Measuring the Value of Culture

Such values relate to the public good nature of the arts and are sometimes
referred to as positive externalities because ... There are a number of ways in
which the value of externalities provided by public goods may be measured and
they can ...

Measuring the Value of Culture

Author: Jeanette D. Snowball

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 354074360X

Page: 230

View: 790

This book documents the use of methods that put a value on cultural goods, including theater, cultural events, museums, archeological sites, and libraries. The author sets forth the advantages and disadvantages of each method using case studies to illustrate how they work. Moreover, the theoretical background of the methods and the kind of information they can provide are discussed. Both market and non-market valuation techniques are covered.

Using Surveys to Value Public Goods

Choice of Benefit Measure The traditional measure of consumer benefits ,
proposed by Dupuit in the nineteenth century ... demand curve is the line marked
D and price is assumed to be zero , as is typically the case with pure public
goods .

Using Surveys to Value Public Goods

Author: Robert Cameron Mitchell

Publisher: Resources for the Future

ISBN: 9780915707324

Page: 463

View: 424

Provides decision makers, policy analysts, and social scientists, with a detailed discussion of a new techniques for the valuation of goods not traded in prevate markets.

Measuring the Social Value of Local Public Goods an Empirical Analysis Within Paris Metropolitan Area

Abstract: We use a non-linear hedonic model to estimate the implicit prices of 17 local public goods in a Paris suburban area on an original data set of some 8200 housing units.

Measuring the Social Value of Local Public Goods  an Empirical Analysis Within Paris Metropolitan Area

Author: Alessandra Michelangeli

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 385

Abstract: We use a non-linear hedonic model to estimate the implicit prices of 17 local public goods in a Paris suburban area on an original data set of some 8200 housing units. The results reveal a robust effect of local public school quality (measured both by the fraction of junior high school students that are at least 2 years behind grade level and the student/teacher ratio) on house prices. It is observed that housing owners' marginal willingness to pay for reducing commuting time is roughly similar for public transportation than for car transportation. Another noticeable result is the complete capitalization of local taxes at a discount rate of 3.5%. An illustration of the potential usefulness of the results for cost-benefit analysis is also provided

Measuring Water Quality Benefits

That is , contingent valuation can accurately measure values of environmental
amenities -- that individuals can easily ... organized around a discussion of
potential " biases " in using contingent valuation to measure the values of public
goods .

Measuring Water Quality Benefits

Author: V. Kerry Smith

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780898381818

Page: 328

View: 288

Almost 5 years ago we began working together on research for the U.S. Environmental Protec tion Agency (EPA) to measure the benefits of water quality regulations. EPA had awarded a contract to Research Triangle Inst~ute (RTIl in response to a proposal that Bill wrote on measuring these benefits. After meeting with the EPA project officer, Dr Ann Fisher, the basic outlines of what would become this research were framed. Upon the suggestion of Bob Anderson, then chief of the Benefits Branch at EPA, we selected the Monongahela River as the focal point of a case study that would compare alternative benefit measurement approaches. Exactly how this case study would be done remained vague, but Ann urged that there be a survey and that nonuse benefits be included in the question naire design. Of course, Bill agreed. At the same time, Kerry was independently working on a review article that tied together some of the loose threads in the option value literature. He had also been thinking about how to measure option value, as well as working on ways to generalize the travel cost approach for estimating benefits of site attributes. Glenn Morris at RTI suggested that Bill have lunch with him and Kerry and that they could talk about Bill's research to see if there were any mutual interest. Over the lunch and Bill's ever present dessert in a Chapel Hill restaurant, we found out just how much we have in common.

New Approaches to the Economics of Plant Health

CHAPTER 8 ESTIMATING THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF TREES AT RISK FROM
A QUARANTINE DISEASE FRANCISCO J. ... However, few studies have ever
quantitavely measured the value of environmental public goods that specific ...

New Approaches to the Economics of Plant Health

Author: Alfons G.J.M. Oude Lansink

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402058264

Page: 202

View: 103

The world trade of plants and plant products is gradually increasing in both quantity and variety. Also, as more and more citizens are nowadays travelling to distant destinations, there is an increased risk of unintentionally importing harmful organisms and invasive species. Governments respond to increased phytosanitary risks by imposing trade-restricting measures. However, they are under increasing pressure of the private sector and the World Trade Organization to justify costly and trade-restricting phytosanitary policies. On the other side, current phytosanitary policies are required to account for impacts on the environment. This book presents a number of recent scientific developments regarding the economic analysis of impacts that harmful organisms have on agriculture and the environment, and of measures to control these organisms. It also contains a number of new approaches that integrate economic and epidemiological modelling and economic approaches for measuring these impacts.

Measuring Your Library s Value

How to Do a Cost-Benefit Analysis for Your Public Library Donald S. Elliott, Glen
E. Holt, Sterling W. Hayden, Leslie Edmonds Holt. Cost-benefit analysis is a
powerful tool for decision making because it measures both benefits and costs in
 ...

Measuring Your Library s Value

Author: Donald S. Elliott

Publisher: American Library Association

ISBN: 9780838909232

Page: 181

View: 905

With tax-funded organizations under microscopic scrutiny, library directors need to make a strong public case for the value their library provides. Measuring Your Library's Value, designed to serve large to medium-sized public libraries, gives librarians the tools to conduct a defensible and credible Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA). Based on research funded by IMLS and PLA, this hands-on reference covers the economic basics with librarian-friendly terms and examples, preparing library leaders to collaborate with economist-consultants. Library directors and trustees will learn how to credibly measure the dollars and cents value your community receives from library services and access proven examples for communicating what different community stakeholders need to hear.

Measuring Quality

no "market prices“ for services can be determined, two other ways have been
tried for assessing the economic value of ... Using surveys to value public goods,
the contingent valuation method, Resources for the Future, Washington 41Aabø,
 ...

Measuring Quality

Author: Roswitha Poll

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3598440286

Page: 269

View: 913

The first edition of this handbook appeared in 1996 and dealt with academic libraries. It gained wide acceptance and was translated into five other languages. After ten years the new edition widens the perspective to public libraries and adds indicators for electronic services and cost-effectiveness. The handbook has been considerably enlarged, from 17 to 40 indicators. It gives practical help by showing examples of possible results for each indicator. The handbook is intended as practical instrument for the evaluation of library services. Although it aims specifically at academic and public libraries, most indicators will also apply to all other types of libraries.

Valuing Cultural Heritage

Bishop R. and T. Heberlein 1979: "Measuring the Values of Extra-Market Goods:
Are Indirect Measures Biased'?''. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 5,
926-30. Comes R. and T. Sandler 1986: The Theory of Externalities, Public ...

Valuing Cultural Heritage

Author: S. Navrud (ed.)

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781843765455

Page: 280

View: 963

What value do we place on our cultural heritage, and to what extent should we preserve historic and culturally important sites and artefacts from the ravages of weather, pollution, development and use by the general public? This innovative book attempts t

The Public Budgeting and Finance Primer

This disparityisasignificant difference between economists and public
administrators or budget officers regarding cost benefitanalysis. Similarly,ifa ... It
is often very difficult to accurately measure the social value of public goods.
Sometimes ...

The Public Budgeting and Finance Primer

Author: Jay Eungha Ryu

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317455088

Page: 320

View: 403

This primer succinctly summarises key theoretical concepts in fiscal choice for both practitioners and scholars. The author contends that fiscal choice is ultimately a choice of both politics and economics. The book first introduces budget institutions and processes at various levels of government, which restrict budget decision makers' discretion. It also explains budget decision makers' efforts to make rational resource allocations. It then shows how and why such efforts are stymied by the decision makers' capacity and institutional settings. The book's unique benefit is its emphasis on all the essential topics, with short, module-type chapters which can be read in any order.

The Measurement of Environmental and Resource Values

Summary Economists seek measures of values that are based on the
preferences of individuals. When value measures are derived ... Using Surveys to
Value Public Goods: The Contingent Valuation Method. Washington, D.C.:
Resources for ...

The Measurement of Environmental and Resource Values

Author: A. Myrick Freeman III

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317703936

Page: 478

View: 381

The first edition of this important work was the winner of the 2002 Publication of Enduring Quality award by the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. The continuing premise for the book is that estimates of the economic values of environmental and natural resource services are essential for effective policy-making. As previous editions, the third edition, which includes two additional co-authors, presents a comprehensive treatment of the theory and methods involved in estimating environmental benefits. Researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners will welcome the work as an up-to-date reference on recent developments. Students will gain a better understanding of the contribution that economics as a discipline can make to decisions concerning pollution control and human health, recreation, environmental amenities, and other critical issues concerning the way we use and interact with environmental and natural resource systems. To reflect recent progress in both the theory and practice of non-market valuation, the third edition includes more details on empirical approaches to measurement, expanded discussion of the reasons for divergence between "willingness to pay" and "willingness to accept compensation," and increased coverage of econometric issues encountered in estimation. In keeping with its cutting edge orientation, it also includes more discussion of survey design, equilibrium sorting models, and the implications of behavioral economics for welfare measurements and benefit cost analysis.

Valuing the Environment Methodological and Measurement Issues

NONUSE VALUE: DEFINITION AND MEASUREMENT 1 85 goods and the NUV
of the resource, delineating possible ... These state that individuals who value a
public good such as existence and who are informed as to total funds needed to
 ...

Valuing the Environment  Methodological and Measurement Issues

Author: Rüdiger Pethig

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792326021

Page: 348

View: 590

During the last decades, environmental economics as a science has been very successful in improving our understanding of environment-economy interdepen dence. Using conventional economic methodology, environmental aspects have been explicitly incorporated into economic models making use of the concept of externality. This concept was already familiar to economists long before evidence of severe environmental deterioration found its way into the headlines and peo ple's awareness. But before that time, external effects were not considered as being empirically very relevant, they seemed to be -like the example of the bees and the fruit trees - somewhat bucolic in nature. All that changed dramatically when it was no longer possible (or easy) to ignore the large-scale environmental disruption with its negative feedback on consumers and producers caused by growing pollution and excessive use of environmental resources. In diagnosing the discrepancy between private and social cost as the cause of the problem, the externality paradigm proved very useful. The correct diagnosis implies the straightforward cure to internalise all external cost, namely the damage cost of pollution. But it is one thing to identify the qualitative nature of the problem at an abstract conceptual level and quite another thing to place specific money values on pollution damage and society's valuation of the environment, respectively, in the context of specific pollution (control) problems. Very often it is controversial not only how inefficient the no-policy situation is but also what exactly the net benefit of any public action of reducing pollution is.

Economic Losses from Marine Pollution

Indirect (or imputed) techniques obtain ex post measures of welfare, that is,
welfare measures based on activity that has already occurred (i.e., observed ... of
public goods, and (3) revealed preferences for the money value of public goods.

Economic Losses from Marine Pollution

Author: Douglas D. Ofiara

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9781597263474

Page: 203

View: 826

Marine pollution causes significant damage to fisheries and other economically productive uses of the ocean. The value of that damage can be quantified by economists, but the meanings of those valuations and how they are derived are often obscure to noneconomists.Economic Losses from Marine Pollution brings a fuller understanding of the variety and extent of marine losses and how they are assessed to scientists, lawyers, and environmentalists by systematically identifying and classifying marine losses and relating them to models and methods of economic valuation. The authors use a step-by-step approach to show how economists have used these methods and how they approach the problem of assessing economic damage.The book begins by describing the importance of economic valuation of marine damages, the history of concern over marine pollution, and the development of economic methodologies to assess damage from it. Following that, the book: considers types of marine pollution and their effects on organisms, ecosystems, and humans, and the corresponding economic effects of those biological impacts introduces the economic principles and methods needed to understand and to assess economic damages expresses losses from water quality impairments in terms of economic value introduces the basic economic techniques that have been developed and used to measure changes in economic value discusses how to apply those economic techniques, and presents a variety of practical examples explores limitations and problems that can arise in such applied work.Economic Losses from Marine Pollution includes all of the relevant economic theory together with specific examples of how that theory has been and can be applied. It offers environmental professionals with little or no background in economics the basic economic tools needed to understand economic valuations of environmental damage, and represents a unique handbook for environmental and marine scientists, lawyers, economists, policy professionals, and anyone interested in issues of marine water quality.

The Measurement of Environmental and Resource Values

Given the absence of markets for public goods and environmental goods, how
can information on demand and benefits be obtained? As described in Chapter 2
, there are basically two approaches to obtaining demand and value information
 ...

The Measurement of Environmental and Resource Values

Author: A. Myrick Freeman

Publisher: Resources for the Future

ISBN: 9781891853623

Page: 491

View: 253

Non-market valuation is becoming increasingly accepted as an evaluative tool of economics related to environmental and resource protection. Freeman (economics, Bowdoin College) presents an overview of the literature, introducing the principal methods and techniques of resource valuation. Chapters cover the measurement of welfare changes, revealed and stated preference models, nonuse models, aggregation of values across time, environmental quality as factor input, longevity and health valuation, property value models, hedonic wage models, and recreational uses of natural resource systems. Annotation (c)2003 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com).

The Measurement of Environmental and Resource Values

Given the absence of markets for public goods and environmental goods, how
can information on demand and benefits be obtained? As described in Chapter 2
, there are basically two approaches to obtaining demand and value information
 ...

The Measurement of Environmental and Resource Values

Author: Myrick Freeman, III

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136522425

Page: 512

View: 702

First Published in 2003. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Impact assessment of the IFPRI agricultural science and technology indicators ASTI project

... these international public goods. Therefore, determining ASTI's value requires
measuring the value of these unique agricultural research investment data and
information in affecting policy decisions. Factors that complicate the
measurement ...

Impact assessment of the IFPRI agricultural science and technology indicators  ASTI  project

Author: Norton, George W.

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN:

Page: 50

View: 692

Well-funded and well-staffed agricultural research systems with efficient allocation of research resources are important for improving agricultural productivity and for meeting other agricultural development goals. Assessing research system funding adequacy and staffing, as compared to alternative investments, and allocating research resources within systems require data on agricultural research investments. The Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative at IFPRI is the most comprehensive source of agricultural research statistics for low- and middle-income countries. Since 2001, building on an earlier International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR) effort, ASTI has developed a network of institutional collaborators at national and regional levels who assist in implementing surveys to collect agricultural research investment data in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America. ASTI compiles, processes, and publicizes the data at national, regional, and global levels. It has published a broad set of country briefs, notes, and regional synthesis reports that have been cited in national and international policy documents. The primary outputs from ASTI are the country data sets, which are now published on the website, http://www.asti.cgiar.org/. Data are published for 32 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, 15 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, 5 countries in South Asia, 7 countries in East and Southeast Asia, 5 countries in the Middle East and North Africa, and 1 country in the Pacific. The ASTI website’s Data Tool aids in accessing the data. The website’s readers can click on a world map to find for individual countries’ data on five types of research expenditure variables (in US$ and PPPs), five types of research staff variables, and five research share variables. Readers can then plot variables against each other in a graph or export and download data in Excel files. Data can also be uploaded using a survey form available in three languages. Since 2004, ASTI has produced 91 country-level publications: 50 country briefs, notes, and reports and 16 fact sheets on gender-disaggregated capacity indicators for Sub-Saharan Africa; 13 briefs and reports for the Asia-Pacific region, 5 for the Middle East and North Africa, and 7 for Latin America and the Caribbean. ASTI researchers themselves have conducted relatively few in-depth analyses using the data, but they have teamed with other researchers on papers and presentations and other researchers have made significant use of ASTI data.

Natural Resources

Pages 147-168 All Rights of reproduction in any form reserved Natural
Resources: Assessing Nonmarket Values Through ... to estimate the nonuse
value of public goods — generally defined as the value people place on certain
goods simply because those goods exist. ... Critics object to its use, arguing that
such surveys of existence values are not comparable to the traditional measures
of utilitarian ...

Natural Resources

Author: A. M. Babkina

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781560729020

Page: 246

View: 854

Countries rich in natural resources must manage them wisely or risk a diminution of the standard of living of its citizens. A major threat, however, lurks behind every door in the form of greedy developers and other short-term thinkers. This book examines key issues related to the natural resources of the United States.

The Persistence of Innovation in Government

Moore argued that private value can be measured by the market test, but public
value cannot because it involves pure public goods, or at least goods that
politicians have decided will be provided by the public sector without charge to
users ...

The Persistence of Innovation in Government

Author: Sandford F. Borins

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press with Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation

ISBN: 0815725604

Page: 230

View: 644

Sandford Borins addresses the enduring significance of innovation in government as practiced by public servants, analyzed by scholars, discussed by media, documented by awards, and experienced by the public. In The Persistence of Innovation in Government, he maps the changing landscape of American public sector innovation in the twenty-first century, largely by addressing three key questions: • Who innovates? • When, why, and how do they do it? • What are the persistent obstacles and the proven methods for overcoming them? Probing both the process and the content of innovation in the public sector, Borins identifies major shifts and important continuities. His examination of public innovation combines several elements: his analysis of the Harvard Kennedy School’s Innovations in American Government Awards program; significant new research on government performance; and a fresh look at the findings of his earlier, highly praised book Innovating with Integrity: How Local Heroes Are Transforming American Government. He also offers a thematic survey of the field’s burgeoning literature, with a particular focus on international comparison.

The Economic Valuation of the Environment and Public Policy

It is reasonable to examine the economic values of these measures using the
hedonic approach if the regulations satisfy the conditions discussed in the
theoretical part of this book, especially if they are local public goods. We shall
now ...

The Economic Valuation of the Environment and Public Policy

Author: Noboru Hidano

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781843767152

Page: 167

View: 291

The Economic Valuation of the Environment and Public Policy fills an important gap in economic literature by providing a comprehensive account of hedonic pricing and its use in valuation of environmental amenities. . . . It should be invaluable to anyone contemplating undertaking a hedonic pricing study of an environmental amenity, as it contains practical advice on a myriad of modeling issues. Likewise, it should be of value to anyone wishing to thoroughly understand and critique the results of a hedonic pricing exercise. Richard T. Carson, Environment I appreciate this book s blend between theory and applications. It contains an informative review of the development of the theory of the hedonic price technique as well as an insightful analysis of the econometrics of the approach. Noboru Hidano has a gift for breaking down the difficult theoretical and econometric problems into simple and manageable proportions. Per-Olov Johansson, Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden The importance of the hedonic valuation approach in public policy evaluation and environmental value estimation is now widely accepted. This book is especially designed to illustrate the basic assumptions of the hedonic approach and highlight the strengths and weaknesses associated with it. Combining rigorous theoretical analysis, detailed empirical studies and an extensive history of hedonic valuation, the book is both a good introductory text to the field and a precise yet comprehensive aid for professionals and practitioners alike. Some of the book s special features include: a comprehensive explanation of the basic theorem extensive discussions on the utility of the approach in the evaluation of both small-scale and large-scale projects detailed explanations of how the approach can best be applied to cost benefit analysis an examination of the applicability of the hedonic method by comparing estimated values for various environmental and public services an illustration of public policy and environmental valuation using readily-understood examples. The Economic Valuation of the Environment and Public Policy will be essential reading for students of environmental and ecological economics, environmental science and technology specialists, and all those who are interested in the evaluation of public sector projects.

Determining the Value of Non Marketed Goods

Few participants in the debate argue with the concept of passive use value;
rather both the public and academic ... Valdez oil spill, the CV method had
become increasingly accepted for measuring the benefits of environmental policy
actions.

Determining the Value of Non Marketed Goods

Author: Raymond J. Kopp

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792399803

Page: 333

View: 897

Contingent valuation (CV) measures what is called passive use value or existence value. The CV method has been used to measure the benefits of environmental policy actions. CV measures of economic value rely on choice. In CV studies, choices are posed to people in surveys; analysts then use the responses to these choice questions to construct monetary measures of value. The specific mechanism used to elicit respondents' choices can take a variety of forms, including asking survey respondents whether they would purchase, vote, or pay for a program or some other well-defined object of choice. It can also be a direct elicitation of the amount each respondent would be willing to pay (WTP) to obtain an object of choice or the amount each respondent would be willing to accept (WTA) in compensation to give it up. This volume is composed of three sections. The first section provides background into the issues underlying the public and academic discussion regarding CV and the reliability of CV estimates of economic value. In addition, this section reviews the theory underlying the measurement of economic value and discusses those aspects of the theory most relevant to CV. The second section focuses on issues that have formed the core of the CV discussions including: sensitivity of WTP estimates to the size of the program offered, tests for theoretical consistency of CV results, and the sensitivity of results to context and numerous other features of the survey and its administration. The final section addresses the application of CV to actual economic valuation tasks and discusses the types of practical problems the CV researcher will encounter.