Meteorite Craters and Impact Structures of the Earth

Over 150 crater-producing events have been identified, and this book describes all 139 sites worldwide at which evidence of the impacts can be seen.

Meteorite Craters and Impact Structures of the Earth

Author: Paul Hodge

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521360927

Page: 124

View: 721

Over 150 crater-producing events have been identified, and this book describes all 139 sites worldwide at which evidence of the impacts can be seen. They range in age from recent craters formed this century to highly eroded billion-year-old craters. Some are spectacular to visit, such as the Barringer Crater in Arizona, the ring-shaped mountains of Gosses Bluff, Australia, and the huge crater at Ries in Germany. The author has visited many of the sites and his photographs enrich this thorough survey. For each site there is a summary table giving location, size, age and present condition. Maps are included where necessary. Meteorite craters are fascinating to visit, so the descriptions include guidance about access and suggested itineraries for the large structures.

Impact Craters in South America

A complete and updated catalogue of impact craters and structures in South America from 2014 is presented here.

Impact Craters in South America

Author: Rogelio Daniel Acevedo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319130935

Page: 104

View: 270

A complete and updated catalogue of impact craters and structures in South America from 2014 is presented here. Approximately eighty proven, suspected and disproven structures have been identified by several sources in this continent. All the impact sites of this large continent have been exhaustively reviewed: the proved ones, the possible ones and some very doubtful. Many sites remain without a clear geological "in situ" confirmation and some of them could be even rejected. Argentina and Brazil are leading the list containing almost everything detected. In Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Guyana, Paraguay, Perú, Uruguay and Venezuela only a few were observed. Only Ecuador is waiting for new discoveries. So far, the largest well stated impact site is still the Araguainha structure in Brazil with its 40 kilometers in diameter. However, two possible impact structures are larger than Araguainha: Malvinas, (with 250 kilometers in diameter) and Vichada in Colombia, (50 kilometers). This study also reports the existence of some Tertiary-Quaternary glassy impactite layers: the "escorias" and "tierras cocidas" of the pampas in Argentina.

Impact Craters of Earth

he term “crater” comes directly from Latin, where it was the word for cup. There is,
in fact, an ancient constellation named Crater, depicting a fancy goblet sitting on
the back of the constellation of Hydra, the sea serpent. It was Galileo Galilei ...

Impact Craters of Earth

Author: Thomas Wm. Hamilton

Publisher: Strategic Book Publishing & Rights Agency

ISBN: 1631353535

Page: 62

View: 296

Craters have been found on planets and moons throughout the solar system, caused when asteroids or meteors have collided with them. Our Earth has not escaped these impacts, and nearly 200 craters are known on Earth today. Some are easily visited, others are in locations few would ever want to get near. This book details all the known terrestrial impact craters, telling their age, size, and other details, as well as highlighting those easily visited. One has an annual “Craterfest” to attract tourists, while it is possible to swim in lakes that have filled others.

Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution V

In this volume, the geologic and planetary science communities explore impact events and how they affected the evolution of Earth and other planetary bodies. these papers are the outcome of a conference held every five years.

Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution V

Author: Gordon R. Osinski

Publisher: Geological Society of America

ISBN: 0813725186

Page: 227

View: 743

In this volume, the geologic and planetary science communities explore impact events and how they affected the evolution of Earth and other planetary bodies. these papers are the outcome of a conference held every five years.

Impact Cratering

This book seeks to fill a critical gap in the literature by providing an overview text covering broad aspects of the impact cratering process and aimed at graduate students, professionals and researchers alike.

Impact Cratering

Author: G. R. Osinski

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118447328

Page: 336

View: 474

Impact cratering is arguably the most ubiquitous geological process in the Solar System. It has played an important role in Earth’s history, shaping the geological landscape, affecting the evolution of life, and generating economic resources. However, it was only in the latter half of the 20th century that the importance of impact cratering as a geological process was recognized and only during the past couple of decades that the study of meteorite impact structures has moved into the mainstream. This book seeks to fill a critical gap in the literature by providing an overview text covering broad aspects of the impact cratering process and aimed at graduate students, professionals and researchers alike. It introduces readers to the threat and nature of impactors, the impact cratering process, the products, and the effects – both destructive and beneficial. A series of chapters on the various techniques used to study impact craters provide a foundation for anyone studying impact craters for the first time.

Impacts and the Early Earth

The papers in this volume were presented at a workshop sponsored by the European Science Foundation Scientific Network on Impact cratering held in Cambridge, UK, in December 1998.

Impacts and the Early Earth

Author: Iain Gilmour

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540465782

Page: 448

View: 773

Only 10% of the 150 or so known impact craters on Earth date from the early Precambrian Era, a time period covering some 88% of the Earth's history. Yet this Era encompasses fundamental events in the origin and evolution of our planet from the origin of life itself to the development of continents. The papers in this volume were presented at a workshop sponsored by the European Science Foundation Scientific Network on Impact cratering held in Cambridge, UK, in December 1998. The papers outline the present state of scientific understanding of the role impacts may have played in the biological and geological evolution of the Early Earth.

Impact Stratigraphy

Impact craters are almost always circular. On the Moon, with its surface covered
by impact craters, only a small number of non-circular features are known. On
Earth there are also only few structures that result either from highly oblique
impacts ...

Impact Stratigraphy

Author: Alessandro Montanari

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540483667

Page: 366

View: 422

This book provides a general introduction to impact stratigraphy, with emphasis on the recognition of distal impact ejecta in the field, by focusing on the impactoclastic layers of the Umbria-Marche sequence in Central Italy, with an almost perfect stratigraphic record over the last 200 Million years. A general introduction to impact cratering and a discussion of distal ejecta and impact layers around the world is followed by a detailed description of the record of the impact of extraterrestrial bodies in sediments of the Umbria-Marche Apennines. The volume is of interest to a diverse audience in the geological and planetary sciences, ranging from (upper) undergraduate to research level. This book can also be used by students and researchers as a field guide to some of the most important Italian impact layers.

Catastrophic Events and Mass Extinctions

Special Paper 356 2002 Geophysical constraints on the size and structure of the
Chicxulub impact crater Joanna Morgan* Mike Warner* Department of Earth
Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BP, UK Richard
Grieve* ...

Catastrophic Events and Mass Extinctions

Author: Christian Koeberl

Publisher: Geological Society of America

ISBN: 9780813723563

Page: 746

View: 541

Defending Planet Earth

Images of many solar system objects are dominated by craters formed throughout
the past 4.5 billion years. Smaller airless ... Earth's Moon has been used to
determine variation in the rate of impacts since the earliest days of the solar
system.

Defending Planet Earth

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309149681

Page: 152

View: 966

The United States spends approximately $4 million each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

Impacts on Earth

Impact. Energy. Flux. on. Earth. in. the. Last. 150. Ma. as. Inferred. from. the.
Cratering. Records. Adriano Campo Bagatin1,4, Alessandro Montanari2,3 and
Paolo Farinella1 1 Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Pisa Via Buonarroti
2, ...

Impacts on Earth

Author: Daniel Benest

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540642091

Page: 248

View: 716

Impact phenomena play an essential role in the formation of planets and great influence during their evolution. The first part of this book describes the dynamics that propels asteroids in our solar system; the second part is devoted to impact phenomena; the third inspects terrestrial impacts of asteroids and the hazards due to space debris orbiting our planet. The book addresses scientists working in astronomy, extraterrestrial physics and geophysics. But it should also be of great interest to a learned public that wants to know about the most recent developments in this fast-moving field of theoretical and observational research.

The Cataclysmic Impact

Earth's biggest crater is revealed. This is the "genesis" of Earth's ruined surface topography unveiling a sweeping advance of uncharted science.

The Cataclysmic Impact

Author: D. R. Harp

Publisher: Trafford on Demand Pub

ISBN: 9781425173265

Page: 308

View: 582

The Cataclysmic Impact unearths the grandeur of Earth's 'largest' impact. A near-Earth sized object crashed into our planet. It produced a crater on Earth's surface, more immense than any other current or past recorded impact craters combined. Earth's biggest crater is revealed. This is the "genesis" of Earth's ruined surface topography unveiling a sweeping advance of uncharted science. Features Include: - How Earth’s 'great' mountain ranges came into existence, much to the contrary of current mountain uplift theories. - The sudden inception for planet Earth’s great continents, and/or tectonic plates. - The origins of our planet’s earthquakes, ocean ridges, trenches, and volcanic eruptions. - The source of Earth’s greatest Ice Age, and explaining how the earth attained its accumulations of oceanic water, almost inundating the bedrock. - Articulating the Paleo eras of Pangaea, it explains the earth surface shattering to continental break up to continental drift. - And finally… the actual impact; of which, suddenly annihilated Earth’s dinosaur populations (…with a special challenge for the Chicxulub Crater theory .) The Impact is despairingly lacked in all science publications… It will hold as a must read, primed, and activating our generation to a new era of re-structured, consummate and ensuing Earth history… for the many years to come.

Exploring Space Exploring Earth

New Understanding of the Earth from Space Research Paul D. Lowman Jr, Paul
D. Lowman ... 5.7 Economic importance of terrestrial impact structures The term
impact structures, rather than craters, is used here to emphasize at once that ...

Exploring Space  Exploring Earth

Author: Paul D. Lowman Jr

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521890625

Page: 362

View: 936

An account of the impact of space exploration on our understanding of the geology and geophysics of Earth.

Asteroids Comets and Meteorites

Looks at asteroids, comets and meteorites, including what they are, how they are formed, how they have affected the history of Earth, and definitions of related terms.

Asteroids  Comets  and Meteorites

Author: Jon Erickson

Publisher: Infobase Publishing

ISBN: 1438109628

Page: 273

View: 882

The impact event that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs was not an isolated occurrence, for, as the foreword writer reminds us, a near-miss with an asteroid occurred in 1996. Erickson, an independent Colorado-based geologist, provides students beginning to study the Earth sciences and general readers with a lucid introduction to the bearers of such planetary impacts and their ongoing role in shaping our solar system. The book features numerous b&w illustrations, including recent photos taken from spacecraft, and a glossary with a pronunciation guide.

Biological Processes Associated with Impact Events

The biological effects of asteroid and comet impacts have been widely viewed as primarily destructive.

Biological Processes Associated with Impact Events

Author: Charles Cockell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540257365

Page: 376

View: 321

The biological effects of asteroid and comet impacts have been widely viewed as primarily destructive. The role of an impactor in the K/T boundary extinctions has had a particularly important influence on thinking concerning the role of impacts in ecological and biological changes. th During the 10 and final workshop of the ESF IMPACT program during March 2003, we sought to investigate the wider aspects of the involvement of impact events in biological processes, including the beneficial role of these events from the prebiotic through to the ecosystem level. The ESF IMPACT programme (1998-2003) was an interdisciplinary effort that is aimed at understanding impact processes and their effects on the Earth environment, including environmental, geological and biological changes. The IMPACT programme has 15 member states and the activities of the programme range from workshops to short courses on topics such as impact stratigraphy, shock metamorphism, etc. The program has also awarded mobility grants and been involved in the development of teaching aids and numerous publications, including this one.

Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids

THE RECORD OF PAST IMPACTS ON EARTH RICHARD A. F. GRIEVE
Geological Survey of Canada and EUGENE M. SHOEMAKER United States
Geological Survey There are currently ~ 140 known hypervelocity impact craters
on Earth .

Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids

Author: Tom Gehrels

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816515059

Page: 1300

View: 880

In 1993, the U.S. Department of Defense declassified information dealing with frequent explosions in the upper atmosphere caused by meteoric impact. It is estimated that impacts have occurred of a magnitude equivalent to the atomic bomb detonated at Hiroshima. Not all such space voyagers meet their end in the atmosphere, however; huge craters attest to the bombardment of earth over millions of years, and a major impact may have resulted in the extinction of dinosaurs. An impact in Siberia near the beginning of this century proves that such events are not confined to geologic time. Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids marks a significant step in the attempt to come to grips with the threats posed by such phenomena. It brings together more than one hundred scientists from around the world, who draw on observational and theoretical research to focus on the technical problems related to all aspects of dealing with these hazards: searching for and identifying hazardous comets and asteroids; describing their statistics and characteristics; intercepting and altering the orbits of dangerous objects; and applying existent technologies—rocket boosters, rendezvous and soft-landing techniques, instrumentation—to such missions. The book considers defensive options for diverting or disrupting an approaching body, including solar sails, kinetic-energy impacts, nuclear explosives, robotic mass drivers, and various propulsion systems. A cataclysmic impact posing a threat to life on Earth is a possibility that tomorrow's technology is capable of averting. This book examines in depth the reality of the threat and proposes practical measures that can be initiated now should we ever need to deal with it.

Earth

RELATIVE AGE DATING OF COSMIC AND TERRESTRIAL EVENTS : THE
CRATERING RECORD 10 km a b Figure 7.1 . ... Projectiles impact with velocities
imparted by virtue of their orbital motion and the gravitational pull of the target
planet .

Earth

Author: Jonathan I. Lunine

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521644235

Page: 319

View: 340

This is an outstanding overview of the history of the Earth from a unique planetary perspective for introductory courses in the earth sciences. The book approaches Earth history as an evolution, encompassing the origin of the cosmos through the inner working of living cells. Earth: Evolution of a Habitable Planet tells how the Earth has come to its present state, why it differs from its neighboring planets, what life's place is in Earth's history, and how humanity affects the processes that make our planet livable. Today's human influences are contemplated in the context of natural changes on Earth. This book brings a fresh perspective to the study of the Earth for students who wish to learn how our planet evolved to its present form.

Global Catastrophes in Earth History An Interdisciplinary Conference on Impacts Volcanism and Mass Mortality

Impact-melt-bearing breccias (suevite) were deposited inside the crater (crater
suevite) and deposited on top of the Bunte ... Studies of large craters on Earth,
and of their associated deposits, may answer important questions on the nature
of ...

Global Catastrophes in Earth History  An Interdisciplinary Conference on Impacts  Volcanism  and Mass Mortality

Author: Virgil L. Sharpton

Publisher: Geological Society of America

ISBN: 0813722470

Page: 631

View: 308

The conference was held in Snowbird, Utah, October 1988, as a sequel to the Conference on Large Body Impacts held in 1981, also in Snowbird. This volume contains 58 peer-reviewed papers, arranged into sections that cover the major themes of the conference: catastrophic impacts, volcanism, and mass mortality; geological signatures of impacts; environmental effects of impacts; patterns of mass mortality; volcanism and its effects; case histories of mass mortalities; and events and extinctions at the K/T boundary. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Alternative Accountabilities in Global Politics

1 The account of the scar Theory and methods During “breaks” in the writing
about scars, I became interested in the processes through which meteor impact
craters were discovered on Earth, and pondered whether, and how, they might ...

Alternative Accountabilities in Global Politics

Author: Brent J. Steele

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136179275

Page: 208

View: 555

In fields such as politics, international relations, public administration and international law, there is a rapidly growing interest in the topic of ‘accountability’. In this innovative new work, Steele shows how we might recognize how an alternative form of accountability in global politics has been present for some time, and that, furthermore, this form’s continued presence remains one of the most politically powerful, if not endurable, possibilities for resistance in the near future. This book argues that the physical and visually shocking outcomes of violence found on the bodies of humans, as well as the buildings and landscapes which surround us, specifically the scars they leave behind, remain one of our most compelling forms of accountability. Steele develops the theoretical argument on scars and exteriority utilizing insights from several philosophical and theoretical resources including Hannah Arendt, Erving Goffmann, and Richard Rorty. The work examines scars and their effects through several illustrations, including the accounts of Emmett Till, Iranian protestor Neda Agha-Soltan, the Syrian boy Hamza al-Khateeb, the massacre in WWII and then memorializing throughout the 20th century of the Lidice children in the modern-day Czech Republic, the particular architecturally destructive outcomes of the 2008-9 Gaza War, the loss of the Twin Towers in New York, as well as a variety of violent scars found on the landscapes of Europe and Southeast Asia. Emphasizing the importance of the space and ‘time’ of scars, the book illustrates how an alternative form of accountability in the scar can be a useful, disruptive, spontaneous, but also creative practice to challenge the discourses of violence which remain with us today.

Impact

This book shows the threats and precarious nature of life here.

Impact

Author: Gerrit L. Verschuur

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195119193

Page: 237

View: 361

Most scientists now agree that some sixty-five million years ago, an immense comet slammed into the Yucatan, detonating a blast twenty million times more powerful than the largest hydrogen bomb, punching a hole ten miles deep in the earth. Trillions of tons of rock were vaporized and launched into the atmosphere. For a thousand miles in all directions, vegetation burst into flames. There were tremendous blast waves, searing winds, showers of molten matter from the sky, earthquakes, and a terrible darkness that cut out sunlight for a year, enveloping the planet in freezing cold. Thousands of species of plants and animals were obliterated, including the dinosaurs, some of which may have become extinct in a matter of hours. In Impact, Gerrit L. Verschuur offers an eye-opening look at such catastrophic collisions with our planet. Perhaps more important, he paints an unsettling portrait of the possibility of new collisions with earth, exploring potential threats to our planet and describing what scientists are doing right now to prepare for this awful possibility. Every day something from space hits our planet, Verschuur reveals. In fact, about 10,000 tons of space debris fall to earth every year, mostly in meteoric form. The author recounts spectacular recent sightings, such as over Allende, Mexico, in 1969, when a fireball showered the region with four tons of fragments, and the twenty-six pound meteor that went through the trunk of a red Chevy Malibu in Peekskill, New York, in 1992 (the meteor was subsequently sold for $69,000 and the car itself fetched $10,000). But meteors are not the greatest threat to life on earth, the author points out. The major threats are asteroids and comets. The reader discovers that astronomers have located some 350 NEAs ("Near Earth Asteroids"), objects whose orbits cross the orbit of the earth, the largest of which are 1627 Ivar (6 kilometers wide) and 1580 Betula (8 kilometers). Indeed, we learn that in 1989, a bus-sized asteroid called Asclepius missed our planet by 650,000 kilometers (a mere six hours), and that in 1994 a sixty-foot object passed within 180,000 kilometers, half the distance to the moon. Comets, of course, are even more deadly. Verschuur provides a gripping description of the small comet that exploded in the atmosphere above the Tunguska River valley in Siberia, in 1908, in a blinding flash visible for several thousand miles (every tree within sixty miles of ground zero was flattened). He discusses Comet Swift-Tuttle--"the most dangerous object in the solar system"--a comet far larger than the one that killed off the dinosaurs, due to pass through earth's orbit in the year 2126. And he recounts the collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter in 1994, as some twenty cometary fragments struck the giant planet over the course of several days, casting titanic plumes out into space (when Fragment G hit, it outshone the planet on the infrared band, and left a dark area at the impact site larger than the Great Red Spot). In addition, the author describes the efforts of Spacewatch and other groups to locate NEAs, and evaluates the idea that comet and asteroid impacts have been an underrated factor in the evolution of life on earth. Astronomer Herbert Howe observed in 1897: "While there are not definite data to reason from, it is believed that an encounter with the nucleus of one of the largest comets is not to be desired." As Verschuur shows in Impact, we now have substantial data with which to support Howe's tongue-in-cheek remark. Whether discussing monumental tsunamis or the innumerable comets in the Solar System, this book will enthrall anyone curious about outer space, remarkable natural phenomenon, or the future of the planet earth.