Historical Records of the Five Dynasties

He adopted rigorous moral categories to evaluate historical figures, reflecting the new regimen of his day. He also annotated portions of the text to establish a methodology for future writers.

Historical Records of the Five Dynasties

Author: Xiu Ouyang

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231128274

Page: 669

View: 954

Written by Ouyang Xiu (1007-1072), an intellectual giant of the Song dynasty, Historical Records of the Five Dynasties offers a compelling interpretation of the Five Dynasties period (907-979). In overhauling the existing official history, Ouyang Xiu made several notable decisions. He recast the entire narrative in the popular "ancient" style to make for a rare fluency. He adopted rigorous moral categories to evaluate historical figures, reflecting the new regimen of his day. He also annotated portions of the text to establish a methodology for future writers. The Historical Records thereby became the official version-the last of China's dynastic histories to be written by an individual in a private capacity. In addition to its provocative commentary and lucid presentation, Historical Records is an eloquent statement on the art and craft of historical writing in the eleventh century.

The History of Education in Sui Tang and Five Dynasties

The book is the volume of “The History of Education in Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties” among a series of books of “Deep into China Histories”.

The History of Education in Sui  Tang and Five Dynasties

Author: Li Shi

Publisher: DeepLogic

ISBN:

Page:

View: 305

The book is the volume of “The History of Education in Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties” among a series of books of “Deep into China Histories”. The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.The Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) supplanted the Shang and introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, and the country eventually splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became independent and warred with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture, literature and philosophy first developed during those troubled times.In 221 BC Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, and was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history, literature, and philosophy, were carefully selected through difficult government examinations. China's last dynasty was the Qing (1644–1912), which was replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, and in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in 1949.Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, and periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War (1927–1949). China was occasionally dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were eventually assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China; in some eras control stretched as far as Xinjiang and Tibet, as at present. Traditional culture, and influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world (carried by waves of immigration, cultural assimilation, expansion, and foreign contact), form the basis of the modern culture of China.

The History of Literature in Sui Tang and Five Dynasties

The book is the volume of “The History of Literature in Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties” among a series of books of “Deep into China Histories”.

The History of Literature in Sui  Tang and Five Dynasties

Author: Li Shi

Publisher: DeepLogic

ISBN:

Page:

View: 153

The book is the volume of “The History of Literature in Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties” among a series of books of “Deep into China Histories”. The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.The Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) supplanted the Shang and introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, and the country eventually splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became independent and warred with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture, literature and philosophy first developed during those troubled times.In 221 BC Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, and was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history, literature, and philosophy, were carefully selected through difficult government examinations. China's last dynasty was the Qing (1644–1912), which was replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, and in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in 1949.Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, and periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War (1927–1949). China was occasionally dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were eventually assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China; in some eras control stretched as far as Xinjiang and Tibet, as at present. Traditional culture, and influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world (carried by waves of immigration, cultural assimilation, expansion, and foreign contact), form the basis of the modern culture of China.

The Economic History in Sui Tang and Five Dynasties

The book is the volume of “The Economic History in Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties” among a series of books of “Deep into China Histories”.

The Economic History in Sui  Tang and Five Dynasties

Author: Li Shi

Publisher: DeepLogic

ISBN:

Page:

View: 946

The book is the volume of “The Economic History in Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties” among a series of books of “Deep into China Histories”. The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.The Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) supplanted the Shang and introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, and the country eventually splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became independent and warred with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture, literature and philosophy first developed during those troubled times.In 221 BC Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, and was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history, literature, and philosophy, were carefully selected through difficult government examinations. China's last dynasty was the Qing (1644–1912), which was replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, and in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in 1949.Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, and periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War (1927–1949). China was occasionally dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were eventually assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China; in some eras control stretched as far as Xinjiang and Tibet, as at present. Traditional culture, and influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world (carried by waves of immigration, cultural assimilation, expansion, and foreign contact), form the basis of the modern culture of China.

The History of Science and Technology in Sui Tang and Five Dynasties

I. Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties History of Science and Technology Sui, Tang and
Five Dynasties of science and technology, Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties one of
the important category of cultural structure. This period is a historical period in ...

The History of Science and Technology in Sui  Tang and Five Dynasties

Author: Li Shi

Publisher: DeepLogic

ISBN:

Page:

View: 407

The book is the volume of “The History of Science and Technology in Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties” among a series of books of “Deep into China Histories”. The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.The Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) supplanted the Shang and introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, and the country eventually splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became independent and warred with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture, literature and philosophy first developed during those troubled times.In 221 BC Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, and was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history, literature, and philosophy, were carefully selected through difficult government examinations. China's last dynasty was the Qing (1644–1912), which was replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, and in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in 1949.Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, and periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War (1927–1949). China was occasionally dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were eventually assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China; in some eras control stretched as far as Xinjiang and Tibet, as at present. Traditional culture, and influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world (carried by waves of immigration, cultural assimilation, expansion, and foreign contact), form the basis of the modern culture of China.

History of South Dynasty

The title "Twenty-Four Histories" dates from 1775 which was the 40th year in the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. This was when the last volume, the History of Min gwas reworked and a complete set of the histories produced.

History of South Dynasty

Author: Li Shi

Publisher: DeepLogic

ISBN:

Page:

View: 723

The Twenty-Four Histories (Chinese: 二十四史) are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century. The Han dynasty official Sima Qian established many of the conventions of the genre. Starting with the Tang dynasty, each dynasty established an official office to write the history of its predecessor using official court records. As fixed and edited in the Qing dynasty, the whole set contains 3213 volumes and about 40 million words. It is considered one of the most important sources on Chinese history and culture. The title "Twenty-Four Histories" dates from 1775 which was the 40th year in the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. This was when the last volume, the History of Min gwas reworked and a complete set of the histories produced. The Twenty Four Histories include: •Early Four Historiographies (前四史) •Records of the Grand Historian (史記, Shǐ Jì), compiled by Sima Qian 司馬遷 in 91 BC •Book of Han (漢書, Hàn Shū), compiled by Ban Gu 班固 in 82 •Records of the Three Kingdoms (三國志, Sānguó Zhì), compiled by Chen Shou 陳壽 in 289 •Book of Later Han (後漢書, Hòuhàn Shū), compiled by Fan Ye 范曄 in 445[2] •Book of Song (simplified Chinese: 宋书; traditional Chinese: 宋書; pinyin: Sòng Shū)—Southern Dynasties, compiled by Shen Yue 沈約 in 488 •Book of Qi (simplified Chinese: 齐书; traditional Chinese: 齊書; pinyin: Qí Shū)—Southern Dynasties, compiled by Xiao Zixian 蕭子顯 in 537 •Book of Wei (simplified Chinese: 魏书; traditional Chinese: 魏書; pinyin: Wèi Shū)—Northern Dynasties, compiled by Wei Shou 魏收 in 554 •Eight Historiographies complied in Tang Dynasty (唐初八史) •Book of Liang (梁書, Liáng Shū)—Southern Dynasties, compiled by Yao Silian 姚思廉 in 636 •Book of Chen (陳書, Chén Shū)—Southern Dynasties, compiled by Yao Silian in 636 •Book of Northern Qi (北齊書, Běi Qí Shū)—Northern Dynasties, compiled by Li Baiyao 李百藥 in 636 •Book of Zhou (周書, Zhōu Shū)—Northern Dynasties, compiled under Linghu Defen 令狐德棻 in 636 •Book of Sui (隋書, Suí Shū), compiled under Wei Zheng 魏徵 in 636 •Book of Jin (晉書, Jìn Shū), compiled under Fang Xuanling 房玄齡 in 648 •History of the Southern Dynasties (南史, Nán Shǐ), compiled by Li Yanshou 李延壽 in 659 •History of the Northern Dynasties (北史, Běi Shǐ), compiled by Li Yanshou in 659 •Old Book of Tang (唐書, Táng Shū), compiled under Liu Xu 劉昫 in 945 •Old History of the Five Dynasties (五代史, Wǔdài Shǐ), compiled under Xue Juzheng 薛居正 in 974 •New History of the Five Dynasties (新五代史, Xīn Wǔdài Shǐ), compiled under Ouyang Xiu 歐陽脩 in 1053 •New Book of Tang (新唐書, Xīn Táng Shū), compiled under Ouyang Xiu in 1060 •Three Historiographies compiled in Yuan Dynasty (元末三史) •History of Liao (遼史, Liáo Shǐ), compiled under Toqto'a 脫脫 in 1343[3] •History of Jin (金史, Jīn Shǐ), compiled under Toqto'a in 1345 •History of Song (宋史, Sòng Shǐ), compiled under Toqto'a in 1345 •History of Yuan (元史, Yuán Shǐ), compiled under Song Lian 宋濂 in 1370 •History of Ming (明史, Míng Shǐ), compiled under Zhang Tingyu 張廷玉 in 1739

The History of Thoughts in Sui Tang and Five Dynasties

On the other hand, "General Code" is not necessary to adapt to the history . In the
various historical records before the Tang Dynasty, the law, calendar, astronomy,
and five elements, including Fu Rui, Xiang Rui, Zheng Ling, etc., are neither ...

The History of Thoughts in Sui  Tang and Five Dynasties

Author: Li Shi

Publisher: DeepLogic

ISBN:

Page:

View: 132

The book is the volume of “The History of Thoughts in Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties” among a series of books of “Deep into China Histories”. The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.The Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) supplanted the Shang and introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, and the country eventually splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became independent and warred with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture, literature and philosophy first developed during those troubled times.In 221 BC Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, and was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history, literature, and philosophy, were carefully selected through difficult government examinations. China's last dynasty was the Qing (1644–1912), which was replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, and in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in 1949.Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, and periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War (1927–1949). China was occasionally dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were eventually assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China; in some eras control stretched as far as Xinjiang and Tibet, as at present. Traditional culture, and influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world (carried by waves of immigration, cultural assimilation, expansion, and foreign contact), form the basis of the modern culture of China.

The Religious History in Sui Tang and Five Dynasties

In addition, since the Five Dynasties, some ethnic groups living in the north and
south of the Tianshan Mountains have gradually converted to Islam from the
original beliefs of Manichaeism, Nestorianism, martyrdom, shamanism, and ...

The Religious History in Sui  Tang and Five Dynasties

Author: Li Shi

Publisher: DeepLogic

ISBN:

Page:

View: 559

The book is the volume of “The Religious History in Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties” among a series of books of “Deep into China Histories”. The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.The Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) supplanted the Shang and introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, and the country eventually splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became independent and warred with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture, literature and philosophy first developed during those troubled times.In 221 BC Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, and was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history, literature, and philosophy, were carefully selected through difficult government examinations. China's last dynasty was the Qing (1644–1912), which was replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, and in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in 1949.Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, and periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War (1927–1949). China was occasionally dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were eventually assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China; in some eras control stretched as far as Xinjiang and Tibet, as at present. Traditional culture, and influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world (carried by waves of immigration, cultural assimilation, expansion, and foreign contact), form the basis of the modern culture of China.

The History of Art in Sui Tang and Five Dynasties

The book is the volume of “The History of Art in Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties” among a series of books of “Deep into China Histories”.

The History of Art in Sui  Tang and Five Dynasties

Author: Li Shi

Publisher: DeepLogic

ISBN:

Page:

View: 702

The book is the volume of “The History of Art in Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties” among a series of books of “Deep into China Histories”. The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.The Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) supplanted the Shang and introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, and the country eventually splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became independent and warred with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture, literature and philosophy first developed during those troubled times.In 221 BC Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, and was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history, literature, and philosophy, were carefully selected through difficult government examinations. China's last dynasty was the Qing (1644–1912), which was replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, and in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in 1949.Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, and periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War (1927–1949). China was occasionally dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were eventually assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China; in some eras control stretched as far as Xinjiang and Tibet, as at present. Traditional culture, and influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world (carried by waves of immigration, cultural assimilation, expansion, and foreign contact), form the basis of the modern culture of China.

The History of Customs in Sui Tang and Five Dynasties

The book is the volume of “The History of Customs in Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties” among a series of books of “Deep into China Histories”.

The History of Customs in Sui  Tang and Five Dynasties

Author: Li Shi

Publisher: DeepLogic

ISBN:

Page:

View: 510

The book is the volume of “The History of Customs in Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties” among a series of books of “Deep into China Histories”. The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.The Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) supplanted the Shang and introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, and the country eventually splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became independent and warred with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture, literature and philosophy first developed during those troubled times.In 221 BC Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, and was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history, literature, and philosophy, were carefully selected through difficult government examinations. China's last dynasty was the Qing (1644–1912), which was replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, and in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in 1949.Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, and periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War (1927–1949). China was occasionally dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were eventually assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China; in some eras control stretched as far as Xinjiang and Tibet, as at present. Traditional culture, and influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world (carried by waves of immigration, cultural assimilation, expansion, and foreign contact), form the basis of the modern culture of China.

The Military History in Sui Tang and Five Dynasties

The book is the volume of “The Military History in Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties” among a series of books of “Deep into China Histories”.

The Military History in Sui  Tang and Five Dynasties

Author: Li Shi

Publisher: DeepLogic

ISBN:

Page:

View: 541

The book is the volume of “The Military History in Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties” among a series of books of “Deep into China Histories”. The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.The Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) supplanted the Shang and introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, and the country eventually splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became independent and warred with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture, literature and philosophy first developed during those troubled times.In 221 BC Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, and was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history, literature, and philosophy, were carefully selected through difficult government examinations. China's last dynasty was the Qing (1644–1912), which was replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, and in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in 1949.Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, and periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War (1927–1949). China was occasionally dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were eventually assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China; in some eras control stretched as far as Xinjiang and Tibet, as at present. Traditional culture, and influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world (carried by waves of immigration, cultural assimilation, expansion, and foreign contact), form the basis of the modern culture of China.

China

Written with precision and flair by a host of leading academics from Beijing and Hong Kong, this single volume is a welcome addition to the study of world civilizations, a broad yet detailed chronological sweep through time.

China

Author: The Editorial Committee of Chinese Civilization: A Source Book, City University of Hong Kong

Publisher: City University of HK Press

ISBN: 9629371405

Page: 832

View: 711

Written with precision and flair by a host of leading academics from Beijing and Hong Kong, this single volume is a welcome addition to the study of world civilizations, a broad yet detailed chronological sweep through time. Every aspect of Chinese civilization is explained, interpreted, contextualized and brought to life with well-balanced commentary and photographic documentation. Published by City University of Hong Kong Press. 香港城市大學出版社出版。

Notes on Chinese Literature

419 Remote B.C. L Shè ké , Historical Record , 130 Õig Sze - mà Ts'ëen .
antiquity 122 US | 18ẻên hàm sho0 . ... New History of the Five dynasties . 75 ER
FAR Gòw - yâng Sew , 907 959 20 4 H Sung sle . Sung History . 496 Bt To - t'o .

Notes on Chinese Literature

Author: Alexander Wylie

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Page: 260

View: 832

Records of Han Dynasty

The text is a chronological narrative of the history of China from the Warring States to the Five Dynasties. Sima Guang left the traditional usage in Chinese historiography.

Records of Han Dynasty

Author: Sima Guang

Publisher: DeepLogic

ISBN:

Page:

View: 366

Zi Zhi Tong Jian (Chinese: 资治通鉴;English: "Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance") is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084 in the form of a chronicle. In 1065 AD, Emperor Yingzong of Songordered the great historian Sima Guang (1019–1086 AD) to lead with other scholars such as his chief assistants Liu Shu, Liu Ban and Fan Zuyu,[1] the compilation of a universal history of China. The task took 19 years to be completed,and, in 1084 AD, it was presented to his successor Emperor Shenzong of Song. The Zizhi Tongjian records Chinese history from 403 BC to 959 AD, covering 16 dynasties and spanning across almost 1,400 years,and contains 294 volumes (巻) and about 3 million Chinese characters. The principal text of the Zizhi Tongjian was recorded on 294 Juan, or Volume (Chinese: 卷), which are scrolls corresponding to a volume, chapter, or section of the work. The text is a chronological narrative of the history of China from the Warring States to the Five Dynasties. Sima Guang left the traditional usage in Chinese historiography. For almost 1,000 years since the Shiji was written, standard Chinese dynastic histories had primarily divided chapters between annals (紀) of rulers, and biographies (傳) of officials. In Chinese terms, the book changed the format of histories from biographical style (紀傳體) to chronological style (編年體), which is better suited for analysis, activism and criticism. According to Wilkinson: "It had an enormous influence on later Chinese historical writing, either directly or through its many abbreviations, continuations, and adaptations. The 294 Juan sweep through 11 Chinese historical periods (Warring States, Qin, Western Han, Eastern Han, Three Kingdoms, Jin and the Sixteen Kingdoms, Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui, Tang, and Five Dynasties). It was one of the largest historical magna opera in history. The book consisted of 294 chapters, of which the following number describe each respective dynastic era: 1.5 chapters - Zhou (1046-256 BC) 2.3 chapters - Qin (221-207 BC) 3.60 chapters - Han (206 BC-220 AD) 4.10 chapters - Wei (220-265) 5.40 chapters - Jin (265-420) 6.16 chapters - Liu Song (420-479) 7.10 chapters - Qi (479-502) 8.22 chapters - Liang (502-557) 9.10 chapters - Chen (557-589) 10.8 chapters - Sui (589-618 AD) 11.81 chapters - Tang (618-907) 12.6 chapters - Later Liang (907-923) 13.8 chapters - Later Tang (923-936) 14.6 chapters - Later Jin (936-947) 15.4 chapters - Later Han (947-951) 16.5 chapters - Later Zhou (951-960) The book includes volume 9 to 68 covering Han Dynasty among a series of books of Zi Zhi Tong Jian.

Asia Major

Ouyang Xiu provided both counterpart and counterpoint to his “ Discourse on
Factions ” in another work - New History of the Five Dynasties ( Xin wudai shi
Fitet ) . In a commentary to this masterwork of private historiography , written as a
 ...

Asia Major

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View: 783

Journal of the Shanghai Literary and Scientific Society

Southern History . P Pih shé . Northern History . Q W # Sin ťâng shoo . New book
of Tang . R EFEK'éw woò taé shè . Old history of the Five Dynasties . S Leaou
shè . Leaou History . T = f Kam she . Kin History . U Í Yuên shè . Yuen History .

Journal of the Shanghai Literary and Scientific Society

Author:

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View: 908

Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society

0 Nan she . Southern History . PH Pih shé . Northern History . Q Sin ťâng shoo .
New book of Tang . R IHK'én woð taé shè . Old history of the Five Dynasties . S
Leaou shè . Leaou History . TAKin she . Kin History . U Ct Yuên she . Yuen
History .

Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society

Author: North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society

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View: 964

Contains list of members.

Journal

Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland North China Branch. A WA
Shoo king . Book of ... R THK'éw woò taé shè . Old history of the Five Dynasties .
S #Leaou shè . Leaou History . T Kin she . Kin History . U Í Yuên shè . Yuen
History .

Journal

Author: Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland North China Branch

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View: 675

History of Ming Dynasty Part I

The title "Twenty-Four Histories" dates from 1775 which was the 40th year in the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. This was when the last volume, the History of Min gwas reworked and a complete set of the histories produced.

History of Ming Dynasty  Part I

Author: Li Shi

Publisher: DeepLogic

ISBN:

Page:

View: 930

The Twenty-Four Histories (Chinese: 二十四史) are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century. The Han dynasty official Sima Qian established many of the conventions of the genre. Starting with the Tang dynasty, each dynasty established an official office to write the history of its predecessor using official court records. As fixed and edited in the Qing dynasty, the whole set contains 3213 volumes and about 40 million words. It is considered one of the most important sources on Chinese history and culture. The title "Twenty-Four Histories" dates from 1775 which was the 40th year in the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. This was when the last volume, the History of Min gwas reworked and a complete set of the histories produced. The Twenty Four Histories include: •Early Four Historiographies (前四史) •Records of the Grand Historian (史記, Shǐ Jì), compiled by Sima Qian 司馬遷 in 91 BC •Book of Han (漢書, Hàn Shū), compiled by Ban Gu 班固 in 82 •Records of the Three Kingdoms (三國志, Sānguó Zhì), compiled by Chen Shou 陳壽 in 289 •Book of Later Han (後漢書, Hòuhàn Shū), compiled by Fan Ye 范曄 in 445[2] •Book of Song (simplified Chinese: 宋书; traditional Chinese: 宋書; pinyin: Sòng Shū)—Southern Dynasties, compiled by Shen Yue 沈約 in 488 •Book of Qi (simplified Chinese: 齐书; traditional Chinese: 齊書; pinyin: Qí Shū)—Southern Dynasties, compiled by Xiao Zixian 蕭子顯 in 537 •Book of Wei (simplified Chinese: 魏书; traditional Chinese: 魏書; pinyin: Wèi Shū)—Northern Dynasties, compiled by Wei Shou 魏收 in 554 •Eight Historiographies complied in Tang Dynasty (唐初八史) •Book of Liang (梁書, Liáng Shū)—Southern Dynasties, compiled by Yao Silian 姚思廉 in 636 •Book of Chen (陳書, Chén Shū)—Southern Dynasties, compiled by Yao Silian in 636 •Book of Northern Qi (北齊書, Běi Qí Shū)—Northern Dynasties, compiled by Li Baiyao 李百藥 in 636 •Book of Zhou (周書, Zhōu Shū)—Northern Dynasties, compiled under Linghu Defen 令狐德棻 in 636 •Book of Sui (隋書, Suí Shū), compiled under Wei Zheng 魏徵 in 636 •Book of Jin (晉書, Jìn Shū), compiled under Fang Xuanling 房玄齡 in 648 •History of the Southern Dynasties (南史, Nán Shǐ), compiled by Li Yanshou 李延壽 in 659 •History of the Northern Dynasties (北史, Běi Shǐ), compiled by Li Yanshou in 659 •Old Book of Tang (唐書, Táng Shū), compiled under Liu Xu 劉昫 in 945 •Old History of the Five Dynasties (五代史, Wǔdài Shǐ), compiled under Xue Juzheng 薛居正 in 974 •New History of the Five Dynasties (新五代史, Xīn Wǔdài Shǐ), compiled under Ouyang Xiu 歐陽脩 in 1053 •New Book of Tang (新唐書, Xīn Táng Shū), compiled under Ouyang Xiu in 1060 •Three Historiographies compiled in Yuan Dynasty (元末三史) •History of Liao (遼史, Liáo Shǐ), compiled under Toqto'a 脫脫 in 1343[3] •History of Jin (金史, Jīn Shǐ), compiled under Toqto'a in 1345 •History of Song (宋史, Sòng Shǐ), compiled under Toqto'a in 1345 •History of Yuan (元史, Yuán Shǐ), compiled under Song Lian 宋濂 in 1370 •History of Ming (明史, Míng Shǐ), compiled under Zhang Tingyu 張廷玉 in 1739

Records of Chen Dynasty

The text is a chronological narrative of the history of China from the Warring States to the Five Dynasties. Sima Guang left the traditional usage in Chinese historiography.

Records of Chen Dynasty

Author: Sima Guang

Publisher: DeepLogic

ISBN:

Page:

View: 233

Zi Zhi Tong Jian (Chinese: 资治通鉴;English: "Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance") is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084 in the form of a chronicle. In 1065 AD, Emperor Yingzong of Songordered the great historian Sima Guang (1019–1086 AD) to lead with other scholars such as his chief assistants Liu Shu, Liu Ban and Fan Zuyu, the compilation of a universal history of China. The task took 19 years to be completed,and, in 1084 AD, it was presented to his successor Emperor Shenzong of Song. The Zi Zhi Tong Jian records Chinese history from 403 BC to 959 AD, covering 16 dynasties and spanning across almost 1,400 years,and contains 294 volumes (巻) and about 3 million Chinese characters. The principal text of the Zizhi Tongjian was recorded on 294 Juan, or Volume (Chinese: 卷), which are scrolls corresponding to a volume, chapter, or section of the work. The text is a chronological narrative of the history of China from the Warring States to the Five Dynasties. Sima Guang left the traditional usage in Chinese historiography. For almost 1,000 years since the Shiji was written, standard Chinese dynastic histories had primarily divided chapters between annals (紀) of rulers, and biographies (傳) of officials. In Chinese terms, the book changed the format of histories from biographical style (紀傳體) to chronological style (編年體), which is better suited for analysis, activism and criticism. According to Wilkinson: "It had an enormous influence on later Chinese historical writing, either directly or through its many abbreviations, continuations, and adaptations. The 294 Juan sweep through 11 Chinese historical periods (Warring States, Qin, Western Han, Eastern Han, Three Kingdoms, Jin and the Sixteen Kingdoms, Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui, Tang, and Five Dynasties). It was one of the largest historical magna opera in history. The book consisted of 294 chapters, of which the following number describe each respective dynastic era: 1.5 chapters - Zhou (1046-256 BC) 2.3 chapters - Qin (221-207 BC) 3.60 chapters - Han (206 BC-220 AD) 4.10 chapters - Wei (220-265) 5.40 chapters - Jin (265-420) 6.16 chapters - Liu Song (420-479) 7.10 chapters - Qi (479-502) 8.22 chapters - Liang (502-557) 9.10 chapters - Chen (557-589) 10.8 chapters - Sui (589-618 AD) 11.81 chapters - Tang (618-907) 12.6 chapters - Later Liang (907-923) 13.8 chapters - Later Tang (923-936) 14.6 chapters - Later Jin (936-947) 15.4 chapters - Later Han (947-951) 16.5 chapters - Later Zhou (951-960) The book includes Volume 167 to 176 covering Chen Dynasty among a series of books of Zi Zhi Tong Jian.