Microwave Discharges

Specialists in different areas of microwave plasma physics, technique, and plasma processing cover all problems of theory, experiments, and applications of microwave discharges, and yield the state-of-the-art trends.

Microwave Discharges

Author: Yu A. Lebedev

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781934939086

Page: 296

View: 665

Specialists in different areas of microwave plasma physics, technique, and plasma processing cover all problems of theory, experiments, and applications of microwave discharges, and yield the state-of-the-art trends.

Microwave Discharges

Proceedings of a NATO ARW held in Vimeiro, Portugal, May 11-15, 1992

Microwave Discharges

Author: Carlos M. Ferreira

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489911308

Page: 564

View: 763

Proceedings of a NATO ARW held in Vimeiro, Portugal, May 11-15, 1992

Physics of Microwave Discharges

In the case of breakdown produced by a microwave field with amplitude E/Ethr =
3 at an altitude z ≈ 80 km, the microwave radiation ... A microwave discharge in
the atmosphere can induce local changes in the chemical constitution of the air.

Physics of Microwave Discharges

Author: A Gurevich

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135142436X

Page: 208

View: 256

A comprehensive and unique account of the creation of artificially ionized layers in the middle and upper atmosphere, using powerful radio waves. Major physical mechanisms associated with the formation of the ionized region are studied in detail. The main part of the author's research is devoted to problems associated with the breakdown mechanisms for radio frequency discharges in air. A special chapter deals with breakdown in intersecting pulsed beams and the effects of recombination, diffusion and atmospheric winds on the stability of the structure. The kinetics of the plasma produced are also described. The authors examine possibilities of inducing changes in the chemical composition of the upper atmosphere by means of radio frequence heating, with promising effects on the concentration of constituents such as ozone. The feasibility of using this phenomenon for; ozone healing - in connection with the ozone holes in the polar regions is investigated. The text is a timely treatment of key topics in the field of ionospheric modification.

Microwave Power Engineering

... “The reaction between carbon and the products of hydrogen, oxygen and water
microwave discharges,” Carbon, vol. ... “The rearrangement of acetylene,
benzene, ethane, ethylene, methane, and naphthalene in a microwave discharge
,” J.

Microwave Power Engineering

Author: Ernest C. Okress

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483221822

Page: 432

View: 399

Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 2: Applications introduces the electronics technology of microwave power and its applications. This technology emphasizes microwave electronics for direct power utilization and transmission purposes. This volume presents the accomplishments with respect to components, systems, and applications and their prevailing limitations in the light of knowledge of the microwave power technology. The applications discussed include the microwave heating and other processes of materials, which utilize the magnetron predominantly. Other applications include microwave ionized gases for chemical processing, space (propulsion), and scientific (controlled nuclear fusion) purposes; particle accelerators for scientific, medical, and industrial purposes; military and aerospace for phased array focused microwave energy, experimental vehicle hovering; and dynamics, for experimental microwave motors and experimental waveguide vehicle transport. This text also provides recommendations with respect to what can be done to accelerate a balanced growth of the subject and to attract more creative interest and support.

Plasma and High Frequency Processes for Obtaining and Processing Materials in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

The same microwave discharges are classified, depending on pressure, into
three groups: 1. the discharges of low pressure (to 10 torr); these discharges are
similar according to the properties to DC-glow discharge excluding more high ...

Plasma and High Frequency Processes for Obtaining and Processing Materials in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Author: I. N. Toumanov

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781590330098

Page: 604

View: 114

Plasma & High Frequency Processes for Obtaining & Processing Materials in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Enhancing the Greenhouse Gas Conversion Efficiency in Microwave Discharges by Power Modulation

Scientific interest to the plasma-assisted greenhouse gas conversion continuously increases nowadays, as a part of the global Green Energy activities.

Enhancing the Greenhouse Gas Conversion Efficiency in Microwave Discharges by Power Modulation

Author: Nikolay Britun

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 401

Scientific interest to the plasma-assisted greenhouse gas conversion continuously increases nowadays, as a part of the global Green Energy activities. Among the plasma sources suitable for conversion of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, the non-equilibrium (low-temperature) discharges where the electron temperature is considerably higher than the gas temperature, represent special interest. The flowing gas discharges sustained by microwave radiation are proven to be especially suitable for molecular gas conversion due to high degree of non-equilibrium they possess. In this Chapter the optimization of CO2 conversion efficiency in microwave discharges working in pulsed regime is considered. The pulsed energy delivery represents new approach for maximization of CO2 conversion solely based on the discharge "fine-tuning", i. e. without the additional power expenses. In our work several discharge parameters along the gas flow direction in the discharge have been studied using various diagnostic techniques, such as optical actinometry, laser-induced fluorescence, and gas chromatography. The results show that CO2 conversion efficiency can be essentially increased solely based on the plasma pulse frequency tuning. The obtained results are explained by the relation between the plasma pulse parameters and the characteristic time of the relevant energy transfer processes in the discharge.

Reference Data for Engineers

Microwave DischargesMicrowave discharges have almost become
synonymous with electron cyclotron resonance ( ECR ) discharges . However ,
cavity based microwave discharges still maintain their niche for afterglow
plasmas .

Reference Data for Engineers

Author: Mac E. Van Valkenburg

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 9780750672917

Page: 1672

View: 924

Reference Data for Engineers is the most respected, reliable, and indispensable reference tool for technical professionals around the globe. Written by professionals for professionals, this book is a complete reference for engineers, covering a broad range of topics. It is the combined effort of 96 engineers, scientists, educators, and other recognized specialists in the fields of electronics, radio, computer, and communications technology. By providing an abundance of information on essential, need-to-know topics without heavy emphasis on complicated mathematics, Reference Data for Engineers is an absolute "must-have" for every engineer who requires comprehensive electrical, electronics, and communications data at his or her fingertips. Featured in the Ninth Edition is updated coverage on intellectual property and patents, probability and design, antennas, power electronics, rectifiers, power supplies, and properties of materials. Useful information on units, constants and conversion factors, active filter design, antennas, integrated circuits, surface acoustic wave design, and digital signal processing is also included. The Ninth Edition also offers new knowledge in the fields of satellite technology, space communication, microwave science, telecommunication, global positioning systems, frequency data, and radar. * Widely acclaimed as the most practical reference ever published for a wide range of electronics and computer professionals, from technicians through post-graduate engineers. * Provides a great way to learn or review the basics of various technologies, with a minimum of tables, equations, and other heavy math.

High Density Plasma Sources

A microwave discharge was produced in a 6 mm diameter cylindrical quartz tube
which was placed along the cavity applicator axis. Depending upon the
electromagnetic mode excitation, the discharge either partially or completely
filled the ...

High Density Plasma Sources

Author: Oleg A. Popov

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0815517890

Page: 465

View: 468

This book describes the design, physics, and performance of high density plasma sources which have been extensively explored in low pressure plasma processing, such as plasma etching and planarization, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of thin films, sputtered deposition of metals and dielectrics, epitaxial growth of silicon and GaAs, and many other applications. This is a comprehensive survey and a detailed description of most advanced high density plasma sources used in plasma processing. The book is a balanced presentation in that it gives both a theoretical treatment and practical applications. It should be of considerable interest to scientists and engineers working on plasma source design, and process development.

Diamond Films Handbook

Timothy A.Grotjohn and Jes Asmussen Michigan State University, East Lansing,
Michigan I. MICROWAVE PLASMA DISCHARGES Microwave plasma-assisted
diamond synthesis has been demonstrated over a wide operating pressure ...

Diamond Films Handbook

Author: Jes Asmussen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0824743245

Page: 656

View: 513

The Diamond Films Handbook is an important source of information for readers involved in the new diamond film technology, emphasizing synthesis technologies and diamond film applications. Containing over 1600 references, drawings, photographs, micrographs, equations, and tables, and contributions by experts from both industry and academia, it includes specific chapters that address film characterization methods and the physics and chemistry of film synthesis. Other topics include deposition chemistry, various techniques for diamond synthesis, diamond heat spreaders, thermal management diamond active electronic devices, and diamond film optics.

Advances in Microwave Chemistry

[115] 4-chlorophenol TiO2 H2O2 7 400 W 20 Microwave generator (2.45 GHz)–
microwave discharge electrodeless lamp [118] 4-chlorophenol, bisphenol A and
methylene blue TiO2 60 Microwave generator (Panasonic M5801; 700 W) [125] ...

Advances in Microwave Chemistry

Author: Bimal K Banik

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351240471

Page: 522

View: 188

Advances in Microwave Chemistry discusses the novel bond formation methodologies, synergistic effects of microwaves with other entities, sample preparation including digestion, combustion, and extraction techniques, as well as selectivity in chemical processes. Recent updates are provided on microwave-assisted syntheses of pharmacologically significant aza-, oxo- and other heterocycles, including lactams, nucleosides, bile acids and sterols, the preparation of nanomaterials, composites, and absorber layer materials for thin film. This book also incorporates comparative discussions involving microwave irradiation with conventional methods in different aspects of organic, inorganic, medicinal, and green chemistry. Key Features: Provides a comparative discussion on microwave irradiation with conventional methods in different aspects of organic, inorganic, medicinal, and green chemistry Presents recent applications of microwave radiation in biocatalysis Offers a complete package correlating various aspects of microwaves in organic syntheses, the biological impact of products formed in reactions, pharmacological features, and environmental sustainability of the procedures Explains microwave-induced reactions on structurally complex bile acids and sterols Stands as a valuable and unique addition to the well-established book series, New Directions in Organic and Biological Chemistry

Fisica Del Diamante

Introduction This lecture reviews some basic aspects of microwave discharges
and the properties of the plasma important for thin - film processing . It deals with i
) basic methods of generation of isotropic and anisotropic plasmas , ii ) electron ...

Fisica Del Diamante

Author: A. Paoletti

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9789051993523

Page: 608

View: 609

Diamond is an extreme material among possible atomic aggregations in nature, and as such has many extreme properties. This unique position makes it a fascinating subject both for science and for applications. This has been particularly true in recent years, since the surprising discovery at Union Carbide (1953) of the possibility of chemical vapour deposition of diamond films at low pressures, where diamond is metastable with respect to graphite. This discovery cleared the way to the development of economical deposition techniques that have been obtaining progressively better-quality diamond, both pure and doped, in a controlled way and for a variety of applications. The remarkable properties and applications range from mechanical (the extreme hardness, tensile and compressive strength, wear performance) to thermal (the highest conductivity), optical (wide range of transparency), chemical (inertness to most chemicals), biological (biocompatibility) and electronic (high electronic carrier mobility, large band gap and dielectric breakdown strength, negative electron affinity), with the simultaneous presence of so many extraordinary qualities often resulting in added value for a given application.We are presently at a turning point in the development of diamond physics and applications. While some achievements can be considered well established, on the other hand, new opportunities and challenges are facing the scientific community, particularly with regard to novel exciting deposition processes and techniques or new properties and applications in electronics. This Enrico Fermi Course on "The Physics of Diamond" is particularly focused on the new developments and prospects, which may well constitute a reference point for a new generation of scientists at what may possibly be the beginning of a new age in diamond. The course attracted several of the most distinguished experts in the field as lecturers and an audience of almost as distinguished students and observers from 19 countries. Participation and discussions were lively to the very last day, ranging from traditional diamond physics to new diamond physics, and from well-known applications to the new exciting opportunities.The material in this volume is organized in the following way: the first part (13 lectures) is essentially devoted to growth and structure, the second part to properties and applications, with a closing lecture exploring new exotic diamonds in the distant future. The earlier lectures extensively cover the many processes of plasma chemical vapour deposition, including advanced contributions in theoretical modelling of these processes. Novel deposition mechanisms are considered: low-temperature CVD and laser-activated processes, including the so-called QQC experiments. This first part closes with a discussion of amorphous phases. In the second part, particular emphasis is placed on electronic properties and applications. This includes an extensive discussion of doping and, in addition, the promising perspectives of diamond as an electron emitter. Its newly discovered remarkable electron affinity properties lead to a new dimension in research and development, of great strategical importance for an increasing role of diamond in electronics.

Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing

However, the need for the current, which provides the power for the discharge, to
be continuous through the dc sheath provides an additional complication to the
operation. This complication is not present in rf or microwave discharges where ...

Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing

Author: Michael A. Lieberman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471724246

Page: 730

View: 975

A Thorough Update of the Industry Classic on Principles of PlasmaProcessing The first edition of Principles of Plasma Discharges and MaterialsProcessing, published over a decade ago, was lauded for itscomplete treatment of both basic plasma physics and industrialplasma processing, quickly becoming the primary reference forstudents and professionals. The Second Edition has been carefully updated and revised toreflect recent developments in the field and to further clarify thepresentation of basic principles. Along with in-depth coverage ofthe fundamentals of plasma physics and chemistry, the authors applybasic theory to plasma discharges, including calculations of plasmaparameters and the scaling of plasma parameters with controlparameters. New and expanded topics include: * Updated cross sections * Diffusion and diffusion solutions * Generalized Bohm criteria * Expanded treatment of dc sheaths * Langmuir probes in time-varying fields * Electronegative discharges * Pulsed power discharges * Dual frequency discharges * High-density rf sheaths and ion energy distributions * Hysteresis and instabilities * Helicon discharges * Hollow cathode discharges * Ionized physical vapor deposition * Differential substrate charging With new chapters on dusty plasmas and the kinetic theory ofdischarges, graduate students and researchers in the field ofplasma processing should find this new edition more valuable thanever.

Plasma Chemistry 2 Plasma Chemistry and Transport Phenomena in Thermal Plasmas

Although some of these intermediates have been observed in discharges
through the pure reagent, usually the reagents are diluted to 1-5% in an inert
carrier gas (He, Ar or N2) at total pressures of 0.3–2 torr. The microwave
discharge is ...

Plasma Chemistry   2  Plasma Chemistry and Transport Phenomena in Thermal Plasmas

Author: A. T. Bell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483284492

Page: 116

View: 136

Plasma Chemistry - 2: Plasma Chemistry and Transport Phenomena in Thermal Plasmas presents the proceeding of the Second International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry, held in Rome, Italy, on September 18–23, 1975. This book discusses the thermodynamic state of chemically reacting plasmas, which are generally described by Pauli or Boltzmann kinetic equations. Organized into eight chapters, this compilation of papers begins with an overview of the influence of the plasma state by a superimposed laser radiation field. This text then examines the mechanisms of chemical transformations in electric discharges. Other chapters consider the successful exploitation of thermal plasmas in the field of high temperature chemistry. This book discusses as well the status of plasma processes involving mass transfer and heat, with reference to the processes of condensation, vaporization, and chemical reaction. The final chapter deals with plasma heating and spraying of various materials. This book is a valuable resource for chemists, metallurgists, and scientists.