does the potential for atmospheric warming and associated climate change. In an effort to address the threat of global climate change, 155 countries signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. As of the first session of the Conference of the Parties, 128 nations had ratified the Convention. Among their other commitments, Parties to the Convention must develop and periodically update national inventories of net anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions using comparable methodologies, and must develop and implement national programs to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. To further the development of emission inventories and mitigation options within the African context, 64 governmental and non-governmental scientists and policy analysts from 23 nations gathered at a workshop near Johannesburg, South Africa from 29 May to 2 June 1995. The workshop focused on forestry, land-use change, and agriculture, because these sectors not only are responsible for the majority of emissions from the continent and provide promising opportunities for emissions mitigation, but also are a vital component of African economic growth and development. This book presents the workshop's major conclusions and findings, as well as individual papers that were prepared for the workshop, each of which was peer-reviewed and accepted for publication as part of the workshop process. The papers cover four areas: (1) issues are associated with data collection and emission factor determination; (2) problems associated with applying the IPCC inventory methodologies in Africa; (3) results of national inventory assessments in Africa; and (4) possible emissions mitigation options and methods for evaluating their potential viability. As the first book dedicated solely to greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation options in Africa, this will be an invaluable resource to scientists, policymakers, and development specialists interested in global climate change and Africa.
Biomass list method 5 1 2 5 1 4 67 Eddy Correlation method 2 2 2 5 5 1 51 Eddy
Covariance method 0 2 1 4 3 2 34 ... Carbon Inventory Methods: Handbook for
Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Carbon Mitigation and Roundwood Production ...
Author: Helen Zhang
Publisher: Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters CPCI-S (WoS). In these proceedings are to be found original ideas and new angles on aspects of Engineering Materials, Energy Management and Control. They are the result of a forum where researchers could exchange their innovative ideas from new viewpoints. These proceedings will provide valuable guidance to scientists, physicists, chemists, teachers and others, world-wide.
Initial demonstrations of flux upscaling in forest ecosystems exist, as well as initial
comparisons to inventory methods. Research concerning the design of the
landscape- scale forest carbon cycle measurement network required for effective
Author: Coeli M Hoover
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
In the summer of 2003, a workshop was held in Portsmouth, NH, to discuss land measurement techniques for the North American Carbon Program. Over 40 sci- tists representing government agencies, academia and nonprofit research organi- tions located in Canada, the US and Mexico participated. During the course of the workshop a number of topics were discussed, with an emphasis on the following: • The need for an intermediate tier of carbon measurements. This level of study would be more extensive than state-level inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, but less detailed than intensive ecos- tem studies sites such as those in Long Term Ecological Research network. This tier would ideally provide a basis to link and scale remote sensing measurements and inventory data, and supply data required to parameterize existing models (see Wofsy and Harriss 2002, Denning et al. 2005). • The design criteria that such a network of sites should meet. The network and s- pling design should be standardized, but flexible enough to be applied across North America. The design also needs to be efficient enough to be implemented without the need for large field crews, yet robust enough to provide useful information. Finally, the spatial scale must permit easy linkage to remotely sensed data. • The key variables that should be measured at each site, and the frequency of measurement.
the project level it is recommended to apply higher- tier methods, based on field
measurements or field measurements in combination ... The Stock-Difference
Method requires carbon stock inventories for a given land area at 2 points in time.
" ... the reference guide introduces the basic guidance on the most relevant aspects of REDD+ projects provided by 3 well-established standards deemed to be the most representative of their kind: the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) ... the Plan Vivo System ... and the Climate, Community and Biodiversity Project Design Standards (CCB)
Dr. Birdsey is a specialist in quantitative methods for large-scale forest
inventories and was a pioneer in the development of methods to estimate
national carbon budgets for forestlands from forest inventory data. Working with
Dr. Linda Heath ...
Author: John M. Kimble
Publisher: CRC Press
Much attention has been given to above ground biomass and its potential as a carbon sink, but in a mature forest ecosystem 40 to 60 percent of the stored carbon is below ground. As increasing numbers of forests are managed in a wide diversity of climates and soils, the importance of forest soils as a potential carbon sink grows. The Potenti
... of the major GHGs (carbon dioxide (CO) and methane(CH.); determine the
activity levels and the features of main sources; modify the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Methodology to establish an inventory
Author: Barbara V. Braatz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
International concern for the continued growth of greenhouse gas emissions, and the potentially damaging consequences of resultant global climate change, led to the signing of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by 155 nations at the Earth Summit in June 1992. The Convention came into force on 21 March 1994, three months after receiving its 50th ratification. All Parties to the Convention are required to compile, periodically update, and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks using comparable methodologies. In support of this process, the US Country Studies Program (US CSP) is providing financial and technical assistance to 56 developing and transition countries for conducting national inventories. This book presents the results of preliminary national inventories prepared by countries participating in the US CSP that are ready to share their interim findings. In some cases, inventories were prepared with support from other organizations. Preliminary inventories of twenty countries in Africa, Asia, Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States, and Latin America are presented, as well as regional and global syntheses of the national results. The regional and global syntheses also discuss results of eleven other preliminary national inventories that have been published elsewhere with the assistance of other programs. Results are discussed in the context of national and regional socioeconomic characteristics, and the regional and global syntheses compare national inventory estimates to other published estimates that are based largely on international databases. Papers also discuss inventory development issues, such as data collection and emission factor determination, and problems associated with applying the IPCC inventory methodologies. The preliminary inventory results reported here represent significant progress towards meeting country commitments under the Framework Convention, and provide useful information for refining international greenhouse gas emission databases and improving inventory methodologies. As the first book to compile national greenhouse gas emission estimates prepared by national experts in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, this will be an invaluable resource to scientists, policymakers, and development specialists in national, regional and global anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.
In presence of the lateral transport, one can write that Ecosystem CO budget
Ecosystem carbon budget 2 = (16.1) Lateral carbon flux + Bottom-up inventory
methods measure the carbon budget (first right hand term), while eddy
Author: Han Dolman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book assesses the current greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring capabilities of Europe, identifies and quantifies the uncertainties involved, and outlines the direction to a continental scale GHG monitoring network. The book uniquely addresses both the methodology of carbon cycle science and the science itself, providing a synthesis of carbon cycle science. The methods included provide the first comprehensive coverage of a full GHG accounting and monitoring system.
Methods to Support International Climate Agreements National Research
Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and
... This chapter describes current practices for developing greenhouse gas
Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
The world's nations are moving toward agreements that will bind us together in an effort to limit future greenhouse gas emissions. With such agreements will come the need for all nations to make accurate estimates of greenhouse gas emissions and to monitor changes over time. In this context, the present book focuses on the greenhouse gases that result from human activities, have long lifetimes in the atmosphere and thus will change global climate for decades to millennia or more, and are currently included in international agreements. The book devotes considerably more space to CO2 than to the other gases because CO2 is the largest single contributor to global climate change and is thus the focus of many mitigation efforts. Only data in the public domain were considered because public access and transparency are necessary to build trust in a climate treaty. The book concludes that each country could estimate fossil-fuel CO2 emissions accurately enough to support monitoring of a climate treaty. However, current methods are not sufficiently accurate to check these self-reported estimates against independent data or to estimate other greenhouse gas emissions. Strategic investments would, within 5 years, improve reporting of emissions by countries and yield a useful capability for independent verification of greenhouse gas emissions reported by countries.