Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

This volume presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product ...

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466598239

Page: 374

View: 537

One of the largest food commodities exported from the developing countries to the rest of the world, cocoa has gained increasing attention on the global market—raising many questions about its quality, sustainability and traceability. Cocoa Production and Processing Technology presents detailed explanations of the technologies that could be employed to assure sustainable production of high-quality and safe cocoa beans for the global confectionary industry. It provides overviews of up-to-date technologies and approaches to modern cocoa production practices, global production and consumption trends as well as principles of cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture. The book covers the origin, history and taxonomy of cocoa, and examines the fairtrade and organic cocoa industries and their influence on smallholder farmers. The chapters provide in-depth coverage of cocoa cultivation, harvesting and post-harvest treatments with a focus on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations and their influence on quality, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation techniques, drying, storage and transportation. The author provides details on cocoa fermentation processes as well as the biochemical and microbiological changes involved and how they influence flavour. He also addresses cocoa trading systems, bean selection and quality criteria, as well as industrial processing of fermented and dried cocoa beans into liquor, cake, butter and powder. The book examines the general principles of chocolate manufacture, detailing the various stages of the processes involved, the factors that influence the quality characteristics and strategies to avoid post-processing quality defects. This volume presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product quality.

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

This book presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product ...

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

Author: Raj Patil

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781681170299

Page: 329

View: 336

This book presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product quality. Cocoa trees resemble English apple trees. They grow best under the canopy of tropical rainforests, seldom reaching more than 7.5 metres (25 feet) high. To flourish they need to be shaded from direct sun and wind, particularly in the early growth stages.

Cocoa

Attractively presented, with full-colour illustrations, tables and step-by-step guides, the text clearly sets out the procedure to start growing cocoa.

Cocoa

Author: Edoh Adabe, K.

Publisher: CTA

ISBN: 9290815663

Page:

View: 438

A highly nutritious crop, cocoa constitutes a significant source of income for small-scale producers. Attractively presented, with full-colour illustrations, tables and step-by-step guides, the text clearly sets out the procedure to start growing cocoa. In addition to recommending a technical schedule for the production of cocoa plants, the guide stresses the importance of phytosanitary protection and post-harvest operations. Useful advice and economic information on the sector is also given in later chapters.

Drying Atlas

[21] M.N. Clifford, Coffee: Botany, Biochemistry and Production of Beans and
Beverage, Croom Helm Publisher, London (UK), 1985. [22] E.O. Afoakwa, Cocoa
Production and Processing Technology, CRC Press, Boca Raton FL (USA), 2014
.

Drying Atlas

Author: Werner Muhlbauer

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 012818163X

Page: 446

View: 890

Drying Atlas: Drying Kinetics and Quality of Agricultural Products provides, in a condensed and systematic way, specific insights on the drying-relevant properties and coefficients of over 40 agricultural products. It also presents information about the production methods that influence the drying process, the quality of the dried product, the official quality standards of the products, and the design principles and operating characteristics of drying systems that are widely used in the postharvest processing and food industry. Available books on drying technology mainly focus on drying theory and simulation of drying processes. This book offers systematic information on the impact of other important parameters, such as relative humidity, air flow rate, mechanical, thermal and chemical pre-treatment, and drying mode for specific products. It is a unique and valuable reference for scientists and engineers who want to focus on industrial drying applications and dryers, as well as graduate and post-graduate students in postharvest technology and drying. Explores the production methods that influence the drying process and quality of the dried product Outlines the official quality standards of the products, the design principles, and the operating characteristics of drying systems that are used in postharvest processing Features 41 chapters that are (each for an agricultural product) presented in a condensed and systematic way

Chocolate Cocoa and Confectionery Science and Technology

Recognised as the industry standard, this definitive guide provides a comprehensive review of chocolate and confectionary production and processing operations.

Chocolate  Cocoa and Confectionery  Science and Technology

Author: Bernard W. Minifie

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780834213012

Page: 904

View: 673

Recognised as the industry standard, this definitive guide provides a comprehensive review of chocolate and confectionary production and processing operations. The technical and scientific aspects of the various manufacturing procedures are emphasized: formulations and recipes are used as needed to supplement explanations and to advance understanding of a particular process. Other areas include raw materials, emulsifiers, replacers and compounds, ingredients, sweeteners, starches and colors, applied methods, food value, packaging and entomology.

Cocoa Chocolate and Human Health

Conclusions A diversity of metabolites has been identified in urine and plasma
after consumption of cocoa or cocoa derived ... Afoakwa, E.O. Cocoa Production
and Processing Technology; CRC Press, Taylor & Francis: Boca Raton, FL, USA,
 ...

Cocoa  Chocolate and Human Health

Author: Sabine Ellinger

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 3039285882

Page: 288

View: 228

This book entitled “Cocoa, Chocolate, and Human Health” presents the most recent findings about cocoa and health in 14 peer-reviewed chapters including nine original contributions and five reviews from cocoa experts around the world. Bioavailability and metabolism of the main cocoa polyphenols, i.e., the flavanols like epicatechin, are presented including metabolites like valerolactones that are formed by the gut microbiome. Many studies, including intervention studies or epidemiological observations, do not focus on single compounds, but on cocoa as a whole. This proves the effectiveness of cocoa as a functional food. A positive influence of cocoa on hearing problems, exercise performance, and metabolic syndrome is discussed with mixed results; the results about exercise performance are contradictive. Evidence shows that cocoa flavanols may modulate some risk factors related to metabolic syndrome such as hypertension and disorders in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, several cardiometabolic parameters in type 2 diabetics were not affected by a flavanol-rich cocoa powder as simultaneous treatment with pharmaceuticals might have negated the effect of cocoa. The putative health-promoting components of cocoa are altered during processing like fermentation, drying, and roasting of cocoa beans. Chocolate, the most popular cocoa product, shows remarkable losses in polyphenols and vitamin E during 18 months of storage.

Beverages Processing and Technology

The cocoa tree flourishes in the dense shade of warm rain forests in its natural
habitat and hence can be cultivated in all similar climatic ... The techniques used
in cocoa production, processing and consumption etc have also been described.

Beverages   Processing and Technology

Author: D. Mudgil

Publisher: Scientific Publishers

ISBN: 9387991725

Page: 302

View: 376

The objective of this book is to provide complete course content of beverage processing related subjects in ICAR, CSIR and UGC institutions in Food Technology, Dairy Technology, Food & Nutrition, Post Harvest Technology, Agricultural and Food Process Engineering discipline. The book contains fourteen chapters on the topics such as Introduction to Beverages, Role of Ingredients and Additives in Beverages, Fruit Juice Processing, Processing of Specific Fruits & Vegetables Juices, Cereal Based Beverages, Soft Carbonated Beverages, Alcoholic Beverages, Dairy Based Beverages, Sports Beverages, Tea Processing, Technology of Coffee Manufacture, Cocoa and Chocolate Based Beverages, Packaging of Beverages & Functional Beverages. The content of the book will be helpful for B.Tech, M.Tech, M.Sc. & Ph.D. students of above mentioned disciplines. These topics will also be helpful for the students preparing for competitive exams.

Chocolate Science and Technology

This second edition provides information on recent advances in the science and technology of chocolate manufacture and the entire international cocoa industry.

Chocolate Science and Technology

Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118913760

Page: 536

View: 387

This second edition provides information on recent advances in the science and technology of chocolate manufacture and the entire international cocoa industry. It provides detailed review on a wide range of topics including cocoa production, cocoa and chocolate manufacturing operations, sensory perception of chocolate quality, flavour release and perception, sugar replacement and alternative sweetening solutions in chocolate production, industrial manufacture of sugar-free chocolates as well as the nutrition and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption. The topics cover modern cocoa cultivation and production practices with special attention on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations in the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying processes, and the biochemical basis of these operations. The scientific principles behind industrial chocolate manufacture are outlined with detailed explanations of the various stages of chocolate manufacturing including mixing, refining, conching and tempering. Other topics covered include the chemistry of flavour formation and development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture; volatile flavour compounds and their characteristics and identification; sensory descriptions and character; and flavour release and perception in chocolate. The nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption as well as the application of HACCP and other food safety management systems such as ISO 22,000 in the chocolate processing industry are also addressed. Additionally, detailed research on the influence of different raw materials and processing operations on the flavour and other quality characteristics of chocolates have been provided with scope for process optimization and improvement. The book is intended to be a desk reference for all those engaged in the business of making and using chocolate worldwide; confectionery and chocolate scientists in industry and academia; students and practising food scientists and technologists; nutritionists and other health professionals; and libraries of institutions where agriculture, food science and nutrition is studied and researched.

Food Technology

To create the desired finished , product manufacturers need to know about cocoa
( the raw material ) , how it is made into chocolate and the correct processing
techniques . Cocoa Production Cocoa comes from the beans of the tropical
cocoa ...

Food Technology

Author: Jill Robinson

Publisher: Nelson Thornes

ISBN: 9780748760848

Page: 168

View: 552

This text has been revised to cover 2001 GCSE specifications for the National Curriculum. It has increased emphasis on CAD-CAM, ICT, industrial practice and environmental issues.

The Science of Chocolate

Covers the history, ingredients, and processing techniques used in the manufacture of chocolate.

The Science of Chocolate

Author: S. Beckett

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9780854046003

Page: 175

View: 459

Covers the history, ingredients, and processing techniques used in the manufacture of chocolate.

Nutraceutical and Functional Food Processing Technology

Changes of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in cocoa beans
processing. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 46(9): 1793–
1800. REFERENCES 305 Kalt, W. (2005). Effects of production and processing
Trim ...

Nutraceutical and Functional Food Processing Technology

Author: Joyce I. Boye

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118504976

Page: 400

View: 847

For several years, the food industry has been interested inidentifying components in foods which have health benefits to beused in the development of functional food and nutraceuticalproducts. Examples of these ingredients include fibre,phytosterols, peptides, proteins, isoflavones, saponins, phyticacid, probiotics, prebiotics and functional enzymes. Although muchprogress has been made in the identification, extraction andcharacterisation of these ingredients, there remains a need forready and near-market platform technologies for processing theseingredients into marketable value-added functional food andnutraceutical products. This book looks at how these ingredientscan be effectively incorporated into food systems for market, andprovides practical guidelines on how challenges in specific foodsectors (such as health claims and marketing) can be addressedduring processing. Nutraceutical and Functional Food Processing Technologyis a comprehensive overview of current and emerging trends in theformulation and manufacture of nutraceutical and functional foodproducts. It highlights the distinctions between foods falling intothe nutraceutical and functional food categories. Topics includesustainable and environmentally–friendly approaches to theproduction of health foods, guidelines and regulations, and methodsfor assessing safety and quality of nutraceutical and functionalfood products. Specific applications of nutraceuticals in emulsionand salad dressing food products, beverages and soft drinks, bakedgoods, cereals and extruded products, fermented food products arecovered, as are novel food proteins and peptides, and methods forencapsulated nutraceutical ingredients and packaging. The impact ofprocessing on the bioactivity of nutraceutical ingredients,allergen management and the processing of allergen-free foods,health claims and nutraceutical food product commercialization arealso discussed. Nutraceutical and Functional Food Processing Technologyis a comprehensive source of practical approaches that can be usedto innovate in the nutraceutical and health food sectors. Fullyup-to-date and relevant across various food sectors, the book willbenefit both academia and industry personnel working in the healthfood and food processing sectors.

Cocoa and Coffee Fermentations

EMMANUEL OHENE AFOAKWA Contents 7.1 Introduction 272 7.2 Cocoa
Processing Technology 274 7.2.1 Bean ... Liquor Production 279 7.2.7 Liquor
Pressing 280 7.2.8 Cake Grinding (Kibbling) 280 7.2.9 Cocoa Powder Production
280 7.3 ...

Cocoa and Coffee Fermentations

Author: Rosane F. Schwan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439847932

Page: 633

View: 273

Cocoa and coffee beans are some of the most traded agricultural commodities on international markets. Combined, they provide raw materials for a global industry valued in excess of $250 billion. Despite this, few people know that microorganisms and microbial fermentation play key roles in their production and can have major impacts on product quality, safety, and value. Cocoa and Coffee Fermentations explores the scientific principles behind cocoa and coffee fermentation. The book covers botanical and production backgrounds, methods of bean fermentation and drying, microbial ecology and activities of fermentation, the biochemistry of fermentation, product quality and safety, and waste utilization. The book aims to optimize cocoa and coffee processing based on scientific evidence to enhance traditional processing methods that often give rise to inefficiencies and inconsistencies in product quality. It also aims to provide a better understanding of the complex microbial ecology in cocoa and coffee fermentations which involve interactions between species of yeasts, bacteria, and filamentous fungi. Cocoa and Coffee Fermentations hopes to inspire further research linking the microbiology and biochemistry of cocoa and coffee bean fermentations with the development of better controlled fermentations, implementation of quality assurance programs, and ultimately improvement of the sensory attributes of the final product.

Food Processing Technology

In bread and cocoa, the subsequent unit operations of baking and roasting
produce the characteristic aromas. ... on the number and type of new enzymes
that are available for use in food processing or production of specialist
ingredients.

Food Processing Technology

Author: P.J. Fellows

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849308871

Page: 608

View: 772

The first edition of Food Processing Technology was quickly adopted as the standard text by many food science and technology courses. While keeping with the practice of covering the wide range of food processing techniques, this new edition has been substantially expanded to take account of the advances in technology that have taken place since the publication of the first edition. The Second Edition includes new chapters on computer control of processing, novel 'minimal' technologies, and Ohmic heating, and an extended chapter on modified atmosphere packaging. It is a comprehensive - yet basic - text that offers an overview of most unit operations, while at the same time providing details of the processing equipment, operating conditions and the effects of processing on the biochemistry of foods. The book is divided into five parts, in which unit operations are grouped according to the nature of the heat transfer that takes place. Each chapter describes the formulae required for calculation of processing parameters, sample problems, and the effects on sensory characteristics and nutritional properties of selected foods. By combining food processing theory and calculations with descriptions of commercial practice and results of scientific studies, Food Processing Technology: Principles and Practice, Second Edition helps readers make attractive saleable products and extend the shelf-life of foods.

Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies

Kimura, Y. and Teraunchi, M. (1999) Process for producing granular cocoa. ... H.
and Haug, M.E. (2004) Spray-dried soluble instant powder and instant powder
beverage for producing beverages and corresponding production method.

Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies

Author: Suvendu Bhattacharya

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118406303

Page: 744

View: 992

Food processing technologies are an essential link in the food chain. These technologies are many and varied, changing in popularity with changing consumption patterns and product popularity. Newer process technologies are also being evolved to provide the added advantages. Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies fuses the practical (application, machinery), theoretical (model, equation) and cutting-edge (recent trends), making it ideal for industrial, academic and reference use. It consists of two sections, one covering conventional or well-established existing processes and the other covering emerging or novel process technologies that are expected to be employed in the near future for the processing of foods in the commercial sector. All are examined in great detail, considering their current and future applications with added examples and the very latest data. Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies is a comprehensive treatment of the current state of knowledge on food processing technology. In its extensive coverage, and the selection of reputed research scientists who have contributed to each topic, this book will be a definitive text in this field for students, food professionals and researchers.

Proceedings of the World Conference on Lauric Oils

The Fractionation of Lauric Oil Components for Cocoa Butter Substitutes Soon
Wong Atlanto Sdn Bhd , 25B Jalan ss 15 / 8A ... The Production of Fatty Alcohols
and Their Amino Derivatives from ... by an automated press process ( 3-11 ) ,
physical separation by molecular still distillation techniques , physical separation
by ...

Proceedings of the World Conference on Lauric Oils

Author: Thomas H. Applewhite

Publisher: The American Oil Chemists Society

ISBN: 9780935315561

Page: 178

View: 347

These proceedings contain the text of plenary sessions and papers from poster sessions at the World Conference held in February 1994. In addition to sources, processing, and applications, the papers also address aspects of the marketing and economics of lauric oils. Among the specific topics: quality aspects of shipping and handling lauric oils and oleochemicals; the development and commercialization of high-lauric rapeseed oil; catalytic hydrogenation of lauric oils and fatty acids; and health effects of lauric oils compared to unsaturated vegetable oils. No index. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR