Written by a wide range of experts, this work presents cosmological, biological and philosophical perspectives on complexity in our universe.
Author: Charles H. Lineweaver
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
There is a widespread assumption that the universe in general, and life in particular, is 'getting more complex with time'. This book brings together a wide range of experts in science, philosophy and theology and unveils their joint effort in exploring this idea. They confront essential problems behind the theory of complexity and the role of life within it: what is complexity? When does it increase, and why? Is the universe evolving towards states of ever greater complexity and diversity? If so, what is the source of this universal enrichment? This book addresses those difficult questions, and offers a unique cross-disciplinary perspective on some of the most profound issues at the heart of science and philosophy. Readers will gain insights in complexity that reach deep into key areas of physics, biology, complexity science, philosophy and religion.
Yet this manifest fact of our experience is particularly difficult to explain in terms of the fundamental laws of physics. This volume reconciles these profoundly conflicting facts.
Author: J. J. Halliwell
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
We say that the processes going on in the world about us are asymmetric in time or display an arrow of time. Yet this manifest fact of our experience is particularly difficult to explain in terms of the fundamental laws of physics. This volume reconciles these profoundly conflicting facts.
FIVE COMPLEXITY AND THE ARROW OF TIME Paul Davies The Dying
Universe In 1854, in one of the bleakest pronouncements in the history of science
, the German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz claimed that the universe must be
Author: Niels Henrik Gregersen
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This book brings together an impressive group of leading scholars in the sciences of complexity, and a few workers on the interface of science and religion, to explore the wider implications of complexity studies. It includes an introduction to complexity studies and explores the concept of information in physics and biology and various philosophical and religious perspectives. Chapter authors include Paul Davies, Greg Chaitin, Charles Bennett, Werner Loewenstein, Paul Dembski, Ian Stewart, Stuart Kauffman, Harold Morowitz, Arthur Peacocke, and Niels H. Gregersen.
Second, evolution is a system that has order and patterns without agency. It is a
natural process with no direction and no “arrow of time.” It is unclear how
evolution can account for increasing complexity, and that is precisely what is
Author: Kenneth Mossman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Living systems exhibit a fundamental contradiction: they are highly stable and reliable, yet they have the capacity to adapt to changing environmental conditions. This paradoxical behavior arises from the complexity of life--a high degree of order and cooperation that emerges from relatively simple interactions among cellular components. The Complexity Paradox proposes inventive, interdisciplinary approaches to maintaining health and managing and preventing disease by considering the totality of human biology, from the cellular level on up to entire populations of individuals. From the perspective of complexity, which acknowledges that there are limits to what we can know, Kenneth L. Mossman opens the door to understanding essential life processes in new and extraordinary ways. By tying together evolution, functional dynamics, and investigations into how the body processes energy and uses genetic information, Mossman's analysis expresses a unified theory of biology that fills a critical niche for future research in biology, medicine, and public health.
10 Emergent Complexity , Teleology , and the Arrow of Time Paul Davies 1. THE
DYING UNIVERSE In 1854 , in one of the bleakest pronouncements in the history
of science , the German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz claimed that the ...
Author: William A. Dembski
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
In this book, first published in 2004, William Dembski, Michael Ruse, and other prominent philosophers provide a comprehensive balanced overview of the debate concerning biological origins - a controversial dialectic since Darwin published The Origin of Species in 1859. Invariably, the source of controversy has been 'design'. Is the appearance of design in organisms (as exhibited in their functional complexity) the result of purely natural forces acting without prevision or teleology? Or, does the appearance of design signify genuine prevision and teleology, and, if so, is that design empirically detectable and thus open to scientific inquiry? Four main positions have emerged in response to these questions: Darwinism, self-organisation, theistic evolution, and intelligent design. The contributors to this volume define their respective positions in an accessible style, inviting readers to draw their own conclusions. Two introductory essays furnish a historical overview of the debate.
But a good measure of ordered complexity should surely treat these two cases
differently. ... Polkinghorne, amongst others, speaks of a complexity arrow of time,
presenting it as an 'optimistic' arrow to balance the 'pessimistic' arrow of entropy.
Author: Michael Lockwood
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Modern physics has revealed the universe as a much stranger place than we could have imagined. The puzzle at the centre of our knowledge of the universe is time. Lockwood investigates philosophical questions about past, present, and future, our experience of time, and the possibility of time travel. On this fascinating journey, he provides a careful, lively, and up-to-date introduction to the physics of time and the structure of the universe, guiding the reader step by step through relativity theory and quantum physics, introducing and explaining the ground-breaking ideas of Newton and Boltzmann, Einstein and Schroedinger. From entropy and gravity, black holes and wormholes, The Labyrinth of Time explains how it all began and questions where it may all be headed.
The two arrows denote Boltzmann's local worlds in which life may occur. So, in
the sense of Boltzmann, there cannot be an objectively unique arrow of time, but
only one of the two possible directions of increasing entropy which people ...
Author: Klaus Mainzer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Since the first edition sold out in less than a year, we now present the revised second edition of Mainzer's popular book. The theory of nonlinear complex systems has become a successful problem-solving approach in the natural sciences from laser physics, quantum chaos, and meteorology to computer simulations of cell growth in biology. It is now recognized that many of our social, ecological, and political problems are also of a global, complex, and nonlinear nature. And one of the most exciting contemporary topics is the idea that even the human mind is governed largely by the nonlinear dynamics of complex systems. In this wide-ranging but concise treatment, Prof. Mainzer discusses, in a nontechnical language, the common framework behind these endeavors. Emphasis is given to the evolution of new structures in natural and cultural systems and we see clearly how the new integrative approach can give insights not available from traditional reductionistic methods.
Reversible and Irreversible Time At this point I should say a few words about the
conception of time in economics. Earlier ... If the time is eight o'clock in the
morning right now, one ... The arrow of time moves from the "big bang" to the
Author: Sten A. Thore
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
In his book "Jurassic Park" (and in the movie based on the book), Michael Crichton describes a crazed professor who through techniques of genetic engineering manages to recreate the dinosaurs and giant ferns of 65 million years past. Once the giant Tyrannosaurus Rex is brought to life. a powerful dynamics sets in: evolution. The prehistoric world embarks on a collision course with man. Researching his book, Crichton had been reading up on paleontology and on the mathematical theory of evolution, catastrophes, and chaos. Crichton explains some of the twists of nonlinear mathematics that are rewriting not only thermodynamics, physics, and chemistry (that all grapple with evolving and turbulent processes) but also paleontology, genetics, medicine and even anthropology. Collapse and chaos is not limited to prehistoric animal kingdoms and ancient civilizations. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the political and economic chaos in its aftermath demonstrate that modern civilizations are just as vulnerable. This book aims at reexamining some main portions of the discipline of economics from the point of view of economic change and creativity. There are two aspects to this perspective. First, diversity and complexity. The range of different kinds of high technology products available to consumers and producers increases rapidly. Each product is the result of a long and complex production hierarchy. As these hierarchies grow, they deliver ever more diversified and complex high tech goods. Other hierarchies fall by the wayside.
There is no arrow of time. The problem that the reality of chaos causes for such
prediction has already been mentioned but bears repetition. If we cannot
measure precisely enough in terms of initial conditions, then in any system which
Author: David Byrne
Chaos and complexity are the new buzz words in both science and contemporary society. The ideas they represent have enormous implications for the way we understand and engage with the world. Complexity Theory and the Social Sciences introduces students to the central ideas which surround the chaos/complexity theories. It discusses key concepts before using them as a way of investigating the nature of social research. By applying them to such familiar topics as urban studies, education and health, David Byrne allows readers new to the subject to appreciate the contribution which complexity theory can make to social research and to illuminating the crucial social issues of our day.
... Coveney and Highfield ' s ( 1990 ) The Arrow of Time , and Baker and Gollub ' s
( 1990 ) Chaotic Dynamics : An Introduction . In regard to complexity theory ,
Kauffman ' s ( 1995 ) At Home in the Universe , Levy ' s ( 1992 ) Artificial Life , and
Author: Michael R. Butz
Publisher: CRC Press
The nature of this book is to emphasize the inherent complexity and richness of the human experience of change. Now, the author believes there to be an acceptable "scientific" explanation for this phenomona. Explored here are 30 years of studies to describe nonlinear dynamics, today termed either chaos theory or complexity theory. The connotations of both theories are discussed at length. Offering social scientists validation in their attempts to describe and define phenomona of a previously ineffable nature, this book explores chaos' implications for psychology and the social sciences. It describes the benefits psychology can glean from using ideas in chaos theory and applying them to psychology in general, individual psycho-therapy, couples therapy, and community psychology, and also considers possible directions for research and application.
22 In Prigogine ' s theories , the arrow of time is the basis for complexity in
nonlinear dynamics . 23 Stephen Hawking alludes to three arrows of time ; 24 the
electromagnetic arrow of time has arrows going both forward and backward , but
Author: Deborah M. Hess
Publisher: Peter Lang Pub Incorporated
Complexity in Maurice Blanchot's Fiction integrates findings from the history of science and mathematics, information theory, symbolic logic, and philosophy, in an interdisciplinary analysis of the relation between order, disorder, and process in the literary text. Maurice Blanchot's fiction serves as an exemplary focus for a textual analysis based on symbol formation and the emergence of order in complex literary texts. His fictional works are analyzed in terms of increasing complexity. Culture relates to the literary text through metaphors expressing indeterminism, subjectivity, multivalence, opposition, recursion, loops, spirals, order and disorder, and emergence. An extensive bibliography on complexity theory and on Blanchot is included.
These two concepts—the arrow of time and the increased complexity of high-
entropy states– helped convince scientists earlier in this century that the universe
did, in fact, have a beginning, and encouraged them to come up with the idea of
Author: Judy Jones
Publisher: Ballantine Books
A completely updated, revised edition of the classic, outfitted with a whole new arsenal of indispensable knowledge on global affairs, popular culture, economic trends, scientific principles, and modern arts. Here’s your chance to brush up on all those subjects you slept through in school, reacquaint yourself with all the facts you once knew (then promptly forgot), catch up on major developments in the world today, and become the Renaissance man or woman you always knew you could be! How do you tell the Balkans from the Caucasus? What’s the difference between fission and fusion? Whigs and Tories? Shiites and Sunnis? Deduction and induction? Why aren’t all Shakespearean comedies necessarily thigh-slappers? What are transcendental numbers and what are they good for? What really happened in Plato’s cave? Is postmodernism dead or just having a bad hair day? And for extra credit, when should you use the adjective continual and when should you use continuous? An Incomplete Education answers these and thousands of other questions with incomparable wit, style, and clarity. American Studies, Art History, Economics, Film, Literature, Music, Philosophy, Political Science, Psychology, Religion, Science, and World History: Here’s the bottom line on each of these major disciplines, distilled to its essence and served up with consummate flair. In this revised edition you’ll find a vitally expanded treatment of international issues, reflecting the seismic geopolitical upheavals of the past decade, from economic free-fall in South America to Central Africa’s world war, and from violent radicalization in the Muslim world to the crucial trade agreements that are defining globalization for the twenty-first century. And don’t forget to read the section "A Nervous American’s Guide to Living and Loving on Five Continents" before you answer a personal ad in the International Herald Tribune. As delightful as it is illuminating, An Incomplete Education packs ten thousand years of culture into a single superbly readable volume. This is a book to celebrate, to share, to give and receive, to pore over and browse through, and to return to again and again.
Stebbins ( 1969 ) has identified eight grades of increased complexity during
evolution ' the lowest being the earliest self ... In fact the former are part of the
processes of the thermodynamic arrow of time , because they tend to maintain
Author: G. F. Azzone
Publisher: IOS Press
A psychology text that you'll actually want to read! PSYCHOLOGY: A JOURNEY is guaranteed to spark your curiosity, insight, imagination, and interest. Using the proven SQ4R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Reflect, and Review) active learning system to help you study smarter, Coon leads you to an understanding of major concepts as well as how psychology relates to the challenges of everyday life. Each chapter of this book takes you into a different realm of psychology, such as personality, abnormal behavior, memory, consciousness, and human development. Each realm is complex and fascinating, with many pathways, landmarks, and detours to discover. Take the journey and find yourself becoming actively involved with the material as you develop a basic understanding of psychology that will help you succeed in this course and enrich your life. Available with InfoTrac Student Collections http://gocengage.com/infotrac.
Physical systems seem to evolve in paths of increasing entropy and of complexity
, and thus, the arrow of time shall be explored in the context of thermodynamic
irreversibility and quantum physics. In Newtonian physics, time flows at a
Author: Simon Grondin
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
Recent developments in the field of timing and time perception have not simply multiplied the number of relevant questions regarding psychological time, but they have also helped to provide more answers and open many fascinating avenues of thought. "Psychology of Time" brings together cutting-edge presentations of many of the main ideas, findings, hypotheses and theories that experimental psychology provides to the field of timing and psychological time.The contributors, selected for their ability to address various specific questions, were asked to discuss what is known in their field and what avenues remain to be explored. As a result, this book should point readers in the right direction and guide them to reflect on the various and most fundamental issues on psychological time. It offers a balanced integration of old and sometimes neglected findings and more recent empirical advances, all presented within the scope of the critical sub-fields of psychological time in experimental psychology.
BIOLOGICAL RYTHMS AND CYCLES At the top of the pyramid of complexity
seem to be standing living organisms. Almost by definition, their presence can be
viewed as another manifestation of a time-arrow in our Universe, of a drive
Author: Anne Magnon
Publisher: World Scientific
What is Reality? What is the role of human consciousness in the shaping of such a concept? These questions are as old as mankind and gave rise to the MIND-MATTER dualism which preoccupied so many physicists: Schrödinger, Wigner, etc. This book considers the problem within the realm of contemporary physics, and shows that it could be related to that of ultimate entities. The author develops the viewpoint according to which human thinking activities are fruit of the Cosmos and of its combinatorial activity. Ultimate entities, the bricks out of which our universe is made, could be hidden, as a primordial alphabet, in the foundations of the pyramid of increasing complexity, which seems to unfold as a language and to culminate in the emergence of organized and thinking structures. This is analyzed in the context of cosmological screening and horizons (an expression of our lack of access to totality) where macroscopic and microscopic can mingle, where a unification of interactions and a matching of available arrows of time can take place. This context is also that of quantum evaporation of particle-antiparticle like entities, which triggers entropy increase, and of the overlap between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. The problem of an (global) origin of the cruising (and evanescent) “Now” is considered. A creative principle (reminiscent of the biological mitosis) is also presented which is the generator of the “event” through breaking of temporal symmetry. In this perspective, time-flow is an emergent concept: Creation of the World is declined priority on the concept of “coming into existence”. Participant to the origin of the World, all (possibly virtual) processes are able to culminate into the phenomenon of consciousness and Self-Awareness.
Intelligence to Technology RISING COMPLEXITY IS AN INTEGRAL feature of
cosmic evolution, an outstanding example ... While approaching the here and
now along the arrow of time, we naturally wonder about the evolutionary route
that led ...
Author: Eric Chaisson
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Along the way he examines the development of the most microscopic and the most immense aspects of our universe and the complex ways in which they interact."--Jacket.
... (k) a fragment of a large ceramic “grater,” (l) a broken ground stone ax of a T
shape, (m) an arrow or spear shaft straightener or projectile point grinder. bowls (
figure 7.5). Based on ethnographic analogy with the lowland tropics, these
Author: William L. Balée
Publisher: Columbia University Press
This collection of studies by anthropologists, botanists, ecologists, and biologists is an important contribution to the emerging field of historical ecology. The book combines cutting-edge research with new perspectives to emphasize the close relationship between humans and their natural environment. Contributors examine how alterations in the natural world mirror human cultures, societies, and languages. Treating the landscape like a text, these researchers decipher patterns and meaning in the Ecuadorian Andes, Amazonia, the desert coast of Peru, and other regions in the neotropics. They show how local peoples have changed the landscape over time to fit their needs by managing and modifying species diversity, enhancing landscape heterogeneity, and controlling ecological disturbance. In turn, the environment itself becomes a form of architecture rich with historical and archaeological significance. Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology explores thousands of years of ecological history while also addressing important contemporary issues, such as biodiversity and genetic variation and change. Engagingly written and expertly researched, this book introduces and exemplifies a unique method for better understanding the link between humans and the biosphere.
Who's Afraid of Schroedinger's Cat ?, by Marshall and Zohar ( 1997 ) , is a
remarkably readable collection of items on the new science from the arrow of
time , through fuzzy logic , to the wave equation with complexity and chaos on the
Author: Sarah Holloway
Defining the key terms that inform the language of geography and define the geographical imagination: space, time, place, scale, landscape, this volume provides definitions of terms from both human and physical geography.