Organic Xenobiotics and Plants

In this volume an international group of experts present an overview of the nature and distribution of organic xenobiotics, including their uptake, effects on plant functioning and detoxification mechanisms.

Organic Xenobiotics and Plants

Author: Peter Schröder

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048198528

Page: 311

View: 977

Natural and agro-ecosystems are frequently exposed to natural or synthetic substances, which, while they have no direct nutritional value or significance in metabolism, may negatively affect plant functioning. These, xenobiotics, may originate from both natural (fires, volcano eruptions, soil or rock erosion, biodegradation) and anthropogenic (air and soil pollution, herbicides) sources. And, while affected plants have only a limited number of possibilities for avoiding accumulation of these compounds, they do exhibit several enzymatic reactions for detoxification including oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis and conjugation reactions. In agro-ecosystems in particular these mechanisms have great significance in relation to herbicide detoxification and tolerance. In this volume an international group of experts present an overview of the nature and distribution of organic xenobiotics, including their uptake, effects on plant functioning and detoxification mechanisms. The particular significance of glutathione S-transferases in bio-indication and bio-monitoring, and in the detoxification of volatile organic air pollutants and herbicides is evaluated, and their potential significance in phytoremediation and bioaccumulation will be discussed. This volume will be of interest to a wide audience, from graduate students to senior researchers in a wide range of disciplines including plant ecology, plant biochemistry, agriculture and environmental management. It will also be of practical interest to environmentalists, policy makers and resource managers.

Xenobiotics in the Soil Environment

Humana, Totowa, pp 251–289 Schr€oder P, Collins CJ (2002) Conjugating
enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism of organic xenobiotics in plants. J
Phytorem 4(4):247–265 Schr€oder P, Collins CD (2011) Organic xenobiotics and
 ...

Xenobiotics in the Soil Environment

Author: Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319477447

Page: 400

View: 947

This book describes the vast variety of xenobiotics, such as pesticides, antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, agrochemicals and other pollutants, their interactions with the soil environment, and the currently available strategies and techniques for soil decontamination and bioremediation. Topics covered include: transport mechanisms of pollutants along the Himalayas; use of earthworms in biomonitoring; metagenomic strategies for assessing contaminated sites; xenobiotics in the food chain; phyto-chemical remediation; biodegradation by fungi; and the use of enzymes and potential microbes in biotransformation. Accordingly, the book offers a valuable guide for scientists in the fields of environmental ecology, soil and food sciences, agriculture, and applied microbiology.

Bioavailability of Organic Xenobiotics in the Environment

A crucial question in the evaluation of bound residues is the transfer of xenobiotic
carbon into plants. An incorporation of xenobiotic fragments into plants may
increase their bioavailabitity by directly entering the food web of higher
organisms.

Bioavailability of Organic Xenobiotics in the Environment

Author: P. Baveye

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401592357

Page: 504

View: 473

In the continuing fight against organic environmental xenobiotics, the initial success attributed to bioremediation has paled, in part due to the low availability of xenobiotics entrapped within a soil or sediment matrix. This has generated a very significant wave of interest in the bioavailability issue. However, much experimental evidence is puzzling or contradictory, mechanistic theories are embryonic, and implications for the practice of bioremediation or concerning the natural fate of xenobiotics are still tentative. The debate in Europe and the USA is vigorous. Eastern Europe, following the liberalisation of the economy and political life, is evolving in a similar direction. In many cases, however, limited access to literature sources, severe language barriers, and the lack of a strong pluridisciplinary tradition are hampering the adoption of state of the art techniques. Originally intended to allow scientists in East European countries to become acquainted with the key aspects of the bioavailability debate that is unfolding in the scientific literature in the West, and with its implications for bioremediation efforts, the present book presents a very complete coverage of the theoretical and practical aspects of the (limited) bioavailability of organic xenobiotics in the environment.

Environmental Plant Physiology

The book uses a mixture of ecological, environmental and agricultural examples throughout in order to provide a holistic view of the topic suitable for a contemporary student audience.

Environmental Plant Physiology

Author: Neil Willey

Publisher: Garland Science

ISBN: 1317206223

Page: 400

View: 621

Environmental Plant Physiology focuses on the physiology of plant-environment interactions, revealing plants as the key terrestrial intersection of the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere. It provides a contemporary understanding of the topic by focusing on some of humankind's fundamental biological, agricultural and environmental challenges. Its chapters identify thirteen key environmental variables, grouping them into resources, stressors and pollutants, and leading the reader through how they challenge plants and how plants respond at molecular, physiological, whole plant and ecological levels. The importance of taking account of spatial and temporal dimensions of environmental change in order to understand plant function is emphasised. The book uses a mixture of ecological, environmental and agricultural examples throughout in order to provide a holistic view of the topic suitable for a contemporary student audience. Each chapter uses a novel stress response hierarchy to integrate plant responses across spatial and temporal scales in an easily digestible framework.

Plants for Environmental Studies

xenobiotic. organic. chemicals. by. terrestrial. plants. Otto J. Schwarz and
Lawrence W. Jones Introduction 417 Bioaccumulation 418 Metabolic interactions
with xenobiotics 420 Mode of chemical uptake 421 Route of entry for chemical ...

Plants for Environmental Studies

Author: Wuncheng (Woodrow) Wang

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420048711

Page: 560

View: 104

One of the problems of using plants in environmental studies is finding current information. Because plants play a key role in environmental studies, from the greenhouse effect to environmental toxicological studies, information is widely scattered over many different fields and in many different sources. Plants for Environmental Studies solves that problem with a single, comprehensive source of information on the many ways plants are used in environmental studies. Written by experts from around the world and edited by a team of prominent environmental specialists, this book is the only source of complete information on environmental impacts, mutation, statistical analyses, relationships between plants and water, algae, plants in ecological risk assessment, compound accumulations, and more. Encompassing algae and vascular plants in both aquatic and terrestrial environments, this book contains a diverse collection of laboratory and in situ studies, methods, and procedures using plants to evaluate air, water, wastewater, sediment, and soil.

Regulation of Enzymatic Systems Detoxifying Xenobiotics in Plants

Abstract Higher plants contain multiple isozymes of glutathione transferases (
GSTs) able to conjugate and detoxify ... GSTs may also have an important
function in protecting against organic hydroperoxides generated during oxidative
stress.

Regulation of Enzymatic Systems Detoxifying Xenobiotics in Plants

Author: Kriton K. Hatzios

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792346463

Page: 385

View: 946

The NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on "Regulation of Enzymatic Systems Detoxifying Xenobiotics in Plants" intended to provide a forum to scientists from academia, industry, and govemment for discussing and critically assessing recent advances in the field of xenobiotic metabolism in plants and for identifying new directions for future research. Plants function in a chemical environment made up of nutrients and xenobiotics. Xenobiotics (foreign chemicals) are natural or synthetic compounds that can not be utilized by plants for energy-yielding metabolism. Plants may be exposed to xenobiotics either deliberately, due to their use as pesticides or accidentally, from industrial, agricultural, and other uses. Plants, like most other organisms, evolved a remarkable battery or metabolic reactions to defend themselves against the potentially toxic effects of xenobiotics. The main enzymatic reactions utilized by plants for xenobiotic detoxification include oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis and conjugation with glutathione, sugars (e.g., glucose), and amino acids. Eventually, xenobiotic conjugates are converted to insoluble bound residues or to secondary conjugates, which are deposited in the vacuole of plant cells.

Significance of Glutathione to Plant Adaptation to the Environment

They may as well spring from microbial or animal metabolism, and also from the
plant's secondary metabolism ... second by the emission of organic xenobiotics in
the process of chemical production of goods or the use of synthetic chemicals.

Significance of Glutathione to Plant Adaptation to the Environment

Author: Udaya C. Biswal

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402001789

Page: 262

View: 932

This book focuses on the biological significance of glutathione in plants. Glutathione is a thiol-containing tripeptide, which appears to be present in nearly all living organisms and which is involved in many important metabolic and physiological processes. The biochemistry and the metabolism of glutathione are reviewed, and its role in sulphur and selenium metabolism in plants is discussed. The significance of glutathione and of glutathione-related enzymes in the adaptation to natural stress, heavy metals, xenobiotics, air pollution, and in plant-pathogen and plant-animal interactions are evaluated.

Applied Plant Genomics and Biotechnology

plant. biotechnology. applications. to. therapeutic. protein. production. Matteo
Busconi, Mariangela Marudelli and ... on: G Development of GM plants with
enhanced biodegradation and phytoremediation capacity of organic xenobiotics,
heavy ...

Applied Plant Genomics and Biotechnology

Author: Palmiro Poltronieri

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 0081000715

Page: 356

View: 747

Applied plant genomics and biotechnology reviews the recent advancements in the post-genomic era, discussing how different varieties respond to abiotic and biotic stresses, investigating epigenetic modifications and epigenetic memory through analysis of DNA methylation states, applicative uses of RNA silencing and RNA interference in plant physiology and in experimental transgenics, and plants modified to produce high-value pharmaceutical proteins. The book provides an overview of research advances in application of RNA silencing and RNA interference, through Virus-based transient gene expression systems, Virus induced gene complementation (VIGC), Virus induced gene silencing (Sir VIGS, Mr VIGS) Virus-based microRNA silencing (VbMS) and Virus-based RNA mobility assays (VRMA); RNA based vaccines and expression of virus proteins or RNA, and virus-like particles in plants, the potential of virus vaccines and therapeutics, and exploring plants as factories for useful products and pharmaceuticals are topics wholly deepened. The book reviews and discuss Plant Functional Genomic studies discussing the technologies supporting the genetic improvement of plants and the production of plant varieties more resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses. Several important crops are analysed providing a glimpse on the most up-to-date methods and topics of investigation. The book presents a review on current state of GMO, the cisgenesis-derived plants and novel plant products devoid of transgene elements, discuss their regulation and the production of desired traits such as resistance to viruses and disease also in fruit trees and wood trees with long vegetative periods. Several chapters cover aspects of plant physiology related to plant improvement: cytokinin metabolism and hormone signaling pathways are discussed in barley; PARP-domain proteins involved in Stress-Induced Morphogenetic Response, regulation of NAD signaling and ROS dependent synthesis of anthocyanins. Apple allergen isoforms and the various content in different varieties are discussed and approaches to reduce their presence. Euphorbiaceae, castor bean, cassava and Jathropa are discussed at genomic structure, their diseases and viruses, and methods of transformation. Rice genomics and agricultural traits are discussed, and biotechnology for engineering and improve rice varieties. Mango topics are presented with an overview of molecular methods for variety differentiation, and aspects of fruit improvement by traditional and biotechnology methods. Oilseed rape is presented, discussing the genetic diversity, quality traits, genetic maps, genomic selection and comparative genomics for improvement of varieties. Tomato studies are presented, with an overview on the knowledge of the regulatory networks involved in flowering, methods applied to study the tomato genome-wide DNA methylation, its regulation by small RNAs, microRNA-dependent control of transcription factors expression, the development and ripening processes in tomato, genomic studies and fruit modelling to establish fleshy fruit traits of interest; the gene reprogramming during fruit ripening, and the ethylene dependent and independent DNA methylation changes. provides an overview on the ongoing projects and activities in the field of applied biotechnology includes examples of different crops and applications to be exploited reviews and discusses Plant Functional Genomic studies and the future developments in the field explores the new technologies supporting the genetic improvement of plants

Air Pollution and Plant Life

Organic xenobiotics and plants : Impact , metabolism , toxicology , Federal
Environment Agency , Vienna , Austria . Sutinen , S . , Juuti , S . and Ryyppo , A . (
1997 ) . Long - term exposure of Scots pine seedlings to monochloroacetic and ...

Air Pollution and Plant Life

Author: J. N. B. Bell

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN:

Page: 465

View: 837

This standard textbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the direct and indirect impacts of air pollution on plant life. Written by an international team of experts, the book covers the main historical aspects and sources of pollutants, atmospheric transport and transformations of pollutants, and issues of global change and the use of science in air pollution policy formulation. * covers all the main phytotoxic pollutants with due consideration given to impacts at all levels of plant organisation from molecular to ecological. * emphasises the effects of air pollutants in altering plant response to common stresses, both abiotic and biotic - fields in which considerable progress has been made since publication of the first edition. * includes coverage of how research leads to pollution control policy development. Essential reading for students in Environmental Science, Biological Science and Agriculture, as well as environmental consultants and professionals involved in air quality research and the application of air quality guidelines and advice.

Sulfur Assimilation and Abiotic Stress in Plants

Chapter 16 Accumulation and Transformation of Sulfonated Aromatic
Compounds by Higher Plants – Toward the ... 2002). The pollution of many rivers
by sulfur-organic xenobiotics is thus largely due to this class of Jean-Paul
Schwitzguébel ...

Sulfur Assimilation and Abiotic Stress in Plants

Author: Nafees A. Khan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540763260

Page: 372

View: 498

The assimilation of sulfur in higher plants and its reduction in metabolically important sulfur compounds are crucial factors determining plant growth and vigor and resistance to stresses. The present book discusses the aspects of sustainable crop production with sulfur, the importance of sulfur metabolites and sulfur metabolizing enzymes in abiotic stress management in plants. The book provides the most up-to-date reference on sulfur assimilation in plants.

Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology

B . C . Baldwin , " Xenobiotic metabolism in plants , " in : Drug Metabolism : from
Microbe to Man , Taylor and Francis , London ( 1977 ) , p . 191 . S . V .
Durmishidze , " Plant metabolism of some organic compounds contaminating the
 ...

Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 714

ZNC

In general , uptake followed by metabolism and compartmentation is responsible
for the detoxification of organic xenobiotics in plants . These are complex cellular
systems that may be organised in well - defined pathways and are often ...

ZNC

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 219

Phytoremediation and Rhizoremediation

ENZYMES TRANSFERRING BIOMOLECULES TO ORGANIC FOREIGN
COMPOUNDS: A ROLE FOR ... have been recognized as having crucial
functions in the metabolism of foreign compounds, xenobiotics, in both animals
and plants.

Phytoremediation and Rhizoremediation

Author: Martina Mackova

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402049994

Page: 300

View: 728

This volume represents an excellent description of the hottest topics in the field of phyto- and rhizoremediation. The book shows especially the importance of cooperation between plant and microorganisms, there is practically no phytoremediation without rhizoremediation. Newest approaches based on methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering are described, as well as plant science achievements.

Congress Proceedings

Detoxification of xenobiotics by plants : Chemical modification and vacuolar
compartmentation . Trends Plant Science 2 , 144-151 . Cummins I ; Cole ...
Conjugating enzymes involved in Xenobiotic Metabolism of Organic Xenobiotics
in Plants .

Congress Proceedings

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 943

Plant Responses to Xenobiotics

The book focuses on different forms and sources of xenobiotics including organic and inorganic xenobiotics. The matter of this book will definitely increase the knowledge about the impacts of xenobiotics on plants system.

Plant Responses to Xenobiotics

Author: Anita Singh

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811028605

Page: 346

View: 176

This book is compilation of studies related with the xenobiotics i.e. chemical or other substance that is not normally found in the ecosystems and get accumulated at higher concentration in the biological system due to rampant industrialisation and urbanisation activities. This book has tried to give information on various issues to give comprehensive and concise knowledge of the recent advancement in the field of environmental xenobiotics and how it disturbs the plants metabolism. Other key features of the book are related to xenobiotic toxicity and detoxification mechanism, biochemical tools toward its remediation processes, molecular mechanism for xenobiotics detoxification and effect on metallomics. It also focuses on recent development in the field of waste water remediation concerned with the xenobiotics involvement. This book is different in such a way that it includes all the initial information along with the new researches. It includes the description of problem along with its solution. This volume describe the effects of xenobiotics at different levels i.e. biochemical, physiological and molecular, giving the details on signaling pathways to modify the responses of xenobiotics in plant system. Thus, it gives confirming crosstalk between xenobiotic effects and signalling pathways. This book includes description about both the organic contaminants such as pesticides, solvents and petroleum products as well as inorganic xenobiotics that include heavy metals, non-metals, metalloids, and simple soluble salts. Here the plant is main objective and that have to deal with these kinds of compounds either by avoiding accumulation of these compounds or by exhibiting several enzymatic reactions for detoxification including oxidation, reduction, and conjugation reactions. Affected plants exhibit several enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant and other reactions for detoxification of ROS including oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis and conjugation reactions. The book focuses on different forms and sources of xenobiotics including organic and inorganic xenobiotics. The matter of this book will definitely increase the knowledge about the impacts of xenobiotics on plants system. There must be potentially broad readership who could find this fruitful for their study as well as for their research. As this book has balance between basic plant physiology and toxicity caused by the xenobiotics so it can be widely used in several disciplines. Overall, the book will bring deep knowledge in the field of xenobiotics toxicity in plants during recent years and it is definitely a compilation of interesting information which isn't fully covered elsewhere in the current market.

Principles of Ecotoxicology

The organic pollutants discussed in this book are examples of xenobiotics. ... For
example, there is much evidence for the evolution of detoxication mechanisms by
animals to give them protection against toxic xenobiotics produced by plants.

Principles of Ecotoxicology

Author: C.H. Walker

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439894221

Page: 344

View: 431

Presenting a multidisciplinary perspective in a concise format, Principles of Ecotoxicology, Third Edition discusses the fundamental chemical and ecological nature of pollution processes while identifying the major classes of pollutants and their environmental fate. The first edition was originally created to fill the need for a textbook that cover

Volatile Organic Pollutants

Organelle - specific detoxification systems for organic xenobiotics have so far not
been described . H . Kylin : Have measurements been performed indicationg that
whole plants loose volatile compounds of the pesticide metabolism ?

Volatile Organic Pollutants

Author: Peter Schröder

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 119

View: 522

Chemical Property Estimation

Bioconcentration models can be expected to overestimate the levels of
xenobiotics in plants if chemical conversion is significant . ... Bioconcentration of
organic chemical vapors in plant leaves : experimental measurements and
correlation .

Chemical Property Estimation

Author: Edward Baum

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780873719384

Page: 400

View: 644

Our world is widely contaminated with damaging chemicals, and companies create thousands of new, potentially dangerous chemicals each year. Due to the difficulty and expense of obtaining accurate measurements and the unreliability of reported values, we know surprisingly little about the properties of these contaminants. Determining the properties of chemicals is critical to judging their impact on environmental quality and in making decisions about emission rates, clean-up, and other important public health issues. Chemical Property Estimation describes modern methods of estimating chemical properties, methods which cost much less than traditional laboratory techniques and are sufficiently accurate for most environmental applications. Estimation methods are used to screen chemicals for testing, design monitoring and analysis methods, design clean-up procedures, and verify experimental measurements. The book discusses key methods for estimating chemical properties and considers their relative strengths and weaknesses. Several chapters are devoted to the partitioning of chemicals between air, water, soil, and biota; and properties such as solubility, vapor pressure, and chemical transport. Each chapter begins with a review of relevant theory and background information explaining the applications and limitations of each method. Sample calculations and practical advice on how and when to use each method are included as well. Each method is evaluated for accuracy and reliability. Computer software, databases, and internet resources are evaluated, as well as other supplementary material, such as fundamental constants, units of measure, and more.

Ecological Significance of the Interactions Among Clay Minerals Organic Matter and Soil Biota

... MINERALS - ORGANIC MATTER - LIVING ORGANISMS ON THE FATE OF
ALLELOCHEMICALS AND XENOBIOTICS ... U.S.A. Allelochemicals are
secondary metabolites exuded by plants to protect themselves from adverse
environmental ...

Ecological Significance of the Interactions Among Clay Minerals  Organic Matter and Soil Biota

Author: A. Violante

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444510396

Page: 454

View: 366

Soil MineralOrganic MatterMicroorganism Interactions and Ecosystem Health presents up-to-date information on the dynamics, transformations and bioavailability of xenobiotics in soil and their impact on ecosystem health, the ecological significance of interactions of metals and metalloids with soil colloids, enzymes and microbial biomass and the role of minerals-organic matter - soil biota interactions in the restoration of perturbed ecosystems. The title comprises two volumes: Volume A: Dynamics, Mobility and Transformation of Pollutants and Nutrients. Volume B: Ecological Significance of the Interactions mong Clay Minerals, Organic Matter and Soil Biota. This title could serve as a basic reference for students, teachers, and researchers by providing in-depth knowledge of the current state of the art in a particular area of soil science.

Angewandte Botanik

Summary Plants are able to detoxify organic pollutants by conjugation reactions ,
e . g . mediated by glutathione S ... capacity of plant roots significantly and will by
that influence the plant - rhizosphere metabolism of organic xenobiotics .

Angewandte Botanik

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 336