Since reflexives and negative polarity items are both dependent, they both must
be in the scope of (or bound to) their licenser or antecedent, and since pronouns
and positive polarity items are both anti-dependent, they both must be ...
Author: Ljiliana Progovac
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Study of the positive/negative systems of several languages, working within Binding Theory.
Negative and positive polarity items: An investigation of the interplay of lexical
meaning and global conditions on expression Jack Hoeksema 1. Introduction1
Why do languages have such odd and complicated things as negative and
Author: Laurence R. Horn
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Human thought and action is fundamentally shaped by a small set of cognitive categories, such as time, space, causality, or possession. It is not surprising, therefore, that all natural languages have developed many devices to express these categories. Temporality, for example, is reflected in the lexical meaning of verbs, in grammatical marking of tense and aspect, in time adverbials, in special particles, and in the application of discourse principles. Many of these devices have been the subject of intensive research across languages; but as a rule, this research focuses on particular aspects, it does not look at the expression of such a category as a whole. Precisely this is the aim of the present series. The short volumes will bring together what is known about the expression of a particular category in human language. The series THE EXPRESSION OF COGNITIVE CATEGORIES is edited by WOLFGANG KLEIN and STEPHEN LEVINSON, Max-Planck-Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen (The Netherlands). Negation is a core feature of human language, a precondition for contradiction, denial, irony, and lies. This book surveys the form and function of negative sentence, providing state-of-the-art studies and a comprehensive bibliography on the acquisition, processing, and historical development of negation and its interaction with other operators. the chapters explore polarity, "illogical" negation, and the grammatical semantic, and pragmatic factors in cross-linguistic expression of negation.
Table 2 illustrates that all four of them are realized in Greek: Table 2 Semantic
dependency and syntactic condition | Dependency Condition Polarity Items [
positive positive APIs (nonemphatics), minimizer negative NPIs positive NPI-
Author: Anastasia Giannakidou
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
Polarity phenomena have been known to linguists since Klima's seminal work on English negation. In this monograph Giannakidou presents a novel theory of polarity which avoids the empirical and conceptual problems of previous approaches by introducing a notion wider than negation and downward entailment: (non)veridicality. The leading idea is that the various polarity phenomena observed in language are manifestations of the dependency of certain expessions, i.e. polarity items, to the (non)veridicality of the context of appearence. Dependencies to negation or downward entailment emerge as subcases of nonveridicality.The (non)veridical dependency may be positive (licensing), or negative (anti-licensing), and arises from the sensitivity semantics of polarity items. The book is also concerned with the syntactic mapping of the sensitivity dependency. It is argued that licensing does not necessarily correspond to a requirement that the licensee be in the scope of the licenser. In some cases, for instance for the interpretation of negative concord, the reverse is required: that the licensee takes the licenser in its scope. The theory is applied to an extended set of old and new data concerning affective, free-choice dependencies, and mood choice in relative clauses. The primary focus is on Greek, but data from Dutch, English, and to a lesser extend Romance and Slavic, are also considered.
TOWARDS A UNIFIED ACCOUNT OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE POLARITY
EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIAN ANAMARIA FĂLĂUŞ University of Nantes, LLING
EA 3827 It has been recently argued (Szabolcsi 2004) that the distribution of ...
Author: Pascual José Masullo
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
The present volume includes a selection of twenty-one peer-reviewed and revised papers from the 37th annual Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSRL) held at the University of Pittsburgh in 2007. The papers cover a range of topics in morphology, syntax, phonology and language acquisition. A number of languages and varieties are also analyzed, including Italian, Spanish, Judeo-Spanish, Old Spanish, French, Old French, and Romanian. Contributions include papers from three of the invited speakers, Heles Contreras, Javier Gutierrez-Rexach and Julia Herschensohn. This volume highlights theoretical issues under current debate in Romance linguistics."
Negative polarity in both the source and the ellipsis site constitutes 4.71 per cent
of the cases. ... per cent), positive source-negative target (14.26 per cent),
positive source-explicit polar alternative target (0.72 per cent), explicit polar
Author: Evelyn Gandón-Chapela
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
This book investigates the syntactic phenomenon of ellipsis and the linguistic forces that trigger it. It presents the results of a corpus-based study which takes into account grammatical, semantic/discursive, usage-related and processing variables. Evelyn Gandón-Chapela builds upon the few empirical works on ellipsis in Present-day English to offer the first comparative analysis of ellipsis and its development throughout the recent history of the English language. Moreover, the book also provides a complex query algorithm which automatically detects and retrieves cases of ellipsis, leading to successful recall ratios, applicable to a wide range of parsed corpora.
Certain viruses, such as arenaviruses and some bun- yaviruses, have a
segmented RNA genome, most of which is negative stranded, but it has some
positive RNA regions. RNA segments that contain both positive polarity and
Author: Warren Levinson
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
Save hours of study time, build test taking confidence, and ace the USMLE Step 1 and course exams with most user-friendly, complete, and frequently updated review of medical microbiology and immunology available There's no faster or more effective way to prepare for the USMLE Step 1 and course exams than Medical Microbiology & Immunology Examination. Completely updated throughout, the Ninth Edition offers a concise, high-yield review of the basic and clinical aspects of bacteriology, virology, mycology, parasitology, and immunology, with an emphasis on the clinical application of microbiology and immunology to infectious diseases. Everything you need for fast and thorough exam preparation: The most frequently updated microbiology review available 600+ USMLE-format questions A complete USMLE-style exam with case-based questions Review questions and case studies to reinforce essential material An emphasis on must-know areas of bacteriology, virology, mycology, parasitology, and immunology An intense focus on clinical application Summaries of important microorganisms for rapid review Summary tables that emphasize important epidemiological aspects of infectious diseases Basic science pearls that summarize fundamental concepts Informative tables and figures An understanding of the clinical relevance of microbiology Revised and expanded coverage of HIV, hepatitis viruses and immunology
Introduction In recent years theoretical studies of polarity sensitivity have grown
increasingly sensitive to the fact that polarity ... The majority of both negative and
positive polarity items (NPIs and PPIs) seem to be transparently quantificational,
Author: Danielle Forget
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
In the last decade, there has been a revival of interest regarding negation and polarity, with much cross-fertilization between semantic and syntactic approaches. The papers in the present volume address key issues regarding the syntax and semantics of negation and polarity, including both synchronic and diachronic perpectives. Central to the discussions are the distribution of negative markers and the structure of the clause, negative concord phenomena, licensing of polarity items, similarities between Neg-movement and wh-movement. The papers, by main contributors to the field, reflect different theoretical frameworks, including Principles and Parameters and Minimalist approaches, Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Formal Semantics, or approaches interested in pragmatics. The volume is of interest to syntacticians, semanticians, historical linguists, typologists, and philosophers.
The positive polarity is like our will power, which is strong and gives us the drive
we need, while wisdom is like a negative polarity to which we are attracted. Both
powers will and wisdom, Father God and Mother God, contain positive and ...
Author: Robert N. Smith
Gods Plan of Creation: Written for All Gods Children Who Want to Know and Are Not Afraid to Think offers scripturally informed answers to questions arising in peoples minds as they wonder about the nature of God and His designs for all of creation. By using a three-part structure that examines the Siege, the Legacy, and the Story, Robert N. Smith brings to bear both his long study of the Scriptures and his insights to provide guidance for all who want to know and are not afraid to think. The first part, the Siege, presents an inquiry and review of humanitys continuing efforts to gain hold of its Legacy. The focus of the second portion of Gods Plan of Creation, the Legacy entails the gifts that God has chosen to give to humanity and that people today have received from the hands of their forebears in the faith. Finally, the Story displays a visual timeline of creation, plotting out key points of theology and cosmology. It is laid out landscape, therefore it does not fit the book format. Part 3 is in progress and will follow soon. If you see the world in all its beauty, complexity, and diversity and you find yourself wondering about the God who made all things and about His desires for how humanity fits into His plans, then Gods Plan of Creation: Written for All Gods Children Who Want to Know and Are Not Afraid to Think will pour out insights worth pondering. It takes a fearless and eyes-wide-open look at God and His plans and invites you to join in a journey of vision and discovery.
Liquid GST regions are surrounded by strong heating or cooling for the positive
or negative polarity. modeled to transition from solid to liquid phase and the
Seebeck gradient is the largest (Figures 11.6 and 11.9a). This strong Thomson
Author: Santosh K. Kurinec
Publisher: CRC Press
Nanoscale memories are used everywhere. From your iPhone to a supercomputer, every electronic device contains at least one such type. With coverage of current and prototypical technologies, Nanoscale Semiconductor Memories: Technology and Applications presents the latest research in the field of nanoscale memories technology in one place. It also covers a myriad of applications that nanoscale memories technology has enabled. The book begins with coverage of SRAM, addressing the design challenges as the technology scales, then provides design strategies to mitigate radiation induced upsets in SRAM. It discusses the current state-of-the-art DRAM technology and the need to develop high performance sense amplifier circuitry. The text then covers the novel concept of capacitorless 1T DRAM, termed as Advanced-RAM or A-RAM, and presents a discussion on quantum dot (QD) based flash memory. Building on this foundation, the coverage turns to STT-RAM, emphasizing scalable embedded STT-RAM, and the physics and engineering of magnetic domain wall "racetrack" memory. The book also discusses state-of-the-art modeling applied to phase change memory devices and includes an extensive review of RRAM, highlighting the physics of operation and analyzing different materials systems currently under investigation. The hunt is still on for universal memory that fits all the requirements of an "ideal memory" capable of high-density storage, low-power operation, unparalleled speed, high endurance, and low cost. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, this book bridges technological and application issues to provide the groundwork for developing custom designed memory systems.
The lexical inventory consists for the most part of items which are not sensitive to
polarity, i.e. those items that can occur in both negative and positive contexts.
However, there are also polarity items (PIs), which can be further divided into ...
Author: Susanne Winkler
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
The second volume of the two-volume set The Fruits of Empirical Linguistics focuses on the linguistic outcomes of empirical linguistics. The contributions present some of the insights that linguists can gain by applying the new methods: progress within language study is accelerated by the new evidence since language systems are more precisely captured. Readers will enjoy the fresh perspective on linguistic questions made possible by the evidence-based approach.
In this paper, we argue that epistemicity is involved in the derivation of all polar
questions, irrespective of their being positive or negative, reflecting the intuition
that the speech act of request expresses the uncertainty of the speaker with
Author: Sibilla Cantarini
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company
The selected papers of this volume cover five main topics, namely ‘Certainty: The conceptual differential’; ‘(Un)Certainty as attitudinality’; ‘Dialogical exchange and speech acts’; ‘Onomasiology’; and ‘Applications in exegesis and religious discourse’. By examining the general theme of the communication of certainty and uncertainty from different scientific fields, theoretical approaches and perspectives, this compendium of state-of-the-art research papers provides both an interdisciplinary comparison of the latest investigations, methods and findings, and new advances and theoretical insights with a common focus on human communication.
CHAPTER 13 Positive and Negative Polarity IN MY FIRST trip to the Casa, I saw
that much of the work there involved the release of negativity. It is important to
remember that energy is not negative or positive; it is simply energy. Spiritual ...
Author: Barbara Brodsky
Publisher: North Atlantic Books
"At once profound, spiritual, and witty, Master of the Three Ways is a remarkable work about human nature, the essence of life, and how to live simply and with awareness. In three hundred and fifty-seven verses, the author, Hung Ying-ming a seventeenth-century Chinese sage explores good and evil, honesty and deception, wisdom and foolishness, and heaven and hell. He draws from the wisdom of the Three Creeds Taoism, Confucianism, and Zen Buddhism to impress upon us that by combining simple elegance with the ordinary, we can make our lives artistic and poetic. This sense, along with a particular understanding of Zen that makes art from the simple in everyday life, has permeated Chinese and Japanese culture to this day. The work is divided into two books. The first generally deals with the art of living in society and the second is concerned with man's solitude and contemplations of nature. These themes repeatedly spill over into each other, creating multiple levels of meaning."
Polarity of Cloud THE phenomena of lightning and the other electrical effects of
thunder clouds show with certainty that ... and it is termed of positive polarity if it
has the positive charge uppermost, and of negative polarity in the reverse case.
Author: J. Alan Chalmers
Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and detection of ions, the air-Earth conduction current, and point-discharge and precipitation currents. These topics are followed by discussions on the maintenance of the Earth's charge; the correlation of Earth's charge with thunderstorm activity and current; and mechanism of charge transfer in nonstormy rain and snow. The concluding chapters consider the phenomena of thunder cloud and the lightning discharge. These chapters also examine various theories in understanding the separation of Earth's charge. This book will be of value to physicists, atmospheric scientists, and researchers in the allied fields.
Table 8 reports information-seeking TQs as having the highest percentages
across all six polarity patterns: Positive-Neutral (81.8%), Negative-Negative (66.7
%), Negative-Neutral (66.7%), Positive-Positive (57.1%), Positive-Negative (56.8
Author: María de los Ángeles Gómez González
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company
This edited volume showcases new work on discourse analysis by big names in the field and promising early-career researchers. Arising from the latest in the series of IWoDA workshops in Santiago de Compostela, it provides novel insights into both the explicit and the implicit characteristics of discourse as used in verbal interaction. Discourse markers, as their name indicates, are among the explicit signals of coherence, while discourse relations may be either explicit or implicit. Similarly, the discourse used for purposes of evaluation, stance-taking and interpersonal engagement is either overt or covert, as is also true of the expression of emotions and empathy. This, in general terms, is the challenging terrain into which the contributors to this volume have ventured. The book combines theoretical issues with a practical orientation, comparing languages, analysing different registers, studying the openings of Skype conversations, and much more besides; it will prove highly relevant for postgraduate and advanced practitioners of discourse analysis, interaction studies, semantics and pragmatics.
In practice, when influencing energy, we always use bi-polar contacts, i.e., we
always use two contacts on the client's body simultaneously, a positive and
negative contact, be they hands or fingers or some combination of the two. A
Author: Alan Siegel
Publisher: MWI Publishing
Polarity therapy is the science of stimulating and balancing the body's life energy. In this heavily illustrated book, readers will find a complete and practical guide to releasing blocked energy through polarity energy balancing, nutrition, polarity yoga, and developing positive thoughts and attitudes.
... Harvard This paper argues that n-words in French are ambiguous between
negative quantifiers and bipolar items, which are a type of polar sensitive items
that must occur in the contexts that license both negative and positive polarity
Author: Sergio Baauw
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
The conference series Going Romance is the major European discussion forum for theoretically relevant research on Romance languages, where ideas about language and linguistics and about Romance languages are put in an interactive perspective, giving space to both universality and Romance-internal variation. The current volume features a selection of 18 articles (out of 28) that were presented during the 19th meeting at Utrecht University, December 8-10, 2005. Included in this volume are four papers that were presented by invited speakers: Belletti, Delais-Roussarie & Rialland, Notley & Van der Linden & Hulk, and Ordóñez; these reflect both issues discussed in the general session as well as themes of the workshop on acquisition. A number of reknown Romance linguists (Saltarelli, di Sciullo, Zubizarreta) also contributed to the volume. In general, contributions bear on a variety of topics in the field of morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics and include the perspective from acquisition.
As the water is decomposed, more active bubbles will accumulate at the negative
pole than at the positive pole. • Place the tips of two ... These reactions depend
on the negative or positive polarity that is used (Table 9-2). Note that the effects ...
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Milady's Standard Professional barbering is the primary resource for Barbering students preparing for their state licensing exam and a successful career in the professional market. It is the only textbook available that offers an integrated set of supplements to enhance the teaching and learning process. This new edition is the most stunning and versatile barbering education tool in the industry. Packed with hundreds of brand new full-color photos and procedures, students will be provided with the latest in infection control, hair replacement technologies, career preparation instruction and step-by-step shaving. Milady has been the trusted choice of Barbering educators for nearly sixty years and this new edition continues that trend with in-depth and engaging coverage of the most current topics in the profession. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.