Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Durability

This book covers a significant number of R&D projects, performed mostly after 2000, devoted to the understanding and prevention of performance degradation processes in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs).

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Durability

Author: Felix N. Büchi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 038785536X

Page: 510

View: 333

This book covers a significant number of R&D projects, performed mostly after 2000, devoted to the understanding and prevention of performance degradation processes in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). The extent and severity of performance degradation processes in PEFCs were recognized rather gradually. Indeed, the recognition overlapped with a significant number of industrial dem- strations of fuel cell powered vehicles, which would suggest a degree of technology maturity beyond the resaolution of fundamental failure mechanisms. An intriguing question, therefore, is why has there been this apparent delay in addressing fun- mental performance stability requirements. The apparent answer is that testing of the power system under fully realistic operation conditions was one prerequisite for revealing the nature and extent of some key modes of PEFC stack failure. Such modes of failure were not exposed to a similar degree, or not at all, in earlier tests of PEFC stacks which were not performed under fully relevant conditions, parti- larly such tests which did not include multiple on–off and/or high power–low power cycles typical for transportation and mobile power applications of PEFCs. Long-term testing of PEFCs reported in the early 1990s by both Los Alamos National Laboratory and Ballard Power was performed under conditions of c- stant cell voltage, typically near the maximum power point of the PEFC.

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Degradation

This cutting-edge volume directly addresses the state-of-the-art advances in durability within every fuel cell stack component.

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Degradation

Author: Matthew M. Mench

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123869366

Page: 460

View: 170

For full market implementation of PEM fuel cells to become a reality, two main limiting technical issues must be overcome- cost and durability. This cutting-edge volume directly addresses the state-of-the-art advances in durability within every fuel cell stack component. [...] chapters on durability in the individual fuel cell components -- membranes, electrodes, diffusion media, and bipolar plates -- highlight specific degradation modes and mitigation strategies. The book also includes chapters which synthesize the component-related failure modes to examine experimental diagnostics, computational modeling, and laboratory protocol"--Back cover.

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 9

The intention of the symposium is to bring together the international community working on the subject and to enable effective interactions between the research and engineering communities. This issue is sold as a two-part set.

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 9

Author: T. Fuller

Publisher: The Electrochemical Society

ISBN: 1566777380

Page: 2068

View: 753

This issue of ECS Transactions is devoted to all aspects of research, development, and engineering of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and attacks, as well as low-temperature direct-fuel cells. The intention of the symposium is to bring together the international community working on the subject and to enable effective interactions between the research and engineering communities. This issue is sold as a two-part set.

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 6

The symposium was devoted to all aspects of research development and engineering of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Three subareas were covered: materials and electrode processes, fuel cell systems, and durability.

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 6

Author: Thomas Francis Fuller

Publisher: The Electrochemical Society

ISBN: 1566775019

Page: 1365

View: 210

The symposium was devoted to all aspects of research development and engineering of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Three subareas were covered: materials and electrode processes, fuel cell systems, and durability.

Modeling and Diagnostics of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

This volume, presented by leading experts in the field, covers the latest advances in diagnostics and modeling of polymer electrolyte fuel cells, from understanding catalyst layer durability to start-up under freezing conditions.

Modeling and Diagnostics of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

Author: Ugur Pasaogullari

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387980683

Page: 397

View: 162

This volume, presented by leading experts in the field, covers the latest advances in diagnostics and modeling of polymer electrolyte fuel cells, from understanding catalyst layer durability to start-up under freezing conditions.

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 8

This international symposium is devoted to all aspects of research, development, and engineering of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and stacks, as well as low-temperature direct-fuel cells.

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 8

Author:

Publisher: The Electrochemical Society

ISBN: 1566776481

Page: 1078

View: 856

High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

This book is a comprehensive review of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

Author: Qingfeng Li

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319170821

Page: 545

View: 480

This book is a comprehensive review of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). PEMFCs are the preferred fuel cells for a variety of applications such as automobiles, cogeneration of heat and power units, emergency power and portable electronics. The first 5 chapters of the book describe rationalization and illustration of approaches to high temperature PEM systems. Chapters 6 - 13 are devoted to fabrication, optimization and characterization of phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membranes, the very first electrolyte system that has demonstrated the concept of and motivated extensive research activity in the field. The last 11 chapters summarize the state-of-the-art of technological development of high temperature-PEMFCs based on acid doped PBI membranes including catalysts, electrodes, MEAs, bipolar plates, modelling, stacking, diagnostics and applications.

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

This two volume set reviews the fundamentals, performance, and in situ characterization of PEMFCs and DMFCs.

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

Author: Christoph Hartnig

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0857095471

Page: 430

View: 515

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) technology are promising forms of low-temperature electrochemical power conversion technologies that operate on hydrogen and methanol respectively. Featuring high electrical efficiency and low operational emissions, they have attracted intense worldwide commercialization research and development efforts. These R&D efforts include a major drive towards improving materials performance, fuel cell operation and durability. In situ characterization is essential to improving performance and extending operational lifetime through providing information necessary to understand how fuel cell materials perform under operational loads. This two volume set reviews the fundamentals, performance, and in situ characterization of PEMFCs and DMFCs. Volume 1 covers the fundamental science and engineering of these low temperature fuel cells, focusing on understanding and improving performance and operation. Part one reviews systems fundamentals, ranging from fuels and fuel processing, to the development of membrane and catalyst materials and technology, and gas diffusion media and flowfields, as well as life cycle aspects and modelling approaches. Part two details performance issues relevant to fuel cell operation and durability, such as catalyst ageing, materials degradation and durability testing, and goes on to review advanced transport simulation approaches, degradation modelling and experimental monitoring techniques. With its international team of expert contributors, Polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cell technology Volumes 1 & 2 is an invaluable reference for low temperature fuel cell designers and manufacturers, as well as materials science and electrochemistry researchers and academics. Covers the fundamental science and engineering of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), focusing on understanding and improving performance and operation Reviews systems fundamentals, ranging from fuels and fuel processing, to the development of membrane and catalyst materials and technology, and gas diffusion media and flowfields, as well as life cycle aspects and modelling approaches Details performance issues relevant to fuel cell operation and durability, such as catalyst ageing, materials degradation and durability testing, and reviews advanced transport simulation approaches, degradation modelling and experimental monitoring techniques

Handbook of Fuel Cells

This new two-volume set provides an authoritative and timely guide to these recent developments in fuel cell research.

Handbook of Fuel Cells

Author:

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470723114

Page:

View: 320

PEM Fuel Cells

This new edition of Dr. Barbir’s groundbreaking book still lays the groundwork for engineers, technicians and students better than any other resource, covering fundamentals of design, electrochemistry, heat and mass transport, as well as ...

PEM Fuel Cells

Author: Frano Barbir

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 012398372X

Page: 444

View: 437

Demand for fuel cell technology is growing rapidly. Fuel cells are being commercialized to provide power to buildings like hospitals and schools, to replace batteries in portable electronic devices, and as replacements for internal combustion engines in vehicles. PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cells are lighter, smaller, and more efficient than other types of fuel cell. As a result, over 80% of fuel cells being produced today are PEM cells. This new edition of Dr. Barbir’s groundbreaking book still lays the groundwork for engineers, technicians and students better than any other resource, covering fundamentals of design, electrochemistry, heat and mass transport, as well as providing the context of system design and applications. Yet it now also provides invaluable information on the latest advances in modeling, diagnostics, materials, and components, along with an updated chapter on the evolving applications areas wherein PEM cells are being deployed. Comprehensive guide covers all aspects of PEM fuel cells, from theory and fundamentals to practical applications Provides solutions to heat and water management problems engineers must face when designing and implementing PEM fuel cells in systems Hundreds of original illustrations, real-life engineering examples, and end-of-chapter problems help clarify, contextualize, and aid understanding

Role of Wettability in Fuel Cells

This work is focused on sophisticated schemes for surface wettability impact on fuel cell performance are required by using proper wettability characteristics for the fuel cell components.

Role of Wettability in Fuel Cells

Author: Jaehyung Park

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 377

Fuel cells have received significant attention as a promising candidate for efficient and emission-free power in automotive, stationary, and portable applications. This work is focused on sophisticated schemes for surface wettability impact on fuel cell performance are required by using proper wettability characteristics for the fuel cell components. Foreign cations are shown to cause mass transport losses, in particular due to wettability changes in the gas diffusion media (GDM) and have a major impact on the durability and the performance of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). The effects of cationic impurities on fuel cell system performance, especially on the water management has been studied by employing in-situ and ex-situ contamination methods. Changes in the wettability of the GDM surface following the in-situ contamination injection were quantified using a force tensiometer employing the Wilhelmy plate method. Identification and mitigation of adverse effects of cationic airborne contaminants on fuel cell system performance and durability has been studied and effective recovery methods are proposed. A new membrane electrode assembly (MEA) concept is introduced, where the carbon paper substrate is eliminated and the entire GDM consists of only the micro-porous layer (MPL) directly applied on the catalyst coated membrane (CCM). Spray deposition with a heated plate is used to fabricate the MPL directly onto both sides of the catalyst coated membrane (CCM), simplifying the fabrication and assembly, and results in a more robust interface between the MPL and the catalyst layer. The new MEA structure provides superior pathways for gas transport and water evacuation, reduces flooding at high current densities, and results in a stable voltage at higher current densities by improving mass transport. Wilhelmy balance in a force tensiometer was successfully applied to study the wetting property of an electrode matrix in the electrolyte of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). MCFCs are high-temperature fuel cells that use a molten carbonate salt mixture as an electrolyte integrated in a porous ceramic matrix. The performance of MCFC highly depends on the surface tension of the molten carbonate and the contact angle with the electrolyte matrix in the solution. A new formulation based on the Wilhelmy force balance equation is developed to determine the contact angle for samples with irregular shapes.

30th Fuel Cell Seminar

This issue of the 2006 Fuel Cell Seminar, held in Honolulu, Hawaii in 2006, marks the 30th Anniversary of the seminar, and contains papers dealing with stationary fuel cell systems, technology development, demonstration, and ...

30th Fuel Cell Seminar

Author: M. C. Williams

Publisher: The Electrochemical Society

ISBN: 1566775493

Page: 860

View: 881

This issue of the 2006 Fuel Cell Seminar, held in Honolulu, Hawaii in 2006, marks the 30th Anniversary of the seminar, and contains papers dealing with stationary fuel cell systems, technology development, demonstration, and commercialization of fuel cells. Major topic of discussions throughout the three oral sessions and poster sessions were stationary fuel cell systems, hydrogen systems, and their efficient use as backup systems. Their use as alternative energies and portable fuel cells were also discussed.

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells 14 PEFC 14

Conclusions The performance and durability effects of the common and BZ were
studied at current densities of 1 and airborne 0.2 A contaminants cm-2. All SO2
contaminants , were found to decrease fuel cell performance significantly and a ...

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells 14  PEFC 14

Author: H. Gasteiger

Publisher: The Electrochemical Society

ISBN: 1607685396

Page: 1247

View: 373

Analytical Modelling of Fuel Cells

Scientific aspects of polymer electrolyte fuel cell durability and degradation.
Chem. Rev. 107, 3904–3951. Bossel, U., 2000. The Birth of the Fuel Cell. Jürgen
Kinzel, Göttingen, Germany. Brett, D.J.L., Atkins, S., Brandon, N.P., Vesovic, V., ...

Analytical Modelling of Fuel Cells

Author: Andrei A Kulikovsky

Publisher:

ISBN: 0444642226

Page: 382

View: 143

Analytical Modelling of Fuel Cells, Second Edition, is devoted to the analytical models that help us understand the mechanisms of cell operation. The book contains equations for the rapid evaluation of various aspects of fuel cell performance, including cell potential, rate of electrochemical reactions, rate of transport processes in the cell, and temperature fields in the cell, etc. Furthermore, the book discusses how to develop simple physics-based analytical models. A new chapter is devoted to analytical models of PEM fuel cell impedance, a technique that exhibits explosive growth potential. Finally, the book contains Maple worksheets implementing some of the models discussed. Includes simple physics-based equations for the fuel cell polarization curve Provides analytical solutions for fuel cell impedance Includes simple equations for calculation of temperature shapes in fuel cells Introduces physical descriptions of the basic transport and kinetic phenomena in fuel cells of various types

Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cells

This book is the first book exclusively dedicated on fuel cell membranes. The experts of the field are brought together to review the development of polymeric membranes for PEMFC in all their aspects.

Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cells

Author: Javaid Zaidi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387735321

Page: 550

View: 728

From the late-1960’s, perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSAs) ionomers have dominated the PEM fuel cell industry as the membrane material of choice. The “gold standard’ amongst the many variations that exist today has been, and to a great extent still is, DuPont’s Nafion® family of materials. However, there is significant concern in the industry that these materials will not meet the cost, performance, and durability requirementsnecessary to drive commercialization in key market segments – es- cially automotive. Indeed, Honda has already put fuel cell vehicles in the hands of real end users that have home-grown fuel cell stack technology incorporating hydrocarbon-based ionomers. “Polymer Membranes in Fuel Cells” takes an in-depth look at the new chem- tries and membrane technologies that have been developed over the years to address the concerns associated with the materials currently in use. Unlike the PFSAs, which were originally developed for the chlor-alkali industry, the more recent hydrocarbon and composite materials have been developed to meet the specific requirements of PEM Fuel Cells. Having said this, most of the work has been based on derivatives of known polymers, such as poly(ether-ether ketones), to ensure that the critical requirement of low cost is met. More aggressive operational requi- ments have also spurred the development on new materials; for example, the need for operation at higher temperature under low relative humidity has spawned the creation of a plethora of new polymers with potential application in PEM Fuel Cells.

Fuel Cells

The expected end of the “oil age” will lead to increasing focus and reliance on alternative energy conversion devices, among which fuel cells have the potential to play an important role.

Fuel Cells

Author: Klaus-Dieter Kreuer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461457858

Page: 801

View: 855

The expected end of the “oil age” will lead to increasing focus and reliance on alternative energy conversion devices, among which fuel cells have the potential to play an important role. Not only can phosphoric acid and solid oxide fuel cells already efficiently convert today’s fossil fuels, including methane, into electricity, but other types of fuel cells, such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, have the potential to become the cornerstones of a possible future hydrogen economy. Featuring 21 peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Fuel Cells offers concise yet comprehensive coverage of the current state of research and identifies key areas for future investigation. Internationally renowned specialists provide authoritative introductions to a wide variety of fuel cell types, and discuss materials, components, and systems for these technologies. The entries also cover sustainability and marketing considerations, including comparisons of fuel cells with alternative technologies.

PEM Fuel Cell Failure Mode Analysis

PEM Fuel Cell Failure Mode Analysis presents a systematic analysis of PEM fuel cell durability and failure modes.

PEM Fuel Cell Failure Mode Analysis

Author: Haijiang Wang

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439839182

Page: 364

View: 224

PEM Fuel Cell Failure Mode Analysis presents a systematic analysis of PEM fuel cell durability and failure modes. It provides readers with a fundamental understanding of insufficient fuel cell durability, identification of failure modes and failure mechanisms of PEM fuel cells, fuel cell component degradation testing, and mitigation strategies against degradation. The first several chapters of the book examine the degradation of various fuel cell components, including degradation mechanisms, the effects of operating conditions, mitigation strategies, and testing protocols. The book then discusses the effects of different contamination sources on the degradation of fuel cell components and explores the relationship between external environment and the degradation of fuel cell components and systems. It also reviews the correlation between operational mode, such as start-up and shut-down, and the degradation of fuel cell components and systems. The last chapter explains how the design of fuel cell hardware relates to failure modes. Written by international scientists active in PEM fuel cell research, this volume is enriched with practical information on various failure modes analysis for diagnosing cell performance and identifying failure modes of degradation. This in turn helps in the development of mitigation strategies and the increasing commercialization of PEM fuel cells.

PEM Fuel Cell Diagnostic Tools

The text outlines the principles, experimental implementation, data processing, and application of each technique, along with its capabilities and

PEM Fuel Cell Diagnostic Tools

Author: Haijiang Wang

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439839204

Page: 578

View: 169

PEM Fuel Cell Diagnostic Tools presents various tools for diagnosing PEM fuel cells and stacks, including in situ and ex situ diagnostic tools, electrochemical techniques, and physical/chemical methods. The text outlines the principles, experimental implementation, data processing, and application of each technique, along with its capabilities and weaknesses. The book covers many diagnostics employed in the characterization and determination of fuel cell performance. It discusses commonly used conventional tools, such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It also examines special tools developed specifically for PEM fuel cells, including transparent cells, cathode discharge, and current mapping, as well as recent advanced tools for diagnosis, such as magnetic resonance imaging and atomic force microscopy. For clarity, the book splits these diagnostic methodologies into two parts—in situ and ex situ. To better understand the tools, PEM fuel cell testing is also discussed. Each self-contained chapter provides cross-references to other chapters. Written by international scientists active in PEM fuel cell research, this volume incorporates state-of-the-art technical advances in PEM fuel cell diagnosis. The diagnostic tools presented help readers to understand the physical and chemical phenomena involved in PEM fuel cells.