Offering close readings of the work of the nationally popular and internationally renowned Iranian auteurs Bahram Bayza’i, Abbas Kiarostami, and Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Mottahedeh illuminates the formal codes and conventions of post ...
Author: Negar Mottahedeh
Publisher: Duke University Press
Following the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Iran’s film industry, in conforming to the Islamic Republic’s system of modesty, had to ensure that women on-screen were veiled from the view of men. This prevented Iranian filmmakers from making use of the desiring gaze, a staple cinematic system of looking. In Displaced Allegories Negar Mottahedeh shows that post-Revolutionary Iranian filmmakers were forced to create a new visual language for conveying meaning to audiences. She argues that the Iranian film industry found creative ground not in the negation of government regulations but in the camera’s adoption of the modest, averted gaze. In the process, the filmic techniques and cinematic technologies were gendered as feminine and the national cinema was produced as a woman’s cinema. Mottahedeh asserts that, in response to the prohibitions against the desiring look, a new narrative cinema emerged as the displaced allegory of the constraints on the post-Revolutionary Iranian film industry. Allegorical commentary was not developed in the explicit content of cinematic narratives but through formal innovations. Offering close readings of the work of the nationally popular and internationally renowned Iranian auteurs Bahram Bayza’i, Abbas Kiarostami, and Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Mottahedeh illuminates the formal codes and conventions of post-Revolutionary Iranian films. She insists that such analyses of cinema’s visual codes and conventions are crucial to the study of international film. As Mottahedeh points out, the discipline of film studies has traditionally seen film as a medium that communicates globally because of its dependence on a (Hollywood) visual language assumed to be universal and legible across national boundaries. Displaced Allegories demonstrates that visual language is not necessarily universal; it is sometimes deeply informed by national culture and politics.
Filled with veiled references and allegories, Rizal's novels were—even in the
1970s—the most influential and accessible tradition of Philippine sociopolitical ...
The melodramas of the horrible mother are thus displaced allegories. They play ...
Author: José B. Capino
Publisher: University of California Press
Lino Brocka (1939–1991) was one of Asia and the Global South’s most celebrated filmmakers. A versatile talent, he was at once a bankable director of genre movies, an internationally acclaimed auteur of social films, a pioneer of queer cinema, and an outspoken critic of Ferdinand Marcos’s autocratic regime. José B. Capino examines the figuration of politics in the Filipino director’s movies, illuminating their historical contexts, allegorical tropes, and social critiques. Combining eye-opening archival research with fresh interpretations of over fifteen of Brocka’s major and minor works, Martial Law Melodrama does more than reveal the breadth of his political vision. It also offers a timely lesson about popular cinema’s vital role in the struggle for democracy.
... field of Iranian cinema, Middle-Eastern cosmopolitanism and historiography of
modern Iran and early cinema. 17 Negar Mottahedeh, Displaced Allegories: Post
-Revolutionary Iranian Cinema (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008), 2.
Author: Golbarg Rekabtalaei
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
From popular and 'New Wave' pre-revolutionary films of Fereydoon Goleh and Abbas Kiarostami to post-revolutionary films of Mohsen Makhmalbaf, the Iranian cinema has produced a range of films and directors that have garnered international fame and earned a global following. Golbarg Rekabtalaei takes a unique look at Iranian cosmopolitanism and how it transformed in the Iranian imagination through the cinematic lens. By examining the development of Iranian cinema from the early twentieth century to the revolution, Rekabtalaei locates discussions of modernity in Iranian cinema as rooted within local experiences, rather than being primarily concerned with Western ideals or industrialisation. Her research further illustrates how the ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity of Iran's citizenry shaped a heterogeneous culture and a cosmopolitan cinema that was part and parcel of Iran's experience of modernity. In turn, this cosmopolitanism fed into an assertion of sovereignty and national identity in a modernising Iran in the decades leading up to the revolution.
Displaced Allegories: Post-Revolutionary Iranian Cinema. Durham, NC: Duke
University Press, 2008. ———. Representing the Unrepresentable: Historical
Images of National Reform from the Qajars to the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Author: Terri Ginsberg
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
"This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Middle Eastern Cinema contains a chronology, an introduction, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 500 cross-referenced entries on individual films, filmmakers, actors, significant historical figures, events, and concepts, and the countries themselves"--
Throughout this book, allegory is considered both a mode of expression and a
mode of interpretation. ... authoritarian rules'.3 However, Negar Mottahedeh has
offered a slightly different perspective in her theorization of 'displaced allegories'.
Author: Michelle Langford
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Iranian filmmakers have long been recognised for creating a vibrant, aesthetically rich cinema whilst working under strict state censorship regulations. As Michelle Langford reveals, many have found indirect, allegorical ways of expressing forbidden topics and issues in their films. But for many, allegory is much more than a foil against haphazardly applied censorship rules. Drawing on a long history of allegorical expression in Persian poetry and the arts, allegory has become an integral part of the poetics of Iranian cinema. Allegory in Iranian Cinema explores the allegorical aesthetics of Iranian cinema, explaining how it has emerged from deep cultural traditions and how it functions as a strategy for both supporting and resisting dominant ideology. As well as tracing the roots of allegory in Iranian cinema before and after the 1979 revolution, Langford also theorizes this cinematic mode. She draws on a range of cinematic, philosophical and cultural concepts - developed by thinkers such as Walter Benjamin, Gilles Deleuze, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Christian Metz and Vivian Sobchack - to provide a theoretical framework for detailed analyses of films by renowned directors of the pre-and post-revolutionary eras including Masoud Kimiai, Dariush Mehrjui, Ebrahim Golestan, Kamran Shirdel, Majid Majidi, Jafar Panahi, Marziyeh Meshkini, Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Rakhshan Bani-Etemad and Asghar Farhadi. Allegory in Iranian Cinema explains how a centuries-old means of expression, interpretation, encoding and decoding becomes, in the hands of Iran's most skilled cineastes, a powerful tool with which to critique and challenge social and cultural norms.
Postmodernist fiction has thus developed a range of narrative strategies for
displacing the nuclear. ... Nuclear apocalypse may be displaced onto some other
apocalypse scenario, as in the case of Gravity's Rainbow, as well as Hoban«s ...
Author: Lidia Yuknavitch
Allegories of Violence demilitarizes the concept of war and asks what would happen if we understood war as discursive via late 20th Century novels of war.
Thus the primary latent wish of the changeling boy is displaced to another "
changeling," the monstrous Bottom, through whom the metamorphic fantasy is
played out to provide an illicit night of love in the bower of the mother. Once again
, a ...
Author: Bruce Clarke
Publisher: SUNY Press
This is a theoretical study of human metamorphosis in Western literature.
Bressane's films combine nostalgia and aggression to create the view that there
is a film style to be built, illusions to be destroyed, and educators to be displaced
in his bitter, lacerated critical approach to social and cinematic development.
Author: Ismail Xavier
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
" 'A camera in the hand and ideas in the head' was the primary axiom of the young originators of Brazil's Cinema Novo. This movement of the 1960s and early 1970s overcame technical constraints and produced films on minimal budgets. In Allegories of Underdevelopment, Ismail Xavier examines a number of these films, arguing that they served to represent a nation undergoing a political and social transformation into modernity. Its best-known voice, filmmaker Glauber Rocha claimed that Cinema Novo was driven by an "aesthetics of hunger." This scarcity of means demanded new cinematic approaches that eventually gave rise to a legitimate and unique Third World cinema. Xavier stands in the vanguard of scholars presenting and interpreting these revolutionary films - from the masterworks of Rocha to the groundbreaking experiments of Julio Bressane, Rogério Sganzerla, Andrea Tonacci and Arthur Omar - to an English-speaking audience. Focusing on each filmmaker's use of narrative allegories for the "conservative modernization" Brazil and other nations underwent in the 1960s and 1970s, Xavier asks questions relating to the connection between film and history. He examines the way Cinema Novo transformed Brazil's cultural memory and charts the controversial roles that Marginal Cinema and Tropicalism played in this process. Among the films he discusses are Black God, White Devil, Land in Anguish, Red Light Bandit, Macunaíma, Antônio das Mortes, The Angel Is Born, and Killed the Family and Went to the Movies." -- Book cover.
James's comments notwithstanding, however, psychology never entirely
displaced spiritual concerns with materialism. Jenny Bourne Taylor has pointed
out that “'Psychology' was firstly understood as the 'study of the soul' and
although by ...
Author: David G. Riede
Publisher: Ohio State University Press
"Perhaps because major Victorians like Thomas Carlyle and Matthew Arnold proscribed Romantic melancholy as morbidly diseased and unsuitable for poetic expression, critics have neglected or understated the central importance of melancholy in Victorian poetry. Allegories of One's Own Mind re-directs our attention to a mode that Arnold was rejecting as morbid but also acknowledging when he disparaged the widely current idea that the highest ambition of poetry should be to present an allegory of the poet's own mind. This book shows how early Victorian poets suffered from and railed against what they perceived to be a "disabling post-Wordsworthian melancholy" - we might refer to it as depression - and yet benefited from this self-absorbed or love-obsessed state, which ironically made them more productive."--BOOK JACKET.
Even before the Great Famine, the presence of displaced Irish women and men
who had become the poorest denizens of Great Britain's great towns afforded the
opportunity for figuring England, Ireland, and the problems ofindustrial society in
Author: Mary Jean Corbett
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
In this book, Mary Jean Corbett explores fictional and non-fictional representations of Ireland's relationship with England throughout the nineteenth century. Through postcolonial and feminist theory, she considers how cross-cultural contact is negotiated through tropes of marriage and family, and demonstrates how familial rhetoric sometimes works to sustain, sometimes to contest the structures of colonial inequality. Analyzing novels by Edgeworth, Owenson, Gaskell, Kingsley, and Trollope, as well as writings by Burke, Carlyle, Engels, Arnold, and Mill, Corbett argues that the colonizing imperative for 'reforming' the Irish in an age of imperial expansion constitutes a largely unrecognized but crucial element in the rhetorical project of English nation-formation. By situating her readings within the varying historical and rhetorical contexts that shape them, she revises the critical orthodoxies surrounding colonial discourse that currently prevail in Irish and English studies, and offers a fresh perspective on important aspects of Victorian culture.
Drama, psychology, and “realism” are displaced. Bunyan's The Pilgrim's
Progress survives in spite of its allegory, the pleasure “found in the direct ratio of
the reader's capacity to smother its true purpose, in the direct ratio of his ability to
Author: Michael Schmidt
Publisher: Harvard University Press
The 700-year history of the novel in English defies straightforward telling. Encompassing a range of genres, it is geographically and culturally boundless and influenced by great novelists working in other languages. Michael Schmidt, choosing as his travel companions not critics or theorists but other novelists, does full justice to its complexity.
... ngo workers and indigenous organizations in the lowlands might use Guaraní
narratives of resistance as “allegory for the resurgence of a different kind of
Guarani struggle, that of bilingual education” (Gustafson 2009b: 38). At the same
Author: Nicole Fabricant
Publisher: UNC Press Books
The election of Evo Morales as Bolivia's president in 2005 made him his nation's first indigenous head of state, a watershed victory for social activists and Native peoples. El Movimiento Sin Tierra (MST), or the Landless Peasant Movement, played a significant role in bringing Morales to power. Following in the tradition of the well-known Brazilian Landless movement, Bolivia's MST activists seized unproductive land and built farming collectives as a means of resistance to large-scale export-oriented agriculture. In Mobilizing Bolivia's Displaced, Nicole Fabricant illustrates how landless peasants politicized indigeneity to shape grassroots land politics, reform the state, and secure human and cultural rights for Native peoples. Fabricant takes readers into the personal spaces of home and work, on long bus rides, and into meetings and newly built MST settlements to show how, in response to displacement, Indigenous identity is becoming ever more dynamic and adaptive. In addition to advancing this rich definition of indigeneity, she explores the ways in which Morales has found himself at odds with Indigenous activists and, in so doing, shows that Indigenous people have a far more complex relationship to Morales than is generally understood.
In Michael ' s materialized vision of a wholly temporal “ eternity , ” the static
hierarchies of the older allegorical cosmos are then conclusively displaced onto
the interiorized motions of the individual literate reader . This internalization of the
Author: Catherine Gimelli Martin
Publisher: Duke University Press
Presents Milton’s epic, PARADISE LOST as an allegorical prophecy foretelling the end of one culture and its replacement by another.
This stimulating book examines fictional and non-fictional writings, illustrating both the close connections between the two made by early modern readers and the problems involved in the usual assumption that we can make sense of the past ...
Author: Andrew Hadfield
Publisher: Clarendon Press
What was the purpose of representing foreign lands for writers in the English Renaissance? This innovative and wide-ranging study argues that writers often used their works as vehicles to reflect on the state of contemporary English politics, particularly their own lack of representation in public institutions. Sometimes such analyses took the form of displaced allegories, whereby writers contrasted the advantages enjoyed, or disadvantages suffered, by foreign subjects with the political conditions of Tudor and Stuart England. Elsewhere, more often in explicitly colonial writings, authors meditated on the problems of government when faced with the possibly violent creation of a new society. If Venice was commonly held up as a beacon of republican liberty which England would do well to imitate, the fear of tyrannical Catholic Spain was ever present - inspiring and haunting much of the colonial literature from 1580 onwards. This stimulating book examines fictional and non-fictional writings, illustrating both the close connections between the two made by early modern readers and the problems involved in the usual assumption that we can make sense of the past with the categories available to us. Hadfield explores in his work representations of Europe, the Americas, Africa, and the Far East, selecting pertinent examples rather than attempting to embrace a total coverage. He also offers fresh readings of Shakespeare, Marlowe, More, Lyly, Hakluyt, Harriot, Nashe, and others.
Two Return to the Planet of the Apes Planet of the Apes can be seen as
containing a double allegory regarding race. ... the practitioners of racial
oppression, the responsibility for racism is being symbolically displaced onto
Author: Eric Greene
How do political conflicts shape popular culture? This book explores that question by analyzing how the Planet of the Apes films functioned both as entertaining adventures and as apocalyptic political commentary. Informative and thought provoking, the book demonstrates how this enormously popular series of secular myths used images of racial and ecological crisis to respond to events like the Cold War, the race riots of the 1960s, the Civil Rights movement, the Black Power movement, and the Vietnam War. The work utilizes interviews with key filmmakers and close readings of the five Apes films and two television series to trace the development of the series' theme of racial conflict in the context of the shifting ideologies of race during the sixties and seventies. The book also observes that today, amid growing concerns over race relations, the resurgent popularity of Apes and Twentieth Century--Fox's upcoming film may again make Planet of the Apes a pop culture phenomenon that asks who we are and where we are going.
The continuity between Griffith's allegory and Eisenstein's 'typage' is exemplified
by the latter's advocacy of a strategic use of ... 127) If cinematic historyshows
allegory displaced by realism and – thatmore dubious term – 'illusionism', ...
Author: P. Coates
Coates presents the face in film as a place where transformations begin, reflecting both the experience of modernity and such influential myths as that of Medusa. This is exemplified by a wide range of European and American films, including Ingmar Bergman's Persona .
ANE BROWN'S The Persistence of Allegory (2007) brilliantly rethinks the history
of the neoclassical aesthetic in ... Despite the enlistment of Aristotelian mimesis
by the practitioners of literary neoclassicism, who displaced allegory with the ...
Author: Simon Richter
Publisher: Boydell & Brewer
New essays from leading Goethe scholars providing testimony to the continuing, even renewed, relevance of Goethe for literary studies today.
Gender, Landscape, and Colonial Allegories in The Far Shore, Loyalties, and
Mouvements du désir BRENDA ... of sexual difference (masculine versus
feminine) is displaced by an investigation of the multiple differences between
Author: Kass Banting
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
The definitive collection of essays, both original and previously published, that address the impact and influence of a century of women's film making in Canada.
He labors, rather, under the burden of impotence, of whose exhaustion and futility
he becomes the allegorical emblem of ... Like the Parisian proletariat, forced to
shuttle in and out of the city having been displaced to the “peripheral” banlieux, ...
Author: Henry Sussman
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
This is a guide, in theory and in practice, to how current technological changes have impacted our interaction with texts and with each other. Henry Sussman rereads pivotal moments in literary, philosophical and cultural modernity as anticipating the cybernetic discourse that has increasingly defined theory since the computer revolution. Cognitive science, psychoanalysis and systems theory are paralleled to current trends in literary and philosophical theory. Chapters alternate between theory and readings of literary texts, resulting in a broad but rigorously grounded framework for the relation between literature and computer science. This book is a refreshing perspective on the analog-orientated tradition of theory in the humanities – and offers the first literary-textual genealogy of the digital.
Allegory An allegory is a story where figures, in the form of humans, animals or
superhumans (gods and fantasy figures) ... and the Statue of Liberty, carrying a
torch for freedom to light the way, extends the hand of friendship to the displaced.
Author: Tom Porter
Widely used in architectural circles in the heat of discussion, the recurrent use of particular words and terms has evolved into a language of design jargon. Commonly found in architectural literature and journalism, in critical design debate and especially in student project reviews, Archispeak can seem insular and perplexing to others and -- particularly to the new architectural student -- often incomprehensible. There is a need to translate architectural design concepts into spoken and written commentary -- each word in use embodying a precise and universally accepted architectural meaning. If we explore the vocabulary of this language we gain insight into good design practice and into collective understanding of what constitutes a refined architecture. This unique illustrated guide will help students understand the nuances of this specialized language and help them in communicating their own design ideas.