Origin and Mineralogy of Clays

The second volume will deal with environmental interaction. Going from soils to sediments to diagenesis and hydrothermal alteration, the book covers the whole spectrum of clays.

Origin and Mineralogy of Clays

Author: Bruce Velde

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662126486

Page: 335

View: 869

Origin and Mineralogy of Clays, the first of two volumes, lays the groundwork for a thorough study of clays in the environment. The second volume will deal with environmental interaction. Going from soils to sediments to diagenesis and hydrothermal alteration, the book covers the whole spectrum of clays. The chapters on surface environments are of great relevance in regard to environmental problems in soils, rivers and lake-ocean situations, showing the greatest interaction between living species and the chemicals in their habitat. The book is of interest to scientists and students working on environmental issues.

The Origin of Clay Minerals in Soils and Weathered Rocks

The transformation of unstable high temperature minerals into clays by the
interaction of meteoric water and rock silicate minerals ... This observation leads
us to a non-conventional and usual approach to understanding clay mineral
origin and ...

The Origin of Clay Minerals in Soils and Weathered Rocks

Author: Bruce B. Velde

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540756345

Page: 406

View: 586

Of huge relevance in a number of fields, this is a survey of the different processes of soil clay mineral formation and the consequences of these processes concerning the soil ecosystem, especially plant and mineral. Two independent systems form soil materials. The first is the interaction of rocks and water, unstable minerals adjusting to surface conditions. The second is the interaction of the biosphere with clays in the upper parts of alteration profiles.

Introduction to Clay Minerals

Introduction to Clay Minerals is designed to give a detailed, concise and clear introduction to clay mineralogy.

Introduction to Clay Minerals

Author: Velde

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401123683

Page: 198

View: 141

Introduction to Clay Minerals is designed to give a detailed, concise and clear introduction to clay mineralogy. Using the information presented here, one should be able to understand clays and their mineralogy, their uses and importance in modern life.

Clays and Clay Minerals of Japan

Preface Studies on clays and clay minerals have developed over a broad scope
involving the basic sciences, industry and ... It should be noted that the modes of
occurrence and origins of clays and clay minerals are essentially controlled by ...

Clays and Clay Minerals of Japan

Author: T. Sudo

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080869391

Page: 325

View: 429

Clays and Clay Minerals of Japan

Clay Sedimentology

Clay Sedimentology is a comprehensive textbook divided into six parts: - clay minerals and weathering - clay sedimentation on land - origin and behaviour of clay minerals and associated minerals in transitional environments (estuaries, ...

Clay Sedimentology

Author: Herve Chamley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364285916X

Page: 623

View: 276

Clay Sedimentology is a comprehensive textbook divided into six parts: - clay minerals and weathering - clay sedimentation on land - origin and behaviour of clay minerals and associated minerals in transitional environments (estuaries, deltas) and shallow-sea environments - diverse origins of clay in the marine environment - post-sedimentary processes intervening during early and late diagenesis - use of clay stratigraphic data for the reconstruction of past climate, marine circulation, tectonics, and other paleogeographical aspects. A basic idea on most topics dealing with sedimentary clays is presented and controversial data and uncertainties from the frontiers of knowledge are discussed.

Geological Survey Bulletin

ADDRESSES - Continued Airphoto interpretation , mineral Finding oil with
electric logs : reconnaissance : Lueder , D. R. , Hamilton , R. G. , 2 . 2 . ...
Geomorphic landscapes : Kesseli , Chemical evolution and origin of J. E. , 1 . life :
Calvin , M. Geomorphology : Rich , J. L. , 3 . ... Geophysical data for geologic Clay
mineral investigations , applistudy : Dunlap , R. C. , Jr. , 1 . cations : Grim , R. E. ,
10 .

Geological Survey Bulletin

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

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Sealing of Boreholes and Underground Excavations in Rock

12.2 GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGIN Montmorillonites are by far the most abundant of
the smectite clay minerals (Odom, 1986). They are the predominant mineral
composing bentonite and fuller's earth throughout the world. Fuller's earth is any
 ...

Sealing of Boreholes and Underground Excavations in Rock

Author: K. Fuenkajorn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780412573002

Page: 330

View: 496

Sealing of boreholes and underground excavations has not received much engineering attention until fairly recently. The growing awareness of and sensitivity to environmental concerns of the technical community as well as of the public at large has resulted in an increasing recognition of the fact that these geological penetrations may have an environmental impact. The issue of possible contamination resulting from migration along boreholes, adits, shafts or tunnels unquestionably has been raised most forcefully with in the context of nuclear waste disposal. Several nuclear waste disposal programs, notably the Civilian and the Defence programs of the US De partment of Energy, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Canadian and Swedish radioactive waste disposal programs have conducted major research efforts aimed at developing adequate seal designs for penet rations in host rock formations for high-level nuclear waste repositories. While a considerable data base has been gathered over the last two decades or so with regard to the performance of seals, most of the information is presented in research reports and widely scattered papers in journals and proceedings of conferences. Hence, the materials are not readily accessible to potential users such as designers, contractors or regulators who are not familiar with nuclear waste disposal programs.

Applied Clay Mineralogy

Chapter 5 KAOLIN APPLICATIONS Kaolin is one of the more important industrial
clay minerals. Kaolin is ... Dickite and nacrite are rather rare and usually are
found mixed with kaolinite in deposits of hydrothermal origin. Relatively pure ...

Applied Clay Mineralogy

Author: Haydn H. Murray

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080467870

Page: 188

View: 964

This book on Applied Clay Mineralogy is comprehensive. It covers the structure, composition, and physical and chemical properties of kaolinite, halloysite, ball clays; bentonites including sodium montmorillonite, calcium montmorillonite, and hectorite; and palygorskite and sepiolite. There is also a short chapter on common clays which are used for making structural clay products and lightweight aggregate. The location and geology of the major clay deposits that are marketed worldwide and regionally include kaolins from the United States, Southwest England, Brazil, and the Czech Republic along with halloysite from New Zealand and ball clays from the US, England, Germany, and Ukraine. Bentonites from the U.S. and Europe are included along with palygorskite and sepiolite from the U.S., China, Senegal, and Spain. The mining and processing of the various clays are described. Extensive discussions of the many applications of the clays are included. The appendices cover the important laboratory tests that are used to identify and evaluate the various types of clay. Many figures are included covering electron micrographs, processing flow sheets, stratigraphy, and location maps. * Provides the structure and composition of clay minerals, as well as their phyisical and chemical properties * Discusses pplications for Kaolin, Bentonite, Palygorskite and Sepiolite * Contains appendixes of laboratory tests and procedures, as well as a test for common clays

Geological Survey Professional Paper

ascribed a metasedimentary origin to similar trace amounts to over 5 percent ,
are best explained by cordierite - bearing ... Other quartz sand containing clay or
bauxite . accessory minerals found but not universally present In the east - central
 ...

Geological Survey Professional Paper

Author: Geological Survey (U.S.)

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 450

U S Geological Survey Professional Paper

This mechanism contrasts with the simple acwould be most refractory ; the fluxing
ions and silica cumulation of mineral grains ... Greaves - Walker , A. F. , 1939 ,
The origin , mineralogy and distribution of the refractory clays of the United States
 ...

U S  Geological Survey Professional Paper

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 480

Bulletin

1 During the past 50 years an immense literature has accumulated on the subject
of clays , clay products , and clay uses . ... GREAVES - WALKER , A. F. The Origin
, Mineralogy , and Distribution of the Refractory Clays of the United States .

Bulletin

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 745

Desert Dust in the Global System

The fine fraction of aeolian dust contains various types of clay mineral, which can
sometimes give an indication of source regions of dust production. Dusts
collected in Texas (Gill et al. 2000) contain three main clay minerals – illite,
smectite ...

Desert Dust in the Global System

Author: Andrew S. Goudie

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540323554

Page: 288

View: 878

Dust storms are a vital component of the environment. This book explores and summarises recent research on where dust storms originate, why dust storms are generated, where dust is transported and deposited, the nature of dust deposits and the changing frequency of dust storms over a range of time-scales. It is the first global study of causes and effects of dust storms, which are one of the increasing nature catastrophes.

Clay Mineral Cements in Sandstones

... a chemically complex group of clay minerals and is common in sandstones,
although there have been relatively few studies of their origin and distribution in
comparison to both other clays in sandstones and smectites in mudstones.

Clay Mineral Cements in Sandstones

Author: Richard Worden

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444304348

Page: 520

View: 909

Clay minerals are one of the most important groups of minerals thatdestroy permeability in sandstones. However, they also react withdrilling and completion fluids and induce fines migration duringhydrocarbon production. They are a very complex family of mineralsthat are routinely intergrown with each other, contain a wide rangeof solid solutions and form by a variety of processes under a widerange temperatures and rock and fluid compositions. In this volume, clay minerals in sandstones are reviewed interms of their mineralogy and general occurrence, their stable andradiogenic isotope geochemistry, XRD quantification, their effectson the petrophysical properties of sandstones and theirrelationships to sequence stratigraphy and palaeoclimate. Thecontrols on various clay minerals are addressed and a variety ofgeochemical issues, including the importance of mass flux, links tocarbonate mineral diagenesis and linked clay mineral diagenesis ininterbedded mudstone-sandstone are explored. A number of casestudies are included for kaolin, illite and chlorite cements, andthe occurrence of smectite in sandstone is reviewed. Experimentalrate data for clay cements in sandstones are reviewed and there aretwo model-based case studies that address the rates of growth ofkaolinite and illite. The readership of this volume will include sedimentologists andpetrographers who deal with the occurrence, spatial and temporaldistribution patterns and importance of clay mineral cements insandstones, geochemists involved in unraveling the factors thatcontrol clay mineral cement formation in sandstones and petroleumgeoscientists involved in predicting clay mineral distribution insandstones. The book will also be of interest to geologistsinvolved in palaeoclimate studies basin analysis. Latest geochemical data on clays in sandstones Provides important information for geologists involved inbasin analysis, sandstone petrology and petroleum geology If you are a member of the International Association ofSedimentologists (IAS), for purchasing details, please see:http://www.iasnet.org/publications/details.asp?code=SP34

Clay in Engineering Geology

Chapter 3 THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF CLAY MINERALS AND CLAYS
Clay minerals commonly form at the expense of primary rock-forming minerals. A
clay is composed of an accumulation of clay-sized mineral particles of which clay
 ...

Clay in Engineering Geology

Author: J.E. Gillott

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444600493

Page: 484

View: 99

Engineering geology is an interdisciplinary subject concerned with the application of geological science to engineering practice, and it is therefore important for the engineering geologist to recognize the boundary between engineering application and purely scientific enquiry. Much research in applied clay science results from imperfectly understood engineering behaviour. Engineering geology is most closely allied to the geotechnical and materials areas of civil engineering. The scope of the present book is limited to the influence of clay but because clay is almost ubiquitous in earth materials the subject still remains broad. In soil and rock, clay is the smallest size fraction, but it is that very fact which often determines its major influences on engineering behaviour. In this book the author reviews the importance of clay in engineering geology and summarizes present knowledge in this field. The plan of the book has remained unchanged since the first edition was published in 1968 but the text, diagrams and reference lists have all been extensively updated. The first 5 chapters review the classification, origin, composition, fabric and physical chemistry of clays. Behavioural aspects, covered in the following 4 chapters, include moisture interaction, strength and rheology, soil stabilization and the use of clays as materials. The final 3 chapters describe methods of analysis of clays and soils. Clay in Engineering Geology contains material drawn from a wide variety of sources and, together with its literature review and indexes, will provide much of value to geologists, mineralogists, civil and geotechnical engineers concerned with applied clay science.

Clay Minerals

I - INTRODUCTION The study of clay minerals has made a series of advances
which were due to new methods of investigation ; such as X-ray diffractometry, or
new ideas concerning their origin and evolution, such as the concept of clay ...

Clay Minerals

Author: B. Velde

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080869544

Page: 426

View: 561

This book follows another by the same author, published in 1977, which the author considered as ``a first attempt to put some order in the house of clay petrology''. That book was described as ``an excellent first attack on clay mineral petrology... informative, and stimulating because of the method of presentation and the open-door treatment of the subject. Not only clay-mineral scientists but petrologists in general must read this first book on clay mineral petrology.'' (Earth Science Reviews). This book describes clay mineral occurrence in terms of the physical and chemical forces which influence it. It includes a geological description of mineral occurrence, a definition of the major features of clay mineral chemical composition, and an indication of the physical-chemical boundaries of these occurrences. It also presents general patterns for the geological environments of weathering, sedimentation, burial diagenesis, deep sea basalt alteration, hydrothermal alteration of acidic rocks and chemical precipitation in acidic and basic environments. The major clay groups are related to one another as they occur in geological systems through the use of graphical analysis. The author has thoroughly reviewed the relevant literature for the last 25 years. The data and analyses obtained and presented in this book will not only make interesting reading, but will also prove extremely useful to those involved with studies in deep sea research, mining geology, petroleum geology, agronomy and civil engineering.

Biosphere Origin and Evolution

contained: clay 0.5g, NaCl 2.0 g, NaHCO3 1.2 g and sterile distilled water 100 ml.
Cyanobacteria were incubated for 7, ... Mineralogical composition of clays was
analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, CuKa radiation). Oriented specimens were ...

Biosphere Origin and Evolution

Author: Nikolay Dobretsov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387686561

Page: 437

View: 863

This monograph contains articles based on the oral presentations given at the International Workshop on the Biosphere Origin and Evolution (BOE 2005) held in Novosibirsk, Russia, June 26-29, 2005. The organizers of the event were the Scientific Programme of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which involves 50 institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences.