Dectin-1 and TLRs permit macrophages to distinguish between different
Aspergillus fumigatus cellular states. J. Immunol. 176 ... Inflammatory monocytes
facilitate adaptive CD4 T cell responses during respiratory fungal infection. Cell
Author: Attila Gacser
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Fungal infections represent nowadays a significant burden on the healthcare system of most of the countries, and are among the infections with the highest mortality rates. This has fostered the study of the interaction of these organisms with the human host. The outer most layer of a fungal cell is the cell wall, and together with the secreted components into the extracellular compartment, are the first lines of contact with the host cells. This interaction is critical for tissue adhesion, colonization and damage. In addition, these fungal extracellular components will define the outcome of the interaction with the host immune cells, leading either to the establishment of a protective antifungal immune response or to an immune-evasive mechanism by the fungal cell. On the other hand, our immune system has effectively evolved to deal with fungal pathogens, developing strategies for cell eradication, burden control, or antigen presentation from the innate branch to the adaptive immune response. Here, we provide a series of comprehensive review papers dealing with both aspect of the interaction fungus-immune cells: the role of virulence factors and cell wall components during such interaction, and the recent advances in the study of cellular receptors in the establishment of a protective anti-fungal immune response.
Monocyte emigration from bone marrow during bacterial infection requires
signals mediated by chemokine receptor CCR2. Nature ... Dectin-1 diversifies
Aspergillus fumigatus-specific T cell responses by inhibiting T helper type 1 CD4
T cell ...
Author: Xing-Hua Gao
This book discusses typical skin diseases from an immunological point of view, introducing the latest immunological techniques and practices. It begins with a brief overview of the human immune system, including the basic concepts and principles as well as the general symbols used in immunology. Part Two describes the human skin as an integral part of the immune system, explaining the immunological roles of major cellular and molecular composites in the skin. Part Three illustrates typical skin diseases that have immunological involvement (immunodermatological conditions). It describes 40 skin diseases, focusing on immunological causes, pathogenesis, pattern of reaction and treatment choices and responses. The final part discusses advanced immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy in dermatology, providing detailed descriptions of immune techniques for the diagnosis of skin diseases, their principles and background, indications, requirements for sampling, test protocols, interpretation of results and trouble shooting. This work offers insights into both the systemic immune system and the skin immune system, and integrates the information into discussions of clinical diseases, relevant immune techniques and immunological drugs. Presenting the latest advances in clinical immunology, it is an invaluable resource for dermatologists, residents and graduate students in dermatology.
Inflammatory monocytes facilitate adaptive CD4 T cell responses during
respiratory fungal infection. Cell Host Microbe (2009) ... Phagocytosis and
intracellular fate of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia in alveolar macrophages. Infect
Immun (2003) ...
Author: Steven P. Templeton
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Fungi are found in virtually every environment, and comprise a significant portion of the normal microflora of healthy individuals. Some species of fungi are aeroallergen sources capable of inducing sensitization and causing exacerbation of asthma and respiratory allergy. Others are transmissible between hosts and may cause no symptoms in healthy individuals. However, immune suppressed individuals may develop invasive disease marked by tissue invasion with a potential for widespread dissemination. Existing therapies for patients consist of antifungal drugs, yet these require prolonged administration with the possibility of adverse side effects, and may be rendered ineffective by the emergence of antifungal-resistant strains. It is therefore of interest to increase our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in order to facilitate the development of new therapies for individuals suffering from fungal infection and disease. These early interactions are shaped by an array of constituent and secreted factors that stimulate or inhibit host immune responses toward protective or detrimental immunity. Likewise, an array of preformed factors and tissue-resident cells provide early protection from fungal infection and provide extracellular signals that result in localized recruitment of inflammatory cells and determine the character of subsequent adaptive antifungal immunity. This Research Topic explores the host and fungal pathways that program innate and adaptive immunity and the immune cells, molecules, and regulatory pathways that comprise protective or detrimental responses to fungal exposure or infection. Over 200 authors contributed reviews, opinions, or original research focusing on antifungal immunity in humans and in experimental models. We believe that the results of these efforts provide a benchmark for further advances and improved antifungal therapies.
However, it is not clear how T-follicular effector cells respond during Aspergillus
infection (Wüthrich et al., 2012). ... prominent cytokine released from activated
monocytes and macrophages in lung that help in shaping T-cell immune
Author: Frederic Lamoth
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Aspergillus fumigatus is a human fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis (IA), a major infectious cause of death in the expanding population of immunocompromised individuals such as cancer patients and transplant recipients. The mortality of IA remains high (30-70%) and emerging resistance to triazoles, the first-line antifungal drug class, is of particular concern. Second-line therapies for IA are limited by their toxicity (polyenes) or their lack of fungicidal activity (echinocandins). Identification of novel antifungal targets is an urgent need for improving the outcome of IA. A. fumigatus is a filamentous fungus exhibiting a complex developmental cycle and elaborate mechanisms of adaptation to allow the initiation and progression of infection in the human host. The fungal cell wall, with its unique and dynamic structure, is responsible for protecting cell integrity and evading the host immune system, thus contributing to biofilm formation and virulence, and thus representing an ideal antifungal target. The emergence of azole resistance implies various and complex mechanisms that need to be further elucidated. Other important processes, such as biosynthetic pathways and toxin / metabolite production is important for fungal survival and propagation in the host environment, ultimately leading to disease. Moreover, the host immune response is a determinant factor in influencing the course of infection. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the pathogenesis to outline future research.
On the other hand, a Th2 response, which is associated with a minimal cellular
component and an increase in antibody production, and secretion ofIL-4, IL-5,
and ... A role of CD8+ T cells in the resistance to A. fumigatus was found to be
very limited since fungal gliotoxin suppresses granule ... Immune serum did not
enhance phagocytosis of conidia in vitro, but did induce macrophage-mediated
Author: Peter Lydyard
Publisher: Garland Science
Case Studies in Infectious Disease: Aspergillus fumigates presents the natural history of this infection from point of entry of the pathogen through pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. A set of core questions explores the nature, causation, host response, manifestations, and management of this infectious process. This case also includes summary bullet points, questions and answers, and references.
Table 14.3 Sequential Activity of Host Factors in the Response to Aspergillus
Infectiona Clears Aspergillus conidia from the airways. ... PMNs Conidia that
escape macrophage phagocytosis or germinate and burst through macrophages
encounter PMNs, active killers of ... is met by exclusion of the conidia, but A.
fumigatus toxins can inhibit ciliary activity, and its proteinases can damage
Author: Errol Reiss
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Medical mycology deals with those infections in humans, and animals resulting from pathogenic fungi. As a separate discipline, the concepts, methods, diagnosis, and treatment of fungal diseases of humans are specific. Incorporating the very latest information concerning this area of vital interest to research and clinical microbiologists,Fundamental Medical Mycology balances clinical and laboratory knowledge to provide clinical laboratory scientists, medical students, interns, residents, and fellows with in-depth coverage of each fungal disease and its etiologic agents from both the laboratory and clinical perspective. Richly illustrated throughout, the book includes numerous case presentations.
Heath WR, Belz GT, Behrens GM, et al: Cross-presentation, dendritic cell subsets
, and the generation of immunity to cellular ... dectin-1, is predominantly
expressed on the surface of cells of the monocyte/macrophage and neutrophil
lineages. ... Gantner BN, Simmons RM, Canavera SJ, et al: Collaborative
induction of inflammatory responses by dectin-1 and Toll-like ... nonintegrin
mediates binding and internalization of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia by dendritic
cells and macrophages.
Author: Robert J. Mason
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Murray and Nadel’s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine has long been the definitive and comprehensive pulmonary disease reference. Robert J. Mason, MD now presents the fifth edition in full color with new images and highlighted clinical elements. The fully searchable text is also online at www.expertconsult.com, along with regular updates, video clips, additional images, and self-assessment questions. This new edition has been completely updated and remains the essential tool you need to care for patients with pulmonary disease. Consult this title on your favorite e-reader, conduct rapid searches, and adjust font sizes for optimal readability. Compatible with Kindle®, nook®, and other popular devices. Master the scientific principles of respiratory medicine and its clinical applications. Work through differential diagnosis using detailed explanations of each disease entity. Learn new subjects in Pulmonary Medicine including Genetics, Ultrasound, and other key topics. Grasp the Key Points in each chapter. Search the full text online at expertconsult.com, along with downloadable images, regular updates, more than 50 videos, case studies, and self-assessment questions. Consult new chapters covering Ultrasound, Innate Immunity, Adaptive Immunity, Deposition and Clearance, Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia. Find critical information easily using the new full-color design that enhances teaching points and highlights challenging concepts. Apply the expertise and fresh ideas of three new editors—Drs. Thomas R. Martin, Talmadge E. King, Jr., and Dean E. Schraufnagel. Review the latest developments in genetics with advice on how the data will affect patient care.
cytosis , production of reactive oxygen intermediates , phagocyte migration , and
macrophage spreading . It is speculated ... Austwick , P. K. C. , 1962 , The
presence of Aspergillus fumigatus in the lungs of dairy cows . Lab . Invest . ...
Chusid , M. J. , Sohnle , P. , Fink 21 • Suppression of Phagocytic Cell Responses
Author: G.T. Cole
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This treatise is focused on early aspects of fungal pathogenesis in plant and animal hosts. Our aim in choosing the topics and contributors was to demonstrate common approaches to studies of fungal-plant and fungal-animal interactions, particularly at the biochemical and molecular Ievels. For example, the initial events of adh«sion of fungal spores to the exposed surface tissues of the host are essential for subsequent invasion of the plant or animal and establishment of pathogenesis. A point of consensus among investigators who have directed their attention to such events in plants, insects, and vertebrates isthat spore adhesion to the host cuticle or epithelium is more than a simple binding event. lt is a complex and potentially pivotal process in fungal-plant interactions which "may involve the secretion of ftuids that prepare the infection court for the development of morphological stages of the germling" and subsequent invasion of the host (Nicholson and Epstein, Chapter 1). The attachment of the fungal propagule to the arthropod cuticle is also "mediated by the chemical components present on the outer layer of the spore wall and the epicuticle . . . . Initial attachment may be reinforced further by either the active secretion of adhesive materials or the modification of spore wall materiallocated at the [fungal spore arthropod] cuticle interface (Boucias and Pendland, Chapter 5).
... 1978 , Humoral and cellular immune responses in Aspergillus fumigatus
pulmonary disease , J . Allergy Clin . Immunol . 62 : 131 . Foster , S . C . , and
Goetzl , E . J . , 1978 , Ascorbate therapy in impaired neutrophil and monocyte
Author: S.M. Phillips
This comprehensive treatise on the reticuloendothelial system is a project jointly shared by individual members of the Reticuloendothelial (RE) Society and bio medical scientists in general who are interested in the intricate system of cells and molecular moieties derived from those cells which constitute the RES. It may now be more fashionable in some quarters to consider these cells as part of what is called the mononuclear phagocytic system or the lymphoreticular sys tem. Nevertheless, because of historical developments and current interest in the subject by investigators from many diverse areas, it seems advantageous to present in one comprehensive treatise current information and knowledge con cerning basic aspects of the RES, such as morphology, biochemistry, phylogeny and ontogeny, physiology, and pharmacology as well as clinical areas including immunopathology, cancer, infectious diseases, allergy, and hypersensitivity. It is anticipated that, by presenting information concerning these apparently het erogeneous topics under the unifying umbrella of the RES, attention will be focused on the similarities as well as interactions among the cell types constitut ing the RES from the viewpoint of various disciplines. The treatise editors and their editorial board, consisting predominantly of the editors of individual vol and enormous task umes, are extremely grateful for the enthusiastic cooperation undertaken by members of the biomedical community in general and especially and Japanese Reticuloen by members of the American as well as European dothelial Societies.
Adaptive immune responses, based on cell-mediated reactions to fungal agents,
may strengthen host defences ... Alveolar macrophages, which typically
constitute the first line of phagocytic defence, are joined later by blood monocytes
and neutrophils at the site of infection. ... host cells to distinguish resting spores
from germinating spores and both spore types from hyphae of Aspergillus
Author: P. J. Quinn
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students,and since its first publication in 2002, Veterinary Microbiologyand Microbial Disease has become an essential text for students ofveterinary medicine. Fully revised and expanded, this new editionupdates the subject for pre-clinical and clinical veterinarystudents in a comprehensive manner. Individual sections deal withbacteriology, mycology and virology. Written by an academic teamwith many years of teaching experience, the book provides concisedescriptions of groups of microorganisms and the diseases whichthey cause. Microbial pathogens are discussed in separate chapterswhich provide information on the more important features of eachmicroorganism and its role in the pathogenesis of diseases ofanimals. The international and public health significance of thesepathogens are reviewed comprehensively. The final section isconcerned with the host and is organized according to the bodysystem affected. Tables, boxes and flow diagrams provide information in an easilyassimilated format. This edition contains new chapters on moleculardiagnostics and on infectious conditions of the skin,cardiovascular system, urinary tract and musculoskeletal system.Many new colour diagrams are incorporated into this edition andeach chapter has been updated. Key features of this edition: Twelve new chapters included Numerous new illustrations Each chapter has been updated Completely re-designed in full colour Fulfils the needs of veterinary students and academics inveterinary microbiology Companion website with figures from the book as Powerpoints forviewing or downloading by chapter: ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/quinn/veterinarymicrobiology"www.wiley.com/go/quinn/veterinarymicrobiology/a Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease remainsindispensable for all those studying and teaching this essentialcomponent of the veterinary curriculum.
pergillosis suggests that alveolar epithelial cells play an important role in the
recognition of Aspergillus molecules . ... Aspergillus fumigatus conidia induce a
Th1 - type cytokine response . ... Antifungal activity of elutriated human
monocytes against Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae : enhancement by granulocyte -
Author: Ralph M. Steinman
The recipients of grants from the Dana Human Immunology and Dana Irvington Fellowship Programs are brought together in this volume. In their contributions, the participating scientists summarize their patient-based research in the areas of cancer, infectious disease, allergy, and autoimmunity. Also included are contributions from two guest speakers on B-cell leukemia and autoimmune diabetes.
Rodriguez E, Boudard f, Mallie M, Bastide JM, Bastide M: Murine macrophage
elastolytic activity induced by Aspergillus fumigatus strains in ... Golden MC,
hahm SJ, Elessar RE, et al: DNA damage by gliotoxin from Aspergillus fumigatus.
... Sinclair J, Baille J, Bryant l, et al: human cytomegalovirus mediates cell cycle
progression through G(1) into early S phase ... et al: Paramyxoviridae use distinct
virus-specific mechanisms to circumvent the interferon response, Virology 10:383
Author: Stephen M. Reed
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Develop an essential understanding of the principles of equine disease with this one-of-a-kind, problem-based resource! Extensively revised and updated with contributions from an international team of experts, Equine Internal Medicine, 3rd Edition reflects the latest clinical research in equine medicine and focuses on the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie the development of various equine diseases to help you confidently diagnose, treat, and manage patient conditions. Problem-based approach outlines how to apply the latest clinical evidence directly to the conditions you’ll encounter in practice. Pathophysiology is emphasized throughout, providing a sound basis for discussions of the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis that follow. Body systems chapters begin with a thorough discussion of the diagnostic method appropriate to the system, including physical examination, clinical pathology, radiography, endoscopy, and ultrasonography. Flow charts, diagrams, and algorithms clarify complex material. Extensive content updates help you improve patient care with up-to-date research and clinical evidence across the full spectrum of equine practice, including: New sections on biofilm ahesins, resistance to phagocytosis, and host substrate utilization New information on changes in body weight Recent findings on fibrocoxib and diclofenac Expanded and reorganized coverage of critical care New material on inborn errors of metabolism and acquired myopathies Detailed treatment information on various disorders of the reproductive tract A new section on toxicoses causing signs related to liver disease or dysfunction Bound-in companion DVD includes more than 120 high-quality video clips that guide you through procedures related to the cardiovascular and neurologic systems.
McGill University, Montreal: Role of trehalose biosynthesis in Aspergillus
fumigatus development, stress response, and ... and this increased virulence was
associated with alterations in the cell wall and resistance to macrophage
Issues in Immunology Research / 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Immunology Research. The editors have built Issues in Immunology Research: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Immunology Research in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Immunology Research: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.