Energy Return on Investment from Recycling Nuclear Fuel

The study assumed that apart from the original 800 t of UNF only depleted uranium was available as a feed. Therefore for each subsequent scenario only fuel that was derived from the previous fuel cycle scenario was considered.

Energy Return on Investment from Recycling Nuclear Fuel

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 710

This report presents an evaluation of the Energy Return on Investment (EROI) from recycling an initial batch of 800 t/y of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through a Recycle Center under a number of different fuel cycle scenarios. The study assumed that apart from the original 800 t of UNF only depleted uranium was available as a feed. Therefore for each subsequent scenario only fuel that was derived from the previous fuel cycle scenario was considered. The scenarios represent a good cross section of the options available and the results contained in this paper and associated appendices will allow for other fuel cycle options to be considered.

Energy Return on Investment Fuel Recycle

This report provides a methodology and requisite data to assess the potential Energy Return On Investment (EROI) for nuclear fuel cycle alternatives, and applies that methodology to a limited set of used fuel recycle scenarios.

Energy Return on Investment   Fuel Recycle

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 6

View: 772

This report provides a methodology and requisite data to assess the potential Energy Return On Investment (EROI) for nuclear fuel cycle alternatives, and applies that methodology to a limited set of used fuel recycle scenarios. This paper is based on a study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a parallel evaluation by AREVA Federal Services LLC, both of which were sponsored by the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program. The focus of the LLNL effort was to develop a methodology that can be used by the FCT program for such analysis that is consistent with the broader energy modeling community, and the focus of the AREVA effort was to bring industrial experience and operational data into the analysis. This cooperative effort successfully combined expertise from the energy modeling community with expertise from the nuclear industry. Energy Return on Investment is one of many figures of merit on which investment in a new energy facility or process may be judged. EROI is the ratio of the energy delivered by a facility divided by the energy used to construct, operate and decommission that facility. While EROI is not the only criterion used to make an investment decision, it has been shown that, in technologically advanced societies, energy supplies must exceed a minimum EROI. Furthermore, technological history shows a trend towards higher EROI energy supplies. EROI calculations have been performed for many components of energy technology: oil wells, wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, biofuels, and nuclear reactors. This report represents the first standalone EROI analysis of nuclear fuel reprocessing (or recycling) facilities.

Energy Return on Investment EROI of Different Wood Products

This is a satisfactory relationship, but it decreases with a greater transport distance. Such is the case when chips manufactured in Croatia, due to the lack of heat plants, are transported over long distances to neighbouring countries.

Energy Return on Investment  EROI  of Different Wood Products

Author: Zdravko Pandur

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 797

Energy cannot be produced without consumption of some part of the energy, and the proportions in which this occurs are a key indicator of the efficiency of the production process. Energy return on investment (EROI) of energy production shows the relationship between obtained and invested energy in the production process. This relationship is a key factor in sustainable global energy supply. Wood chips and one-metre firewood are used to produce thermal energy. Amount of energy obtained by burning depends on the moisture content and the features of the energy plant. This chapter deals with the issue of the amount of energy required to produce in the process of wood chips and one-metre firewood production and its transport to the heating plant. When calculating the energy balance, it is important to include as many input parameters as possible (parameters of energy consumption), which represents an almost impossible task because one parameter directly binds several others. According to several authors, the relationship between obtained and invested energy or EROI for energy wood is 30:1 which is a better ratio than the production of oil, for which relationship between obtained and invested energy is about 20:1. The results of study show that most of the energy during the production and supply of energy wood products from final felling of oak stands is used for fuel for machinery and vehicles in the production process. Ultimately, the relationship between obtained and invested energy is approximately 25:1 in the case of moisture content in the wood chips in the limit (market) value of 35% and the mean distance truck transportation of wood chips of 50 km. The relationship of obtained and invested energy used for one-metre firewood is bigger than 25:1 because of less invested energy which does not include machines like wood chipper. This is a satisfactory relationship, but it decreases with a greater transport distance. Such is the case when chips manufactured in Croatia, due to the lack of heat plants, are transported over long distances to neighbouring countries.

Popular Mechanics

RETURN. ON. INVESTMENT. The efficiency of many energy saving converts that
paybaok period Into armu- Items Is quoted In terms of payback al percentage
return on investment, al- perlod— the number of years an energy lowing you to ...

Popular Mechanics

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 168

View: 631

Popular Mechanics inspires, instructs and influences readers to help them master the modern world. Whether it’s practical DIY home-improvement tips, gadgets and digital technology, information on the newest cars or the latest breakthroughs in science -- PM is the ultimate guide to our high-tech lifestyle.

Energy Returned On Investment of Engineered Geothermal Systems Annual Report FY2011

Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system.

Energy Returned On Investment of Engineered Geothermal Systems Annual Report FY2011

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 559

Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. The embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished plant. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy - heat is not as valuable as electrical energy.

Energy Returned On Investment of Engineered Geothermal Systems Annual Report FY2010

Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. EROI analyses of geothermal energy are either out of date or presented online with little supporting documentation.

Energy Returned On Investment of Engineered Geothermal Systems Annual Report FY2010

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 306

Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. EROI analyses of geothermal energy are either out of date or presented online with little supporting documentation. Often comparisons of energy systems inappropriately use 'efficiency' when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electric energy delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to build, operate, and decommission the facility.

Energy Return on Investment

Energy Return on Investment: Toward a Consistent Framework. Ambio 37: 74–79
. Murphy, D.J., and C.A.S. Hall. 2010. Year in review—EROI or energy return on (
energy) invested. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Special Issue ...

Energy Return on Investment

Author: Charles A.S. Hall

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319478214

Page: 174

View: 232

This authoritative but highly accessible book presents the reader with a powerful framework for understanding the critical role of the energy return on investment (EROI) in the survival and well-being of individuals, ecosystems, businesses, economies and nations. Growth and development are fundamental and ubiquitous processes at all scales, from individuals to food crops to national economies. While we are all familiar with the concepts of economic growth and living standards as measured by gross domestic product (GDP), we often take for granted the energy use that underpins GDP and our expectations for year-on-year growth. In this book, you will learn how these measures of “progress” are completely dependent on the balance that can be achieved between energy costs (inputs) and gains. Nothing is made or moved without an energy surplus, and it is the EROI of available energy sources more than any other single factor that determines the shape of civilization. Nearly all politics and economics assume that policy and market forces are the levers upon which future outcomes will hinge. However, this book presents many examples of historical and current events that can be explained much more clearly from an energetic perspective. In addition, a future scenario is developed that gives a central place to EROI in assessing the potential of governmental and private initiatives to substitute so-called renewable energy sources for diminishing stocks of fossil fuels. When cheap fossil fuels are no longer available in the abundance needed to mask economic problems and power business as usual, it will be EROI more than the plethora of “green” technologies that creates the boundary conditions for a sustainable future.

Spain u2019 s Photovoltaic Revolution

This book presents the first complete energy analysis of a large-scale, real-world deployment of photovoltaic (PV) collection systems representing 3.5 GW of installed, grid-connected solar plants in Spain.

Spain u2019 s Photovoltaic Revolution

Author: Pedro A. Prieto

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 128

View: 173

The Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI or EROEI) is the amount of energy acquired from a particular energy source divided by the energy expended, or invested, in obtaining that energy. EROI is an essential and seemingly simple measure of the usable energy or ?energy profit? from the exploitation of an energy source, but it is not so easy to determine all of the energy expenditures that should be included in the calculation. Because EROI values are generally low for renewable energy sources, differences in these estimates can lead to sharply divergent conclusions about the viability of these energy technologies. This book presents the first complete energy analysis of a large-scale, real-world deployment of photovoltaic (PV) collection systems representing 3.5 GW of installed, grid-connected solar plants in Spain. The analysis includes all of the factors that limit and adjust the real electricity output through one full-year cycle, and all of the fossil fuel inputs required to achieve these results. The authors’ comprehensive analysis of energy inputs, which assigns energy cost estimates to all financial expenditures, yields EROI values that are less than half of those claimed by other investigators and by the solar industry. Sensitivity analysis is used to test various assumptions in deriving these EROI estimates. The results imply that the EROI of current, large-scale PV systems may be too low to seamlessly support an energy and economic transition away from fossil fuels. Given the pervasiveness of fossil fuel subsidies in the modern economy, a key conclusion is that all components of the system that brings solar power to the consumer, from manufacturing to product maintenance and life cycle, must be improved in terms of energy efficiency. The materials science of solar conversion efficiency is only one such component. Sunny Spain represented an ideal case study as the country had the highest penetration of solar PV energy at 2.3 percent of total national demand as well as state-of-the-art expertise in solar power including grid management of intermittent, modern renewable systems. This book, written by a uniquely qualified author team consisting of the chief engineer for several major photovoltaic projects in Spain and the world’s leading expert on the concept and application of EROI, provides a comprehensive understanding of the net energy available to society from energy sources in general and from functioning PV installations under real-world conditions in particular. The authors provide critical insight into the capacity of renewable energy sources to fill the foreseeable gap between world energy demand and depletion rates for fossil fuels. · Presents the first comprehensive study of the EROI of large-scale solar PV systems in a developed country · Uses real-world operational data rather than laboratory approximations and extrapolations · Describes the dependence of one alternative energy source on the goods and services of a fossil-fueled economy · Has global implications for the potential of renewable energy sources to replace dwindling reserves of fossil fuels · Written with the first-hand knowledge of the chief, on-site engineer for many solar installations in Spain together with the leader in the development and application of the concept of EROI.

Energy and Civilization

Box 1.8 Energy intensities of common materials Process Material Aluminum
Bricks Energy cost ( MJ / kg ) 175-200 1-2 ... The energy cost of energy often
called EROI , energy return on investment , although EROEI , energy return on
energy ...

Energy and Civilization

Author: Vaclav Smil

Publisher:

ISBN: 0262536161

Page: 552

View: 233

A comprehensive account of how energy has shaped society throughout history, from pre-agricultural foraging societies through today's fossil fuel-driven civilization. "I wait for new Smil books the way some people wait for the next 'Star Wars' movie. In his latest book, Energy and Civilization: A History, he goes deep and broad to explain how innovations in humans' ability to turn energy into heat, light, and motion have been a driving force behind our cultural and economic progress over the past 10,000 years. --Bill Gates, Gates Notes, Best Books of the Year Energy is the only universal currency; it is necessary for getting anything done. The conversion of energy on Earth ranges from terra-forming forces of plate tectonics to cumulative erosive effects of raindrops. Life on Earth depends on the photosynthetic conversion of solar energy into plant biomass. Humans have come to rely on many more energy flows--ranging from fossil fuels to photovoltaic generation of electricity--for their civilized existence. In this monumental history, Vaclav Smil provides a comprehensive account of how energy has shaped society, from pre-agricultural foraging societies through today's fossil fuel-driven civilization. Humans are the only species that can systematically harness energies outside their bodies, using the power of their intellect and an enormous variety of artifacts--from the simplest tools to internal combustion engines and nuclear reactors. The epochal transition to fossil fuels affected everything: agriculture, industry, transportation, weapons, communication, economics, urbanization, quality of life, politics, and the environment. Smil describes humanity's energy eras in panoramic and interdisciplinary fashion, offering readers a magisterial overview. This book is an extensively updated and expanded version of Smil's Energy in World History (1994). Smil has incorporated an enormous amount of new material, reflecting the dramatic developments in energy studies over the last two decades and his own research over that time.

Technological Learning in the Transition to a Low Carbon Energy System

Conceptual Issues, Empirical Findings, and Use in Energy Modeling Martin
Junginger, Atse Louwen. opportunities for understanding an innovation ...
However, as highlighted by Louwen et al. (2016) for energy return on investment
and CO2 ...

Technological Learning in the Transition to a Low Carbon Energy System

Author: Martin Junginger

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 012818762X

Page: 340

View: 104

Technological Learning in the Transition to a Low-Carbon Energy System: Conceptual Issues, Empirical Findings, and Use in Energy Modeling quantifies key trends and drivers of energy technologies deployed in the energy transition. It uses the experience curve tool to show how future cost reductions and cumulative deployment of these technologies may shape the future mix of the electricity, heat and transport sectors. The book explores experience curves in detail, including possible pitfalls, and demonstrates how to quantify the 'quality' of experience curves. It discusses how this tool is implemented in models and addresses methodological challenges and solutions. For each technology, current market trends, past cost reductions and underlying drivers, available experience curves, and future prospects are considered. Electricity, heat and transport sector models are explored in-depth to show how the future deployment of these technologies--and their associated costs--determine whether ambitious decarbonization climate targets can be reached - and at what costs. The book also addresses lessons and recommendations for policymakers, industry and academics, including key technologies requiring further policy support, and what scientific knowledge gaps remain for future research. Provides a comprehensive overview of trends and drivers for major energy technologies expected to play a role in the energy transition Delivers data on cost trends, helping readers gain insights on how competitive energy technologies may become, and why Reviews the use of learning curves in environmental impacts for lifecycle assessments and energy modeling Features social learning for cost modeling and technology diffusion, including where consumer preferences play a major role

Energy Return on Energy Investment Empirical Model of an Integrated Farm in Scott County Kentucky

The energy return on investment (EROI) was determined for an integrated (i.e. combined animal husbandry and vegetable production) USDA Certified Organic, Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) farm in Scott County Kentucky for the calendar ...

Energy Return on Energy Investment Empirical Model of an Integrated Farm in Scott County Kentucky

Author: Matthew Stewart Deason

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 230

View: 720

The energy return on investment (EROI) was determined for an integrated (i.e. combined animal husbandry and vegetable production) USDA Certified Organic, Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) farm in Scott County Kentucky for the calendar year 2014. The resulting EROI was calculated at 0.13 which corresponds to 7.7 units of input energy for each caloric unit of output energy. The highest energy inputs (representing> 80% of the model) were indirect labor, equipment, liquid fuels, electricity and poultry feed. The highest energy outputs (representing> 80% of the model) were beef, sweet corn, broilers, eggs, potatoes, sweet potatoes, beans, broccoli, tomatoes, turkey, and yellow squash. Modern US agricultural practices and food delivery systems are energy intense, representing more than 15% of the total US energy consumption. Comparatively, typical livestock operations can require EROIs as low as 0.02 corresponding to 50 units of input energy for each calorie produced.

Human Ecology

Minimum Energy Return On Investment ( EROI ) Necessary for Food
Procurement Strategies . ( 1 ) Condition ( 2 ) Total Energy of Producers Sum
Rows B. and C .. Tables 3 ( 3 ) Total Energy Required by Social Unit Rows A. ,
Tables 3 ( 4 ) ...

Human Ecology

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 359

View: 498

Profit from the Peak

ENERGY RETURN ON INVESTMENT In addition to rising costs , there is another
problem facing the future of fuels , and that is the energy return on investment (
EROI ) , also sometimes referred to as energy returned on energy invested ...

Profit from the Peak

Author: Brian Hicks

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated

ISBN:

Page: 286

View: 296

Looks at the forthcoming end of our oil-based economy, the looming global crisis caused by the loss of oil reserves, and the implications for the future, and examines the vast investment opportunity as entrepreneurs, inventors, the scientific community, and energy companies search for the next abundant energy source.

Pennsylvania Energy

Energy Conservation as an Investment Promoting Conservation Departmental
Highlight PL NSYNIA Conservation can be achieved. Rate of return on
investment If the simple payback ( in years ) is : The comparable rate of return is :
2 . . . . 3 .

Pennsylvania Energy

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

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View: 116

Spain s Photovoltaic Revolution

The Energy Return on Investment Pedro A. Prieto, Charles A. S. Hall ... These
systems in turn require both financial and energy investments, both initially for
their construction and over time for their maintenance and repair. The energy
returned ...

Spain   s Photovoltaic Revolution

Author: Pedro A. Prieto

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441994378

Page: 128

View: 665

The Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI or EROEI) is the amount of energy acquired from a particular energy source divided by the energy expended, or invested, in obtaining that energy. EROI is an essential and seemingly simple measure of the usable energy or “energy profit” from the exploitation of an energy source, but it is not so easy to determine all of the energy expenditures that should be included in the calculation. Because EROI values are generally low for renewable energy sources, differences in these estimates can lead to sharply divergent conclusions about the viability of these energy technologies. This book presents the first complete energy analysis of a large-scale, real-world deployment of photovoltaic (PV) collection systems representing 3.5 GW of installed, grid-connected solar plants in Spain. The analysis includes all of the factors that limit and adjust the real electricity output through one full-year cycle, and all of the fossil fuel inputs required to achieve these results. The authors’ comprehensive analysis of energy inputs, which assigns energy cost estimates to all financial expenditures, yields EROI values that are less than half of those claimed by other investigators and by the solar industry. Sensitivity analysis is used to test various assumptions in deriving these EROI estimates. The results imply that the EROI of current, large-scale PV systems may be too low to seamlessly support an energy and economic transition away from fossil fuels. Given the pervasiveness of fossil fuel subsidies in the modern economy, a key conclusion is that all components of the system that brings solar power to the consumer, from manufacturing to product maintenance and life cycle, must be improved in terms of energy efficiency. The materials science of solar conversion efficiency is only one such component. Sunny Spain represented an ideal case study as the country had the highest penetration of solar PV energy at 2.3 percent of total national demand as well as state-of-the-art expertise in solar power including grid management of intermittent, modern renewable systems. This book, written by a uniquely qualified author team consisting of the chief engineer for several major photovoltaic projects in Spain and the world’s leading expert on the concept and application of EROI, provides a comprehensive understanding of the net energy available to society from energy sources in general and from functioning PV installations under real-world conditions in particular. The authors provide critical insight into the capacity of renewable energy sources to fill the foreseeable gap between world energy demand and depletion rates for fossil fuels. · Presents the first comprehensive study of the EROI of large-scale solar PV systems in a developed country · Uses real-world operational data rather than laboratory approximations and extrapolations · Describes the dependence of one alternative energy source on the goods and services of a fossil-fueled economy · Has global implications for the potential of renewable energy sources to replace dwindling reserves of fossil fuels · Written with the first-hand knowledge of the chief, on-site engineer for many solar installations in Spain together with the leader in the development and application of the concept of EROI

The Very Hungry City

meaningful metric of supply would subtract out the energy resources required to
obtain the remaining oil, taking into account the fact that energy return on
investment will continue to decline. If we frame supply this way, the estimate of
net oil ...

The Very Hungry City

Author: Austin Troy

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300165803

Page: 366

View: 671

"This book explores how cities around the world consume energy, assesses innovative ideas for reducing urban energy consumption, and discusses why energy efficiency will determine which cities thrive economically in the future"--Provided by publisher.