Teaching Clinical Reasoning

Chapter topics include: Clinical Reasoning and Diagnostic Error Theoretical Concepts to Consider in Providing Clinical Reasoning Instruction Developing a Curriculum in Clinical Reasoning Educational Approaches to Common Cognitive Errors ...

Teaching Clinical Reasoning

Author: Robert L. Trowbridge

Publisher: American College

ISBN: 9781938921056

Page: 270

View: 420

Chapter topics include: Clinical Reasoning and Diagnostic Error Theoretical Concepts to Consider in Providing Clinical Reasoning Instruction Developing a Curriculum in Clinical Reasoning Educational Approaches to Common Cognitive Errors General Teaching Techniques Assessment of Clinical Reasoning Faculty Development and Dissemination Lifelong Learning in Clinical Reasoning Remediation of Clinical Reasoning Novel Approaches and Future Directions Teaching Clinical Reasoning: Where do we go from here?

ABC of Clinical Reasoning

This is important because studies suggest that diagnostic error is common and results in significant harm to patients – and errors in reasoning account for the majority of diagnostic errors.

ABC of Clinical Reasoning

Author: Nicola Cooper

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119059089

Page: 64

View: 903

Being a good clinician is not just about knowledge – how doctors and other healthcare professionals think, reason and make decisions is arguably their most critical skill. While medical schools and postgraduate training programmes teach and assess the knowledge and skills required to practice as a doctor, few offer comprehensive training in clinical reasoning or decision making. This is important because studies suggest that diagnostic error is common and results in significant harm to patients – and errors in reasoning account for the majority of diagnostic errors. The ABC of Clinical Reasoning covers core elements of the thinking and decision making associated with clinical practice – from what clinical reasoning is, what it involves and how to teach it. Informed by the latest advances in cognitive psychology, education and studies of expertise, the ABC covers: Evidence-based history and examination Use and interpretation of diagnostic tests How doctors think – models of clinical reasoning Cognitive and affective biases Metacognition and cognitive de-biasing strategies Patient-centred evidence based medicine Teaching clinical reasoning From an international team of authors, the ABC of Clinical Reasoning is essential reading for all students, medical professionals and other clinicians involved in diagnosis, in order to improve their decision-making skills and provide better patient care.

Clinical Reasoning in the Health Professions

Barrows H S, Feltovich P J 1987 The clinical reasoning process. Medical
Education 21:86–91 Boshuizen H P A, Schmidt H G 1992 On the role of
biomedical knowledge in clinical reasoning by experts, intermediates and
novices. Cognitive ...

Clinical Reasoning in the Health Professions

Author: Joy Higgs

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0750688858

Page: 504

View: 760

Clinical reasoning is the foundation of professional clinical practice. Totally revised and updated, this book continues to provide the essential text on the theoretical basis of clinical reasoning in the health professions and examines strategies for assisting learners, scholars and clinicians develop their reasoning expertise. key chapters revised and updated nature of clinical reasoning sections have been expanded increase in emphasis on collaborative reasoning core model of clinical reasoning has been revised and updated

Principles and Practice of Case based Clinical Reasoning Education

Ericsson, K. A., et al. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of
expert performance. Psychological Review, 100(3), 363–406. Eva, K. W. (2005).
What every teacher needs to know about clinical reasoning. Medical Education ...

Principles and Practice of Case based Clinical Reasoning Education

Author: Olle ten Cate

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319648284

Page: 207

View: 294

This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This volume describes and explains the educational method of Case-Based Clinical Reasoning (CBCR) used successfully in medical schools to prepare students to think like doctors before they enter the clinical arena and become engaged in patient care. Although this approach poses the paradoxical problem of a lack of clinical experience that is so essential for building proficiency in clinical reasoning, CBCR is built on the premise that solving clinical problems involves the ability to reason about disease processes. This requires knowledge of anatomy and the working and pathology of organ systems, as well as the ability to regard patient problems as patterns and compare them with instances of illness scripts of patients the clinician has seen in the past and stored in memory. CBCR stimulates the development of early, rudimentary illness scripts through elaboration and systematic discussion of the courses of action from the initial presentation of the patient to the final steps of clinical management. The book combines general backgrounds of clinical reasoning education and assessment with a detailed elaboration of the CBCR method for application in any medical curriculum, either as a mandatory or as an elective course. It consists of three parts: a general introduction to clinical reasoning education, application of the CBCR method, and cases that can used by educators to try out this method.

Clinical Reasoning in the Health Professions E Book

The case for use of entrustable professional activities in undergraduate medical
education. Acad. Med. 90, 431–436. Christensen, N., Jones, M., Edwards, I., et al.
, 2008. Helping physiotherapy students develop clinical reasoning capability.

Clinical Reasoning in the Health Professions E Book

Author: Joy Higgs

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0702065056

Page: 532

View: 300

Clinical reasoning lies at the core of health care practice and education. Clinical Reasoning in the Health Professions, therefore, occupies a central place in the education of health professionals, the enhancement of professional decision making of individuals and groups of practitioners with their clients, and research into optimal practice reasoning. All chapters updated and 20 new chapters added Concrete examples, cases and vignettes were added to bring discussions to life for the reader Reflection points strategically placed to assist readers to extend their insights and build learning from their own practical experiences and theoretical knowledge Devices of particular value to reflective practitioners and educators All chapters updated and 20 new chapters added Concrete examples, cases and vignettes were added to bring discussions to life for the reader Reflection points strategically placed to assist readers to extend their insights and build learning from their own practical experiences and theoretical knowledge Devices of particular value to reflective practitioners and educators.

Clinical Reasoning

This unique book provides a series of authentic, engaging and meaningful scenarios that will guide you through the clinical reasoning process while challenging you to think critically and creatively about the nursing care you provide.

Clinical Reasoning

Author: Tracy Levett-Jones

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781442556621

Page: 294

View: 490

A nurse's clinical reasoning ability is a key factor in the provision of quality care and the prevention of adverse patient outcomes. This unique book provides a series of authentic, engaging and meaningful scenarios that will guide you through the clinical reasoning process while challenging you to think critically and creatively about the nursing care you provide. It will promote deep learning and opportunities for you to rehearse how you will respond to real clinical situations in ways that are both person-centred and clinically astute.

Handbook of Teaching for Physical Therapists E Book

184 What Can We Learn from the Clinical Reasoning of Expert Physical
Therapists that can Inform Our Teaching? 184 Clinical Reasoning Strategies
Model 185 Student Physical Therapists' Understanding of Clinical Reasoning
188 Role of ...

Handbook of Teaching for Physical Therapists   E Book

Author: Gail M. Jensen

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1455706019

Page: 304

View: 850

Whether you are practicing in an in-patient or an out-patient facility, academic institution, or clinical residency program, this well-respected handbook gives you the background and guidance you need to effectively educate individuals across the continuum of physical therapy practice. Practical, real-life examples show you how to: incorporate health literacy and needs of the learner; assess and adapt to the various learning styles of patients; use simulations in education; facilitate the development of clinical reasoning skills; and assess learning outcomes and the effectiveness of your teaching. Plus, four all-new chapters and major revisions of all content throughout the book keep you on top of the latest research and best practices. Coverage of the theory and application of educational principles across the continuum of PT practice provides the information you need to improve your skills in the educational process both in academic and clinical settings. Two section format divides content into two parts: designing academic and clinical education programs and teaching students in academic and clinical settings; and teaching patients and families in clinical and community settings. Variety of teaching and teaching assessment methods expands your teaching, learning, and assessment repertoires. Case stories at the beginning of each chapter allow you to see the relevance of the information in the chapter. Threshold concepts highlight key ideas that are important to know. Annotated bibliography at end of each chapter provides resources for further study. NEW! Chapter on Authentic Assessment: Simulation-Based Education reflects the new ways to facilitate student learning through the use of human simulation models. NEW! Chapter on Strategies for Planning and Implementing Interprofessional Education covers the fundamental concepts of team-based care and interprofessional learning. NEW! Chapter on What Makes a Good Clinical Teacher? translates current research on clinical teaching into clinical education and practice. NEW! Chapter on Facilitating the Teaching and Learning of Clinical Reasoning helps you apply current research on clinical reasoning in rehabilitation to clinical education and teaching. NEW! Two combined chapters on Patient Education and Health Literacy (previously chapters 8 and 12) and Applied Behavioral Theory and Adherence: Models for Practice (previously chapters 9 and 10) provide focused presentations on current thinking and practical strategies for addressing health literacy issues in the clinical environment. NEW! Expanded chapter on Post-Professional Clinical Residency and Fellowship Education offers more information on models and trends in residency education and mentoring.

Residents Teaching Skills

How, then, do clinical teachers teach medical problem-solving or the clinical
reasoning process? The teaching of all procedural skills, including the clinical
reasoning process, involves demonstrating the process and then providing
practice ...

Residents        Teaching Skills

Author: Janine C. Edward, PhD

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 9780826115690

Page: 280

View: 377

"The editors have collected an impressive array of practical material that will guide any academic medical center in the development of a more focused approach to "teaching the teachers." From learning theory and program development to teaching performance evaluation and specialty-specific materials, Residents' Teaching Skills covers all the bases. I commend this volume to the attention of medical educators everywhere, and residency program directors in particular." --from the Foreword by Jordon J. Cohen, MD, President, Association of American Medical Colleges This book provides practical guidance to plan, organize, and run a teaching skills program for medical residents. Readers will find that Part Two offers exact materials for course use, including modules for use with pediatric residents, teaching clinical procedures, works rounds, and role play, plus evaluation forms that can be used as written or customized to fit a particular program.

Teaching in the Hospital

This book provides hospital-based educators with tools and techniques for: Establishing and communicating expectations and responsibilities Conducting rounds to ensure education complements patient care Enhancing learning by using ...

Teaching in the Hospital

Author: Jeff Wiese

Publisher: ACP Press

ISBN: 1934465445

Page: 325

View: 425

The complexity of hospitalized patients and the day-to-day issues that arise on inpatient services make teaching in the hospital as challenging as it is unique. Hospital-based medical educators (hospitalists and attending physicians) must be adaptable and teach a wide range of topics, all while administering effective patient care. Written by experts in the field, Teaching in the Hospital offers a unique perspective on the goals of inpatient teaching and practical advice for hospitalists and attendings who teach on the wards. This book provides hospital-based educators with tools and techniques for: Establishing and communicating expectations and responsibilities Conducting rounds to ensure education complements patient care Enhancing learning by using illustrations, analogies, mnemonics, and other "tricks of the trade" Coaching learners in the science of clinical reasoning, communication, time management, and interpersonal relations This unique book includes clinical problem-based "teaching scripts" illustrating the dialogues that can take place around 15 of the most frequently encountered inpatient clinical problems. A part of ACP's Teaching Medicine Series, this title is available individually or as a part of the complete six-book set.

Clinical Reasoning Cases in Nursing E Book

The 7th edition features a new concept-based organization, an enhanced focus on interprofessional collaboration and QSEN, 20 all-new case studies, and updated content throughout to reflect the most current standards of clinical practice.

Clinical Reasoning Cases in Nursing   E Book

Author: Mariann M. Harding

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0323525121

Page: 688

View: 179

Hone your ability to make sound clinical nursing judgment via a conceptual approach to teaching and learning with Harding & Snyder’s Clinical Reasoning Cases in Nursing, 7th Edition. This time-tested case study approach is highly regarded for its clinically relevant and thought-provoking cases. With each adoption, you’ll be able to tap into 150 unique case studies covering all four clinical practice areas: medical-surgical, pediatric, OB/maternity, and psychiatric nursing, all newly organized to facilitate a conceptual approach to teaching and learning. Each case covers a common patient problem, drawn from actual clinical experiences and written by nurses who are clinical experts. Cases include integrated content on pharmacology, nutrition, and diagnostic/laboratory tests to encourage you to think critically about all aspects of patient care. The 7th edition features a new concept-based organization, an enhanced focus on interprofessional collaboration and QSEN, 20 all-new case studies, and updated content throughout to reflect the most current standards of clinical practice. Awarded second place in the 2019 AJN Book of the Year Awards in Medical-Surgical category. Comprehensive assortment of 150 case studies draws from actual clinical experiences in medical-surgical, pediatric, OB/maternity, and psychiatric clinical areas to help you think critically, prioritize, and deliver proactive nursing care. Critical thinking approach helps you learn to identify changes, anticipate possible complications, and initiate therapeutic interventions. Progressive case complexity builds on previous learning to help you gradually develop more and more expertise. NEW & UNIQUE! Concept-based organization mirrors the growing use of concept-based curricula and conceptual approaches to teaching and learning in nursing education. NEW! 20 all-new cases and four extensively-revised cases that address important contemporary healthcare issues and allow for better coordination with Giddens, HESI, and other exemplar lists. NEW! Updated content throughout reflects the latest evidence-based clinical practice, including national and international treatment guidelines. NEW! Enhanced focus on interprofessional collaboration identifies opportunities for interprofessional collaboration are discussed. NEW! Greater consistency with the NCLEX Exam includes revisions like the elimination of most drug trade names and the inclusion of Canadian lab values. Enhanced QSEN safety emphasis is highlighted with a "target" icon to communicate "caution" or "safety." NEW! Increased emphasis on sepsis and antibiotic resistance throughout that addresses the growing problem of sepsis (a new Joint Commission "core measure") and antibiotic resistance where appropriate throughout. NEW! Improved answer spacing ensures that space left for answers reflects what is actually needed.

The Essentials of Clinical Reasoning for Nurses Using the Outcome Present State Test Model for Reflective Practice

In The Essentials of Clinical Reasoning for Nurses, authors RuthAnne Kuiper, Sandra O’Donnell, Daniel Pesut, and Stephanie Turrise provide a model that supports learning and teaching clinical reasoning, development of reflective and ...

The Essentials of Clinical Reasoning for Nurses  Using the Outcome Present State Test Model for Reflective Practice

Author: RuthAnne Kuiper

Publisher: Sigma Theta Tau

ISBN: 1945157097

Page: 464

View: 157

In today’s healthcare environment of scarce resources and challenges related to safety and quality, nurses must make decision after decision to ensure timely, accurate, and efficient provision of care. Solid decision-making, or lack thereof, can significantly affect patient care and outcomes. Clinical reasoning – how a nurse processes information and chooses what action to take – is a skill vital to nursing practice and split-second decisions. And yet, developing the clinical reasoning to make good decisions takes time, education, experience, patience, and reflection. Along the way, nurses can benefit from a successful, practical model that demystifies and advances clinical reasoning skills. In The Essentials of Clinical Reasoning for Nurses, authors RuthAnne Kuiper, Sandra O’Donnell, Daniel Pesut, and Stephanie Turrise provide a model that supports learning and teaching clinical reasoning, development of reflective and complex thinking, clinical supervision, and care planning through scenarios, diagnostic cues, case webs, and more.

Critical Thinking Clinical Reasoning and Clinical Judgment E Book

This edition emphasizes readiness for clinical practice and the Next Generation NCLEX exam, with a focus on systems thinking, interprofessional practice, nursing skills for the 21st century, and Quality and Safety for Nursing Education ...

Critical Thinking  Clinical Reasoning  and Clinical Judgment E Book

Author: Rosalinda Alfaro-LeFevre

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0323594727

Page: 268

View: 292

Develop the critical thinking and reasoning skills you need to make sound clinical judgments! Alfaro-LeFevre's Critical Thinking, Clinical Reasoning, and Clinical Judgment: A Practical Approach, 7th Edition brings these concepts to life through engaging text, diverse learning activities, and real-life examples. Easy-to-understand language and a "how-to" approach equip you to become a sensible, resilient critical thinker with the clinical reasoning skills you need to think think through complex issues and make sound clinical decisions. This edition emphasizes readiness for clinical practice and the Next Generation NCLEX exam, with a focus on systems thinking, interprofessional practice, nursing skills for the 21st century, and Quality and Safety for Nursing Education (QSEN) competencies. Clear, straightforward approach and motivational writing style provides vivid examples, memorable anecdotes, and real-life case scenarios to make content come alive. Focus on application ("how to") with supporting rationales (theory) makes difficult concepts easy to learn. Critical Thinking Indicators feature evidence-based descriptions of behaviors that foster critical thinking in nursing practice. Highlighted features and sections that promote deep learning include: This Chapter at a Glance, Learning Outcomes, Key Concepts, Guiding Principle boxes, Critical Moments boxes, Other Perspectives features, Think-Pair-Share activities, H.M.O. (Help Me Out) cartoons, real-life clinical scenarios, Key Points, Critical Thinking Exercises, and more! Cultural, spiritual, and lifespan content explores the nurse’s role in hospitals, long-term care settings, and entire communities, presenting a broad approach to critical thinking. Inclusion of ethics- and standards-based professional practice reflects the increased demand for accountability in today’s professional climate. Timely coverage of the latest in nursing education and critical thinking includes concept-based learning; QSEN and IOM standards; problem-focused versus outcome-focused thinking; prioritization and delegation; developing a culture of safe, healthy work environments; expanding roles related to diagnosis and management; improving grades and passing tests the first time; NCLEX exam preparation; ensuring that documentation reflects critical thinking; communication and interpersonal skills; strategies for common workplace challenges; and more.

Clinical Education in the Health Professions

The teaching of clinical reasoning within this paradigm naturally follows the
imperative to bring about the required cognitive changes in newcomers to the
health professions, who will then be able to behave appropriately (e.g. Custers ...

Clinical Education in the Health Professions

Author: Clare Delany

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 072957900X

Page: 304

View: 751

Clinical settings are dynamic educational spaces that present both opportunities and barriers to learning and teaching. Designed to inform, challenge and educate health professionals about the evidence underpinning clinical education practices and outcomes, this multi-disciplinary book brings together important concepts in healthcare education and addresses context and processes of learning, professional identity and socialisation, feedback and assessment, ethics, and inter-professional education. The authors encourage teaching and learning practices based on research findings, expertise and innovation, and the development of individual teaching methods and styles from a theoretical base that provides relevant principles, direction and support. With clear links between theory, research and practice, collaboration from a broad range of clinical disciplines, and models for learning and teaching grounded in empirical research, Clinical Education in the Health Professions will become a standard reference for all health professionals and educators. examines patterns of practice in clinical education in the health professions, using a qualitative research focus identifies the roles of university and clinical educators, students, peers and patients in clinical education highlights implicit tensions in clinical education practice and presents strategies to identify and address such tensions challenges the reader to consider new approaches to clinical education that may optimise students’ learning and enculturation into the health professions Despite claims that clinical education lies at the heart of health care education, little empirical research has explored what constitutes effectiveness in clinical teaching and learning. This book draws on the research, ideas and expertise of researchers who have observed and researched different aspects of clinical education. Their research has spanned clinical education topics including professional identity and socialisation, assessment and feedback, pedagogical methods, clinical reasoning, dealing with ambiguity, dealing with diversity and interprofessional education. This book has been designed to synthesise empirical clinical education research and ideas about the context, value, processes and outcomes of clinical education. Each chapter presents a research based facet of clinical education as a platform from which knowledge and future research in clinical education can occur. The authors entice the reader to reconceptualise facets of their own teaching and learning practices based on research findings, expertise and innovation.

Basics in Medical Education

Thus , the medical teachers ' competency in this regards include understanding
the core principles and educational rationale of PBL , effective group facilitation
skill , student assessment in PBL , and be conversant with various options of PBL
 ...

Basics in Medical Education

Author: Zubair Amin

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789812795472

Page: 399

View: 529

Medical education, the art and science behind medical teaching and learning, has progressed remarkably. Teaching and learning have become more scientific and rigorous, curricula are based on sound pedagogical principles, and problem-based and other forms of active and self-directed learning have become the mainstream. We have progressed from the role of problem-identifier to that of solution-provider. This book provides a balanced overview of the OC whyOCO of medical education, emphasizing the need for change and adaptation, and the OC howOCO, by demonstrating the way concepts and theories of medical education can be of immediate benefit to the medical teacher. In short, this is a simple and non-intimidating book for general medical teachers to enhance their understanding of medical education and to improve their teaching. Royalties from the sale of this book will benefit basic health care needs of children in developing countries. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Questions and Questioning Technique (103 KB). Contents: Basic Competencies in Medical Teaching; Historical Perspectives in Medical Education; Educational Concepts and Philosophies; Curriculum and Learning Cycle; Educational Objectives; Instructional Methodologies: General; Instructional Methodology: Clinical Teaching; Instructional Methodology: Problem-Based Learning; Assessment and Evaluation; Internet and Medical Education; Research in Medical Education. Readership: Medical teachers from all disciplines as well as basic science and clinical teachers."

TRANSFORMING Classroom and Clinical Teaching

Numerous practical strategies and tools to strengthen clinical reasoning and the ability of students to think more like a nurse in both the classroom and clinical settings.

TRANSFORMING Classroom and Clinical Teaching

Author: Pence

Publisher:

ISBN: 9780989936989

Page:

View: 865

Numerous practical strategies and tools to strengthen clinical reasoning and the ability of students to think more like a nurse in both the classroom and clinical settings.

Combined Movement Theory E Book

Teaching clinical reasoning: a case-based approach. In: Higgs, M.A., Jones, M.A.
(eds.), Clinical reasoning in the health professions. Butterworth Heinemann,
Edinburgh. Sefton, A., Gordon, J., Field, M., et al., 2000. Teaching clinical
reasoning ...

Combined Movement Theory E Book

Author: Christopher McCarthy

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0702050660

Page: 226

View: 905

This new title expands on the widely used concept of combined movements and incorporates both grade IV- manipulative thrust techniques and muscle energy / proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. It is the first to include chapters on cervical artery dysfunction (VBI) and upper cervical instability with clinical chapters on the regional management of spinal dysfunction. The first section discusses the underlying theoretical concepts underpinning combined movements theory and manipulation, with the second section offering a comprehensive manual of tests and treatments for each region of the spine. Revision multiple choice tests are at the ends of the theoretical chapters. A chapter on home exercise is included along with a website of video clips and clinical reasoning form http://booksite.elsevier.com/9780443068577 . The book will provide readers with a comprehensive resource to start using combined movements theory immediately and is a real substitute to attending a course on the method. The book is an update, expansion and development of the Manual of Combined Movements published by Brian Edwards. Website with over 60 video clips of tests and techniques http://booksite.elsevier.com/9780443068577 Chapter on premanipulative – premobilisation screening and Cervical Artery Dysfunction Chapter on Upper Cervical Instability and assessment Update on the biomechanics of each region of the spine Multiple choice tests Integration of mobilisation, manipulation and muscle energy techniques

NOC and NIC Linkages to NANDA I and Clinical Conditions E Book

standards, discriminating, information seeking, logical reasoning, predicting, and
transforming knowledge; and habits of mind ... Kautz and colleagues (2006) have
conducted extensive research into the teaching of clinical reasoning using the ...

NOC and NIC Linkages to NANDA I and Clinical Conditions   E Book

Author: Marion Johnson

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0323083374

Page: 432

View: 736

Based on ongoing research conducted by investigative teams at the University of Iowa, NOC and NIC Linkages to NANDA-I and Clinical Conditions: Supporting Critical Thinking and Quality Care, 3rd Edition is the only book on the market that provides linkages between the three standardized languages recognized by the American Nurses Organization (NOC, NIC, and all of the 2009-2010 NANDA-I approved nursing diagnoses). Its user-friendly, tabular format and real-world case studies make it the perfect tool to help you develop effective care plans for your patients. This edition features a new chapter on clinical decision making, a new chapter on the use of NNN in information systems, more concise intervention listings that identify major and suggested interventions, and approximately 20 new linkages to common, high-cost medical diagnoses. Linkages between the three standardized languages recognized by the American Nurses Organization: NANDA-I, Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), and Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) help you select the most effective care plans for patients and allow institutions to track and quantify nursing care. Tabular format allows you to quickly retrieve information. Case studies with nursing care plans demonstrate the practical, real-life application of linkages. Definitions of all NANDA-I, NOC, and NIC labels provide comprehensive coverage of the standardized languages. Serves as an excellent companion to Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC), 4th Edition and Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), 5th Edition. NEW! Added linkages to common medical diagnoses help support clinical reasoning, improve quality, and build the evidence needed to enhance nursing care. - Includes 15-20 high-frequency, high-cost medical diagnoses that are commonly experienced by patients across the life span. - Examples include Congestive Heart Failure, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Total Joint Replacement, and Asthma. NEW! Treatment of Intervention content makes information easier to locate by listing interventions as Major Interventions and Suggested Interventions. Two NEW chapters discuss the use of linkages for clinical reasoning and quality improvement and the use of NNN in computerized information systems. NEW! Information associated with the risk for nursing diagnosis is contained on a single page for quick and easy reference.