Biopsy Interpretation of the Gastrointestinal Tract Mucosa

setting of iron pill gastritis sometimes mimic gastric carcinoma ( Figs . 3-4 , 3-5 ,
Color Plates 1 and 2 , e - Figs . 176-179 ) . The epithelial changes found in “ iron
pill ulcers " lack the architectural changes of gastric cancer , but can be severe .

Biopsy Interpretation of the Gastrointestinal Tract Mucosa

Author: Elizabeth A. Montgomery

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN: 9780781755634

Page: 411

View: 281

This volume of the Biopsy Interpretation Series is a practical, superbly illustrated guide to interpreting gastrointestinal tract mucosal biopsies. The book describes and illustrates the distinguishing features of non-neoplastic lesions, polyps, and neoplasms of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, and anus. The author addresses the biopsy interpretation issues confronting pathologists in daily practice and offers advice on avoiding pitfalls in biopsy diagnosis. The up-to-date coverage includes detailed information on newly recognized serrated polyps. A bound-in CD-ROM contains 955 full-color digital images of common and rare entities, and includes a quiz mode that is ideal for board exam preparation.

Surgical Pathology of the GI Tract Liver Biliary Tract and Pancreas

Clinical Features Acute hemorrhagic gastritis is characterized by the presence of
diffuse mucosal hyperemia associated with bleeding, erosions, and ulcers, and
precipitated by a sudden stress- induced imbalance between injurious and ...

Surgical Pathology of the GI Tract  Liver  Biliary Tract  and Pancreas

Author: Robert D. Odze

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1416040595

Page: 1368

View: 179

This one-of-a-kind reference provides a comprehensive and practical guide to help you interpret endoscopic biopsies and resection specimens of all organs related to the digestive system. Plus, thanks to Expert Consult, you'll be able to access the entire contents of this title online and download all images, from anywhere there's an internet connection. The more than 2250 high quality illustrations, 30% more than in the first edition, help you recognize and diagnose any tissue sample under the microscope. Five new chapters, additional expert authors, expanded tables, and coverage of the current clinical approach to management and treatment options, particularly screening and surveillance recommendations for preneoplastic disorders, round out this unique reference. Acts as a one-stop resource for the entire gastrointestinal system, liver, biliary tract, and pancreas. Incorporates over 2250 high quality color illustrations so you can recognize and diagnose any tissue sample under the microscope. Provides all the necessary tools to make a comprehensive diagnostic workup including data from ancillary techniques and molecular findings whenever appropriate. Simplifies complex topics and streamlines decision-making using extensive tables, graphs, and flowcharts. Helps you avoid diagnostic errors thanks to practical advice on pitfalls in differential diagnosis. Uses a new "road map" at the beginning of each chapter, as well as a new, more clinical focus to help you navigate through the book more quickly. Reflects the latest classification and staging systems available so you can provide the clinician with the most accurate and up-to-date diagnostic and prognostic indicators, including key molecular aspects of tumor pathology. Includes access to the entire contents online, from anywhere there's an internet connection. Adds five new chapters including "Screening and Surveillance of the GI Tract", "Congenital and Developmental Disorders of the GI Tract", "Pediatric Enteropathies of the GI Tract", "Vascular Disorders of the GI Tract", and "Fatty Liver Disease". Expands appropriate chapters with new coverage of the normal histology of the GI tract, liver, biliary tract and pancreas. Uses expanded tables to outline specific differential diagnostic points helpful for surgical pathologists. Discusses the key molecular aspects of tumor progression and risk assessment in all chapters that cover neoplastic disorders. Helps you evaluate diagnostically challenging cases using diagnostic algorithms. Increases the number of high quality photographs by at least 30% to include even more normal and abnormal tissue samples. Updates all chapters to include the latest references, concepts, data, and controversies. Incorporates expanded coverage of the pancreas and liver, eliminating the need for a separate text. Your purchase entitles you to access the web site until the next edition is published, or until the current edition is no longer offered for sale by Elsevier, whichever occurs first. If the next edition is published less than one year after your purchase, you will be entitled to online access for one year from your date of purchase. Elsevier reserves the right to offer a suitable replacement product (such as a downloadable or CD-ROM-based electronic version) should access to the web site be discontinued.

Gastritis

Alternatively , several studies have shown a poor correlation between NSAID -
associated mucosal injury and prostaglandin production . 27,33 Ligumsky et al .
33 administered parenteral aspirin to rats , inducing > 95 % inhibition of mucosal
 ...

Gastritis

Author: Robert A. Kozol

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849354977

Page: 240

View: 904

Gastritis presents a thorough review of current concepts in gastric inflammation. The book includes reviews of basic scientific research on the cell biology and pathophysiology of gastric inflammation. Results of up-to-date clinical research are considered within the context of basic science information. The book also considers inflammatory problems through the electron microscope and the endoscope. Inflammatory mediators, neutrophils, and other causes of stomach inflammation are only a few of the subjects covered in this superb reference volume for gastroenterologists and scientists studying gastric pathophysiology.

Gastritis and Gastric Cancer

Calculating the number of neuroendocrine cells per one gland of the gastritis
mucosa is a more complex process. The system must recognize also separate
glands, measure their shape and count cells according to this histological
structures.

Gastritis and Gastric Cancer

Author: Paola Tonino

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9533073756

Page: 310

View: 776

This book is a comprehensive overview of invited contributions on Helicobacter pylori infection in gastritis and gastric carcinogenesis. The first part of the book covers topics related to the pathophysiology of gastric mucosal defense system and gastritis including the gastroprotective function of the mucus, the capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerves and the oxidative stress pathway involved in inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy in H. pylori related gastritis. The next chapters deal with molecular pathogenesis and treatment, which consider the role of neuroendocrine cells in gastric disease, DNA methylation in H. pylori infection, the role of antioxidants and phytotherapy in gastric disease. The final part presents the effects of cancer risk factors associated with H. pylori infection. These chapters discuss the serum pepsinogen test, K-ras mutations, cell kinetics, and H. pylori lipopolysaccharide, as well as the roles of several bacterial genes (cagA, cagT, vacA and dupA) as virulence factors in gastric cancer, and the gastrokine-1 protein in cancer progression.

Trauma

Physiologic levels of NO support the defense mechanisms of the gastric mucosa
by maintaining gastric mucosal perfusion. In addition, NO ... Bile reflux can injure
the gastric mucosa and contribute to stress gastritis (40). While H. pylori has ...

Trauma

Author: William C. Wilson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420016840

Page: 1384

View: 314

Compiled by internationally recognized experts in trauma critical care,this sourcediscusses the entire gamut of critical care management of the trauma patient and covers several common complications and conditions treated in surgical intensive care units that are not specifically related to trauma. Utilizing evidence-based guidelines where they ex

Sleisenger and Fordtran s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease E Book

Histopathologic examples of two distinctive forms of gastritis: lymphocytic gastritis
(A) and eosinophilic gastritis (B). A, High-power view of the antral mucosa shows
numerous dark-staining mononuclear cells with striking intraepithelial ...

Sleisenger and Fordtran s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease E Book

Author: Mark Feldman

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1437727670

Page: 2480

View: 939

Make optimal use of the newest techniques, technologies, and treatments with Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease - the indispensable information source in this broad field! Edited by Mark Feldman, MD, Lawrence S. Friedman, MD, and Lawrence J. Brandt, MD, this 9th Edition equips you with the amassed knowledge of hundreds of respected authorities from around the world, helping you to overcome all of your most complex clinical challenges and make the most effective use of the newest techniques, technologies, and treatments. Significant updates on bariatric surgery, Barrett's esophagus, and many other evolving areas keep your practice current. Full-text online access includes downloadable illustrations and links to reference abstracts. The result remains the indispensable core reference in gastroenterology and hepatology. World-renowned experts provide reliable guidance on every area of your field. A consistent, full-color chapter design lets you find information quickly. Significant updates on bariatric surgery, Barrett's esophagus, endoscopic ultrasound, endosonography, treatment of liver disease, and much more keep you current on the latest advances. Many new contributors from all over the world provide you with fresh insights on all areas of gastroenterology and hepatology. Full-text online access via Expert Consult includes downloadable illustrations and links to reference abstracts.

Diagnostic Atlas of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Figure 3–56 Gastric oxyntic mucosa with mild chronic gastritis. The abnormality is
limited to the superficial foveolar region with the gastric glands being normal. The
foveolar pit is elongated and surrounded by a mild increase in lymphocytes ...

Diagnostic Atlas of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Author: Parakrama T. Chandrasoma

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080878034

Page: 320

View: 257

Gastroesophageal reflux is one of the most common maladies of mankind. Approximately 40% of the adult population of the USA suffers from significant heartburn and the numerous antacids advertised incessantly on national television represents a $8 billion per year drug market. The ability to control acid secretion with the increasingly effective acid-suppressive agents such as the H2 blockers (pepcid, zantac) and proton pump inhibitors (nexium, prevacid) has given physicians an excellent method of treating the symptoms of acid reflux. Unfortunately, this has not eradicated reflux disease. It has just changed its nature. While heartburn, ulceration and strictures have become rare, reflux-induced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus is becoming increasingly common. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia is now the most rapidly increasing cancer type in the Western world. At present, there is no histologic test that has any practical value in the diagnosis of reflux disease. The only histologic diagnostic criteria are related to changes in the squamous epithelium which are too insensitive and nonspecific for effective patient management. It is widely recognized that columnar metaplasia of the esophagus (manifest histologically as cardiac, oxyntocardiac and intestinal epithelia) is caused by reflux. However, except for intestinal metaplasia, which is diagnostic for Barrett esophagus, these columnar epithelia are not used to diagnose reflux disease in biopsies. The reason for this is that these epithelial types are indistinguishable from "normal" "gastric" cardiac mucosa. In standard histology texts, this "normal gastric cardia" is 2-3 cm long. In the mid-1990s, Dr. Chandrasoma and his team at USC produced autopsy data suggesting that cardiac and oxyntocardiac mucosa is normally absent from this region and that their presence in biopsies was histologic evidence of reflux disease. From this data, they determined that the presence of cardiac mucosa was a pathologic entity caused by reflux and could therefore be used as a highly specific and sensitive diagnostic criterion for the histologic diagnosis of reflux disease. They call this entity "reflux carditis". In addition, the length of these metaplastic columnar epithelia in the esophagus was an accurate measure of the severity of reflux disease in a given patient. At present, there is some controversy over whether cardiac mucosa is totally absent or present normally to the extent of 0-4 mm. While this should not be a deterrent to changing criteria which are dependent on there normally being 20-30 cm of cardiac mucosa, there has been little mainstream attempt to change existing endoscopic and pathologic diagnostic criteria in the mainstream of either gastroenterology or pathology. The ATLAS will be the source of easily digestible practical information for pathologists faced with biopsies from this region. It will also guide gastroenterologists as they biopsy these patients. The American Gastroenterological Association claims there are 14,500 members worldwide who are practicing physicians and scientists who research, diagnose and treat disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and liver According to the American Society for Clinical Pathology, there are 12,000 board certified pathologists in the U.S. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia is now the most rapidly increasing cancer type in the Western world Approximately 40% of the adult population of the U.S. suffers from significant heartburn and the numerous antacids advertised on national television represents an $8 billion per year drug market

The British Journal of Homoeopathy

John James Drysdale, Robert Ellis Dudgeon, Richard Hughes, John Rutherfurd
Russell. known as inflammation of the mucous membrane , or gastritis mucosa .
Its principal characters are hyperemia and exudation . The latter may present two
 ...

The British Journal of Homoeopathy

Author: John James Drysdale

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 371

Pediatric Gastrointestinal Disease

In the normal gastric mucosa , the glands are separated by little or no
extracellular matrix , and few or no mononuclear cells are present . Gastritis is
defined as microscopic evidence of inflammation affecting the gastric mucosa .
The intensity of ...

Pediatric Gastrointestinal Disease

Author: W. Allan Walker

Publisher: PMPH-USA

ISBN: 9781550092400

Page: 2151

View: 294

This new edition of Pediatric Gastrointestinal Disease is dedicated to the maintenance of a comprehensive approach to the practice of Pediatric Gastroenterology. Considered to be the definitive reference work, this fourth edition has been extensively reviewed. As a result, the size and content of various sections have been modified and new ......

Pathology for the Physical Therapist Assistant E Book

Gastritis Definition and Incidence Gastritis, inflammation of the lining of the
stomach (gastric mucosa), is not a single disease but represents a group of the
most common stomach disorders. Gastric erosions by definition are limited to the
 ...

Pathology for the Physical Therapist Assistant   E Book

Author: Catherine C. Goodman

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1437708935

Page: 960

View: 985

No other textbook provides coverage of the essential concepts of disease processes and disorders with the specific needs of the physical therapy assistant in mind. Pathology for the Physical Therapist Assistant provides coverage of disease processes and systemic disorders as well as guidelines, precautions, and contraindications for physical therapy interventions. Catherine Goodman, Kenda Fuller, and Robbie O’Shea share their expertise in a consistent, well-organized approach that defines each disorder, describes the appropriate physical therapy assessment and intervention, and rounds out the discussion with relevant case study examples based on established practice patterns. Chapters follow a consistent organization, first defining a disorder and then describing the appropriate physical therapy assessment and intervention. Full-color art throughout clearly depicts pathologies and interventions. Case studies provide examples of physical therapy applications to help you connect theory and practice and build strong clinical reasoning skills. Special boxes highlight Clinical Signs, Interventions, and Case Studies to alert you to important information within the text. Terminology and language from the Guide to Physical Therapy Practice is used throughout to familiarize you with standardized terminology used in practice. A companion Evolve website provides additional online learning activities including online chapters, references linked to Medline, case studies, and self-test questions.

Issues in Pathology Diagnostics and Disease 2011 Edition

gastritis. Researchers detail in 'Increased expression and cellular localization of
lipocalin-type prostaglandin D ... PGDS (L-PGDS), MIP-1 alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-4,
and CDX2 in H. pyloriinduced gastritis mucosa by quantitative RT-PCR.

Issues in Pathology  Diagnostics  and Disease  2011 Edition

Author:

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464965420

Page: 944

View: 888

Issues in Pathology, Diagnostics, and Disease: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Pathology, Diagnostics, and Disease. The editors have built Issues in Pathology, Diagnostics, and Disease: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Pathology, Diagnostics, and Disease in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Pathology, Diagnostics, and Disease: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Pathology E Book

GASTRITIS CYSTICA POLYPOSA Gastritis cystica polyposa is described as
polypoid gastric lesions occurring near a gastroenterostomy stoma, characterized
by dilated cystic glands in the mucosa and submucosa. Gastritis cystica polyposa
is ...

Gastrointestinal and Liver Pathology E Book

Author: Christine A. Iacobuzio-Donahue

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1455711934

Page: 736

View: 539

Gastrointestinal and Liver Pathology, a title in the Foundations in Diagnostic Pathology series, provides all the most essential information on the pathological entities encountered in practice in an easy-to-use format. Drs. Christine A. Iacobuzio-Donahue and Elizabeth Montgomery examine the full scope of neoplastic and non-neoplastic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract--, including disorders of the tubular gastrointestinal tract, pancreatobiliary tree, and liver—from clinical features and ancillary studies to differential diagnoses and prognostic and therapeutic considerations. The consistent, practical format with a wealth of illustrations, boxes, and tables make this title ideal for quick reference for both novices and experienced pathologists. Get the full range of coverage on neoplastic and non-neoplastic gastrointestinal/liver conditions in a consistent, user-friendly format. Catch all the nuances of how pathological entities present through over 850 full-color illustrations. Reference key information quickly and easily thanks to at-a-glance boxes and tables throughout the text. Stay current with the latest in molecular diagnostic techniques through a new chapter on this increasingly important topic. Find information on lymphoid neoplasms of the GI tract more easily with coverage consolidated into a new, focused chapter. Easily identify newly described entities highlighted in updated images and references. Enhance your visual understanding from 100 new clinical and photomicroscopic images. Gain increased at-a-glance reference thanks to more fact sheets and pathologic features boxes.

Diseases of the Stomach

Gastritis Mucosa , or Mucipara . - As was pointed out ( page 121 ) before , when
rhinitis , laryngitis , pharyngitis , and bronchitis can be eliminated , large
quantities of mucus in the gastric contents , as a rule , speak for chronic gastritis
mucosa .

Diseases of the Stomach

Author: John Conrad Hemmeter

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 788

View: 687

GI Liver Secrets Plus E Book

What is gastritis? Gastritis is inflammation of the gastric mucosa best appreciated
on histologic examination. The diagnosis can also be made based on the
endoscopic appearance of the stomach. Certain types of gastritis may require the
use ...

GI Liver Secrets Plus E Book

Author: Peter R McNally

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0323082785

Page: 800

View: 393

GI/Liver Secrets Plus, 4th Edition, by Peter R. McNally, DO, FACP, FACG - a volume in the popular Secrets Series® - uses a convenient Q&A approach to provide rapid reference and review of today's most common GI and liver disorders and their management. An expanded size and layout, user-friendly two-color page layout, question-and-answer approach, and list of the "Top 100 GI/Liver Secrets" make it a perfect concise board review tool and a handy clinical reference. Updated coverage throughout equips you with all of the most current and essential knowledge in the field. Uses bulleted lists, tables, boxes, short answers, and a highly detailed index to expedite reference. Includes Key Points and memory aids in each chapter that make it perfect for board review or clinical reference. Covers all of today's most common GI and liver disorders and their management. Features the new "Secrets PLUS" format - with an expanded size and layout, more information, and more visual elements - for easier review and an overall enhanced reference experience. Contains new images and illustrations to provide more detail and offer a clearer picture of what is seen in practice. Incorporates revisions throughout to provide you with an up-to-date overview of gastroenterology and hepatology, including new chapters on Esophageal and Stomach Pathology, Pathology of the Lower GI Tract, Gastroesophageal Reflux and Esophageal Hernias, and Surgery of Achalasia and Esophageal Cancer. Offers reorganized and expanded sections covering the bowels and colon for more specific and easier reference: Small and Large Bowel Disorders; Colon Disorders; and General Symptoms and Conditions.

General and Systematic Pathology International Edition E Book

Histologically, Helicobacterassociated gastritis affects the entire stomach mucosa
but to a variable degree. The majority of patients have diffuse involvement of the
antrum and body with gradual glandular atrophy, replacement fibrosis and ...

General and Systematic Pathology  International Edition E Book

Author: James C. E. Underwood

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 143772874X

Page: 860

View: 550

This highly acclaimed textbook is written specifically for students of medicine and related health science subjects. It progresses from a review of general pathology principles and disease mechanisms through detailed discussions of the pathologic entities associated with each organ system. Nearly 700 full-color photographs and pathology slides bring the content to life. The fifth edition features extensive updates throughout to reflect the latest discoveries in cellular and molecular pathology, and offers a web site that presents self-assessment material and illustrated clinical case studies. Contents perfectly matches needs on medical students. Very clinical approach matches integrated courses. Extensive International Advisory Board validates contents. Each organ system chapter begins with a brief review of normal structure and function, emphasizing aspects that are important to an understanding of the subsequently discussed disease processes. Offers a superb collection of clinical photographs, histopathology images, and graphics, approximately 700 in all, that richly depict the appearance of both healthy and diseased tissues. New co-editor, Dr Simon Cross. Structure of chapters revised to make the book much easier to use during courses that are problem- or case-based. Several new contributors and re-written chapters. Expanded International Advisory Board.

Abdominal Imaging E Book

The most common diseases that affect the gastric mucosa diffusely are acute
gastritis and chronic/atrophic gastritis. Acute gastritis, most commonly secondary
to H. pylori infection, can progress to a chronic state if left untreated. Other causes
of ...

Abdominal Imaging E Book

Author: Dushyant V Sahani

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1455740330

Page: 1600

View: 487

Abdominal Imaging, a title in the Expert Radiology Series, edited by Drs. Dushyant Sahani and Anthony Samir, is a comprehensive reference that encompasses both GI and GU radiology. It provides richly illustrated, advanced guidance to help you overcome the full range of diagnostic, therapeutic, and interventional challenges in abdominal imaging and combines an image-rich, easy-to-use format with the greater depth that experienced practitioners need. Select the best imaging approaches and effectively interpret your findings by comparing them to thousands of images that represent every modality and every type of abdominal imaging. Find detailed, expert guidance on all diagnostic, therapeutic, and interventional aspects of abdominal imaging in one authoritative source, including challenging topics such as Oncologic Assessment of Tumor Response and How to Scan a Difficult Patient. Efficiently locate the information you need with a highly templated, well-organized, at-a-glance organization.

The British Journal of Homoeopathy

known as inflammation of the mucous membrane , or gastritis mucosa . Its
principal characters are hyperæmia and exudation . The latter may present two
forms : in the one case , and which is by far the more frequent , that of a fluid ;
hence ...

The British Journal of Homoeopathy

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 810

Diseases and Disorders

Gastric structure and function are altered in either the epithelial or the glandular
components of the gastric mucosa. The inflammation is usually limited to the
mucosa, but some forms involve the deeper layers of the gastric wall. Gastritis is ...

Diseases and Disorders

Author: Marilyn S Sommers

Publisher: F.A. Davis

ISBN: 0803644876

Page: 1200

View: 718

Everything you need to know about caring for patients—in one portable "must have" handbook! Clear, but comprehensive discussions of pathophysiology, with rationales in the medications and laboratory sections, explain the scientific basis for the nursing care.

Pediatric Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease E Book

Gastritis and peptic ulcer disease are important for several reasons. They have
significant associated morbidity and are usually amenable to treatment; in
addition, some forms of chronic, severe gastritis may destroy mucosal elements, ...

Pediatric Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease E Book

Author: Robert Wyllie

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1437735665

Page: 1104

View: 995

Pediatric Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, by Drs. Robert Wyllie and Jeffrey S. Hyams provides the comprehensive reference you need to treat GI diseases in children. Review the latest developments in the field and get up-to-date clinical information on hot topics like polyps, capsule endoscopy, and pancreatic treatments. With expert guidance from an expanded international author base and online access to 475 board-review-style questions, this latest edition is a must-have for every practicing gastroenterologist. Confirm each diagnosis by consulting a section, organized by symptoms, that presents the full range of differential diagnoses and treatment options for each specific condition. Recognize disease processes at a glance with detailed diagrams that accurately illustrate complex concepts. Stay current with advances in the field by reviewing new chapters on Polyps and Polyposis Syndromes, Capsule Endoscopy and Small Bowel Enteroscopy, Small Bowel Transplantation, IBD, Short Gut Syndrome, Steatosis and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, and Pancreatic and Islet Cell Transplants. Gain fresh global perspectives from an expanded list of expert international contributors. Sharpen your visual recognition by accessing a color-plate section that displays additional endoscopy images. Prepare for certification or recertification with 475 online board review-style questions, answers, and rationales.