This volume presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product ...
Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa
Publisher: CRC Press
One of the largest food commodities exported from the developing countries to the rest of the world, cocoa has gained increasing attention on the global market—raising many questions about its quality, sustainability and traceability. Cocoa Production and Processing Technology presents detailed explanations of the technologies that could be employed to assure sustainable production of high-quality and safe cocoa beans for the global confectionary industry. It provides overviews of up-to-date technologies and approaches to modern cocoa production practices, global production and consumption trends as well as principles of cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture. The book covers the origin, history and taxonomy of cocoa, and examines the fairtrade and organic cocoa industries and their influence on smallholder farmers. The chapters provide in-depth coverage of cocoa cultivation, harvesting and post-harvest treatments with a focus on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations and their influence on quality, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation techniques, drying, storage and transportation. The author provides details on cocoa fermentation processes as well as the biochemical and microbiological changes involved and how they influence flavour. He also addresses cocoa trading systems, bean selection and quality criteria, as well as industrial processing of fermented and dried cocoa beans into liquor, cake, butter and powder. The book examines the general principles of chocolate manufacture, detailing the various stages of the processes involved, the factors that influence the quality characteristics and strategies to avoid post-processing quality defects. This volume presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product quality.
This book presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product ...
Author: Raj Patil
This book presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product quality. Cocoa trees resemble English apple trees. They grow best under the canopy of tropical rainforests, seldom reaching more than 7.5 metres (25 feet) high. To flourish they need to be shaded from direct sun and wind, particularly in the early growth stages.
Attractively presented, with full-colour illustrations, tables and step-by-step guides, the text clearly sets out the procedure to start growing cocoa.
Author: Edoh Adabe, K.
A highly nutritious crop, cocoa constitutes a significant source of income for small-scale producers. Attractively presented, with full-colour illustrations, tables and step-by-step guides, the text clearly sets out the procedure to start growing cocoa. In addition to recommending a technical schedule for the production of cocoa plants, the guide stresses the importance of phytosanitary protection and post-harvest operations. Useful advice and economic information on the sector is also given in later chapters.
 M.N. Clifford, Coffee: Botany, Biochemistry and Production of Beans and
Beverage, Croom Helm Publisher, London (UK), 1985.  E.O. Afoakwa, Cocoa
Production and Processing Technology, CRC Press, Boca Raton FL (USA), 2014
Author: Werner Muhlbauer
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
Drying Atlas: Drying Kinetics and Quality of Agricultural Products provides, in a condensed and systematic way, specific insights on the drying-relevant properties and coefficients of over 40 agricultural products. It also presents information about the production methods that influence the drying process, the quality of the dried product, the official quality standards of the products, and the design principles and operating characteristics of drying systems that are widely used in the postharvest processing and food industry. Available books on drying technology mainly focus on drying theory and simulation of drying processes. This book offers systematic information on the impact of other important parameters, such as relative humidity, air flow rate, mechanical, thermal and chemical pre-treatment, and drying mode for specific products. It is a unique and valuable reference for scientists and engineers who want to focus on industrial drying applications and dryers, as well as graduate and post-graduate students in postharvest technology and drying. Explores the production methods that influence the drying process and quality of the dried product Outlines the official quality standards of the products, the design principles, and the operating characteristics of drying systems that are used in postharvest processing Features 41 chapters that are (each for an agricultural product) presented in a condensed and systematic way
This book provides an overview of the science and technology of chocolate manufacture from cocoa production, through the manufacturing processes, to the sensory, nutrition and health aspects of chocolate consumption.
Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This book provides an overview of the science and technology of chocolate manufacture from cocoa production, through the manufacturing processes, to the sensory, nutrition and health aspects of chocolate consumption. It covers cocoa cultivation and production with special attention paid to cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations in the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying processes, and the biochemical basis of these operations. The scientific principles behind industrial chocolate manufacture are outlined with detailed explanations of the various stages of chocolate manufacturing including mixing, refining, conching and tempering. Other topics covered include the chemistry of flavour formation and development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture; volatile flavour compounds and their characteristics and identification; sensory descriptions and character; and flavour release and perception in chocolate. The nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption are also addressed. There is a focus throughout on those factors that influence the flavour and quality characteristics of the finished chocolate and that provide scope for process optimization and improvement. The book is designed to be a desk reference for all those engaged in the business of making and using chocolate worldwide; confectionery and chocolate scientists in industry and academia; students and practising food scientists and technologists; nutritionists and other health professionals; and libraries of institutions where food science is studied and researched. an overview of the science behind chocolate manufacture covers the whole process from cocoa production, through manufacturing, to the nutrition and health aspects of chocolate consumption focuses on factors that influence chocolate flavour and quality, and that provide scope for process optimization and improvement.
V.1-12 Micropaedia: Ready reference -- V.13-29 Macropaedia: Knowledge in depth -- V. Propaedia: Outline of knowledge -- V. Index, A-K -- V. Index, L-Z.
Recognised as the industry standard, this definitive guide provides a comprehensive review of chocolate and confectionary production and processing operations.
Author: Bernard W. Minifie
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Recognised as the industry standard, this definitive guide provides a comprehensive review of chocolate and confectionary production and processing operations. The technical and scientific aspects of the various manufacturing procedures are emphasized: formulations and recipes are used as needed to supplement explanations and to advance understanding of a particular process. Other areas include raw materials, emulsifiers, replacers and compounds, ingredients, sweeteners, starches and colors, applied methods, food value, packaging and entomology.
To create the desired finished , product manufacturers need to know about cocoa
( the raw material ) , how it is made into chocolate and the correct processing
techniques . Cocoa Production Cocoa comes from the beans of the tropical
Author: Jill Robinson
Publisher: Nelson Thornes
This text has been revised to cover 2001 GCSE specifications for the National Curriculum. It has increased emphasis on CAD-CAM, ICT, industrial practice and environmental issues.
Liberalisation harmed the processing industry even more , as the companies
could not afford to compete with cocoa ... Brazil Cocoa production in Brazil is
concentrated primarily in Bahia , which is responsible for 85 - 90 per cent of
Author: E. M. Bloomfield
All the world's cocoa is grown in developing countries -- more than half in West Africa -- essentially for export. Except in Brazil, Malaysia and Indonesia, it is grown by smallholders. In the international cocoa market, prices rose steeply in 1977 but have been in almost constant decline since and production surpluses have persisted. For producers, the impact of the structural adjustment and liberalisation process has been mixed. While prices have remained low on the international market, producers have generally received a higher share of the international market price. On the other hand, input prices have increased and subsidies for fertiliser or improved planting material have either been reduced or eliminated. Under these conditions, poor producers then use even fewer purchased inputs. Structural adjustment has had a negative impact on cocoa research, particularly in public research institutions in Brazil and in Africa. In Malaysia the situation is different as the ...