In this volume, the key methods of epidemiology are outlined for non-specialists, showing the importance of studying prevalence over incidence, adjustments needed in studying past groups, how to compare studies, and the dangers of assessing ...
Author: Tony Waldron
Publisher: Left Coast Press
A concise, readable introduction to epidemiology for archaeologists and primer on archaeological analysis for epidemiologists, the volume shows how to assess illness and mortality in archaeological populations.
Palaeoepidemiology and the analysis of dental anomalies As the study of the
distribution of disease in past populations, palaeoepidemiology is burdened with
the inherent problem of inferring information from often small, incomplete, and ...
Author: Joseph R Krecioch
Dental anomalies of number, shape, and position are frequently analysed in the orthodontic and clinical literature but are rarely discussed in an anthropological or archaeological context. Dental anomalies and occlusal disorders are often hypothesised to be the result of a modern, urbanised lifestyle as a response to reduced masticatory stress and subsequent crowding of the dentition. This study of skulls from Classical to medieaval Macedonia and England examines the relationship between craniofacial variation and the expression of dental anomalies. Standard craniometric measurements were taken to estimate relative sizes of cranial functional complexes and determine whether or not, or to what extent, changes in the shape or size of these variables were associated with the expression of dental anomalies. Statistical analyses determined that the null hypothesis, that there is no relationship between craniometrics and dental anomalies, can be rejected. A number of dental anomalies were found to have a relationship with reduced sizes in cranial and masticatory elements, although dental crowding was not as significant a factor in masticatory complex reduction. A cause and effect relationship cannot be determined but the data presented here suggests that both heredity and environmental causes may be influential in the expression of dental anomalies.
If the disease under palaeoepidemiological study presents age-specific
prevalence rates (which is, for example, the case for ... As Waldron suggested,
period prevalence seems to be the most adapted rate in palaeoepidemiology –
the period ...
Author: Didier Raoult
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This fascinating new volume comes complete with color illustrations and features the methodology and main achievements in the emerging field of paleomicrobiology. It’s an area research at the intersection of microbiology and evolution, history and anthropology. New molecular approaches have already provided exciting results, such as confirmation of a single biotype of Yersinia pestis as the cause of historical plague pandemics. An absorbing read for scientists in related fields.
Palaeoepidemiology can be broadly defined as ' an interdisciplinary area that
aims to develop more suitable epidemiological methods, and to apply those in
current use, to the study of disease determinants in human populations in the
Author: Ron Pinhasi
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This volume presents a truly integrated methodological and biocultural approach to the expanding discipline of human palaeopathology. The book provides researchers and practitioners with a comprehensive guide to the main methods and techniques that are currently available for studying diseases and related conditions from human skeletal remains. It also describes the ways in which these methods can be applied to the reconstruction of health and disease in the past. The first part of the book deals with the survival of palaeopathological evidence and provides an up-to-date account of some of the latest techniques for studying disease in ancient remains. These include imaging techniques, such as radiography and CT scanning, and biochemical and histological analyses. Part two discusses the diagnosis and interpretation of particular classes of disease. The emphasis here is on what can be learnt by taking a biocultural or holistic approach to the study of disease frequencies at a population level. Combines theoretical, methodological and diagnostic aspects with key biocultural approaches. Includes overviews of the latest applicable techniques from molecular biology, biochemistry, histopathology and medical imaging. Written by an international team of experts. This book is an invaluable resource for biological anthropologists and archaeologists who study health and disease in past populations. It is also of interest to medical researchers dealing with epidemiological, diagnostic and pathophysiological aspects of diseases, who need a perspective upon the ways in which particular diseases affected earlier generations. Praise from the reviews: “... This book offers an impressive amount of information for both students and more advanced researchers. Its value lies in the vast expertise the contributors have to offer, with all of them being experts with long-standing careers in their respective fields, as well as the geographical distribution of examples that are given to illustrate specific diseases... outstanding and it truly is an important resource for anyone interested in palaeopathology.” PALEOPATHOLOGY NEWSLETTER “The strengths of the book are numerous, but I am especially impressed with the clarity of presentation... I strongly recommend the book, and plan on using it in my classes as assigned reading to emphasize the very complex nature of diagnosis and its essential role of providing baseline information for interpreting health profiles of ancient populations.” THE QUARTERLY REVIEW OF BIOLOGY “It may be asked if we really need yet another book on paleopathology, especially because there are many acclaimed sources available. In this case, the answer must be a resounding ‘‘Yes!’’...Visually and textually, this volume is of exceptional value for guiding future generations of paleopathologists.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY "Pinhasi and Mays have produced an excellent, balanced compilation that reflects what is currently happening in paleopathology research and that nicely addresses paleopathology as both discipline and tool, highlighting technical advanced and schooling us on how disease manifests in the human skeleton. This is valuable resource that students and professionals interested in human paloepathology should consider adding to their libraries." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY
The systematic review will be a double-pronged endeavour that will fill a gap in the bioarchaeological literature by examining how palaeopathology has approached neoplastic research and by filtering out and scrutinising past ...
Author: Thomas James Siek
Palaeo-oncology refers to the study of cancer and other forms of neoplastic disease in historical and archaeological contexts using bioarchaeological data and methodology. In this line of academic enquiry there is debate regarding the antiquity and prevalence of neoplasms, which has been bolstered by a limited number of palaeoepidemiological studies into neoplastic disease. These investigations into neoplastic prevalence have been infrequent and performed with limited effectiveness. Moreover, these studies remain independent entities of scholarship, differing in their methods and analyses. This thesis will reconsider palaeoepidemiological investigations into neoplastic disease and attempt to bring these lines of enquiry together. This will first be accomplished with a systematic review of bioarchaeological research in palaeo-oncology. The systematic review will be a double-pronged endeavour that will fill a gap in the bioarchaeological literature by examining how palaeopathology has approached neoplastic research and by filtering out and scrutinising past palaeoepidemiological studies. This will then lead to a palaeoepidemiological investigation, conducted in reference to medieval Poland and will be aimed at exemplifying and incorporating a more standardized palaeoepidemiological methodology into palaeo-oncology. The systematic review revealed palaeo-oncological scholarship is dominated by case reports and identified only 10 enquiries into neoplastic prevalence since 1970. These previous palaeoepidemiological studies did not use proper methodology to interpret their results and, as they did not provide enough detail regarding the assemblage"s demographic profile, these studies preclude themselves from any in-depth comparison. The methodology used in the palaeoepidemiological investigation proved effective when comparing neoplastic prevalence in regard to urban versus rural medieval Polish assemblages. These methods will form the basis of proposed protocols for future palaeo-oncological research regarding palaeoepidemiological investigations and offer suggestions for future research venues into neoplastic disease.
Harris lines General introduction One of the few tenets of palaeopathological and
palaeoepidemiological study is that there is an intimate relationship between the
lifestyle of humans and the frequency and types of disease from which they ...
Author: Stephen Webb
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This 1995 book is a compelling study of the health of Australia's original inhabitants over 50,000 years.
... others, such as palaeoepidemiology (the study of disease in past populations).
Subdisciplines have developed associated specialty methods, including
advanced analytic methods appropriate to the health issues and exposures of
Author: Mary Louise Fleming
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
This text introduces students to the core concepts and principles of public health: the nature and scope of public health; its history; an introduction to health determinants and epidemiology; evidence-based practice in public health and understanding public health data plus more.
Thirty-seven papers, from a conference held in Bradford in 1999, examine leprosy from all angles: as a historical disease overwhelmed by stigma and as a condition that is still prevalent in much of the world despite new medications.
Author: Charlotte A. Roberts
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited
Thirty-seven papers, from a conference held in Bradford in 1999, examine leprosy from all angles: as a historical disease overwhelmed by stigma and as a condition that is still prevalent in much of the world despite new medications. Contributors discuss the medical diagnosis and treatment of leprosy, its effects on the skeleton using archaeological and historical evidence, its occurrence in the archaeological record worldwide and detecting its traces in DNA. Case studies are taken from across the ancient, medieval and modern worlds, including the Near East, Roman Egypt, medieval England, Wales and Ireland, Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, Asia and the Pacific.
This book is based on modern clinical knowledge and provides background information so that those who read it will understand the natural history of bone diseases, and this will enable them to draw reliable conclusions from their ...
Author: Tony Waldron
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Palaeopathology is designed to help bone specialists with diagnosis of diseases in skeletal assemblages. It suggests an innovative method of arriving at a diagnosis in the skeleton by applying what are referred to as 'operational definitions'. The aim is to ensure that all those who study bones will use the same criteria for diagnosing disease, which will enable valid comparisons to be made between studies. This book is based on modern clinical knowledge and provides background information so that those who read it will understand the natural history of bone diseases, and this will enable them to draw reliable conclusions from their observations. Details of bone metabolism and the fundamentals of basic pathology are also provided, as well as a comprehensive and up-to-date bibliography. A short chapter on epidemiology provides information on how best to analyze and present the results of a study of human remains.
The later transition into Late Antiquity is a more gradual socio-economic change and this is also reflected in the less substantial differences in health and lifestyle indicators.
Author: Anna Catherine Moles
This thesis presents a study of how social, economic and political changes impacted on the everyday lives of the people of Knossos, in terms of their health and diet, during the Hellenistic, Roman and Late Antique periods. Knossos, in north-central Crete, was an important site in Aegean and Mediterranean networks throughout this timespan, though the city experienced cycles of urban development and decline. As an extensively studied and well-documented site, it provides a unique opportunity to study long-term phenomena associated with its varied past. The present osteological research is contextualised using previous work on material culture and textual sources. The skeletal material is mostly fragmentary and commingled, its poor condition exacerbated by excavation techniques and storage conditions. It was necessary to develop a methodology to work around these limitations. A palaeoepidemiological approach was adopted and recording by element rather than individual was necessary. A selection of skeletal and isotopic analyses was conducted in order to investigate the demography, diet, development, and activity documented by the assemblage, as broad indicators of health. The results of this systematic study demonstrate that changes were not only manifested in the political administration, cultural tastes, and urban fabric of the city but also filtered down into the everyday lives of people, affecting their fundamental wellbeing and way of life. Changes occur in diet, activity and living conditions between the Hellenistic and Roman assemblages, and an inactive elite class appears to emerge. The later transition into Late Antiquity is a more gradual socio-economic change and this is also reflected in the less substantial differences in health and lifestyle indicators. However, there is a general picture of an improvement in living conditions alongside the reduction in population size, with less pressure on food resources and suggestion of a less hierarchical society.