The erratic but compelling impressions of personal exposure overwhelm
information gathered in a more systematic, more valid, but less compelling way (
Dawes, Faust, and Meehl 1989). Ambiguity of the Lessons of Experience
Experience has ...
Author: James G. March
Publisher: Cornell University Press
The first component of intelligence involves effective adaptation to an environment. In order to adapt effectively, organizations require resources, capabilities at using them, knowledge about the worlds in which they exist, good fortune, and good decisions. They typically face competition for resources and uncertainties about the future. Many, but possibly not all, of the factors determining their fates are outside their control. Populations of organizations and individual organizations survive, in part, presumably because they possess adaptive intelligence; but survival is by no means assured. The second component of intelligence involves the elegance of interpretations of the experiences of life. Such interpretations encompass both theories of history and philosophies of meaning, but they go beyond such things to comprehend the grubby details of daily existence. Interpretations decorate human existence. They make a claim to significance that is independent of their contribution to effective action. Such intelligence glories in the contemplation, comprehension, and appreciation of life, not just the control of it.—from The Ambiguities of Experience In The Ambiguities of Experience, James G. March asks a deceptively simple question: What is, or should be, the role of experience in creating intelligence, particularly in organizations? Folk wisdom both trumpets the significance of experience and warns of its inadequacies. On one hand, experience is described as the best teacher. On the other hand, experience is described as the teacher of fools, of those unable or unwilling to learn from accumulated knowledge or the teaching of experts. The disagreement between those folk aphorisms reflects profound questions about the human pursuit of intelligence through learning from experience that have long confronted philosophers and social scientists. This book considers the unexpected problems organizations (and the individuals in them) face when they rely on experience to adapt, improve, and survive. While acknowledging the power of learning from experience and the extensive use of experience as a basis for adaptation and for constructing stories and models of history, this book examines the problems with such learning. March argues that although individuals and organizations are eager to derive intelligence from experience, the inferences stemming from that eagerness are often misguided. The problems lie partly in errors in how people think, but even more so in properties of experience that confound learning from it. "Experience," March concludes, "may possibly be the best teacher, but it is not a particularly good teacher."
Lifelong learning is often conceived as a process of learning from direct life
experiences that is controlled by the individual ... In The Ambiguities of
Experience the great organizational theorist James March contrasts his definition
of experiential ...
Author: David A. Kolb
Publisher: FT Press
Experiential learning is a powerful and proven approach to teaching and learning that is based on one incontrovertible reality: people learn best through experience. Now, in this extensively updated book, David A. Kolb offers a systematic and up-to-date statement of the theory of experiential learning and its modern applications to education, work, and adult development. Experiential Learning, Second Edition builds on the intellectual origins of experiential learning as defined by figures such as John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, Jean Piaget, and L.S. Vygotsky, while also reflecting three full decades of research and practice since the classic first edition. Kolb models the underlying structures of the learning process based on the latest insights in psychology, philosophy, and physiology. Building on his comprehensive structural model, he offers an exceptionally useful typology of individual learning styles and corresponding structures of knowledge in different academic disciplines and careers. Kolb also applies experiential learning to higher education and lifelong learning, especially with regard to adult education. This edition reviews recent applications and uses of experiential learning, updates Kolb's framework to address the current organizational and educational landscape, and features current examples of experiential learning both in the field and in the classroom. It will be an indispensable resource for everyone who wants to promote more effective learning: in higher education, training, organizational development, lifelong learning environments, and online.
Ambiguities and interruptions in syntax and diction re-create the ambiguities of
experience or point to experiences beyond words: concentrated, cryptic
utterances or piled-up hyphenated clusters give the impression of language
stretched over ...
Author: Di Brandt
Publisher: Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press
Wider Boundaries of Daring: The Modernist Impulse in Canadian Women’s Poetry announces a bold revision of the genealogy of Canadian literary modernism by foregrounding the originary and exemplary contribution of women poets, critics, cultural activists, and experimental prose writers Dorothy Livesay, P.K. Page, Miriam Waddington, Phyllis Webb, Elizabeth Brewster, Jay Macpherson, Anne Wilkinson, Anne Marriott, and Elizabeth Smart. In the introduction, editor Di Brandt champions particularly the achievements of Livesay, Page, and Webb in setting the visionary parameters of Canadian and international literary modernism. The writers profiled in Wider Boundaries of Daring are the real founders of Canadian modernism, the contributors of this volume argue, both for their innovative aesthetic and literary experiments and for their extensive cultural activism. They founded literary magazines and writers’ groups, wrote newspaper columns, and created a new forum for intellectual debate on public radio. At the same time, they led busy lives as wives and mothers, social workers and teachers, editors and critics, and competed successfully with their male contemporaries in the public arena in an era when women were not generally encouraged to hold professional positions or pursue public careers. The acknowledgement of these writers’ formidable contribution to the development of modernism in Canada, and along with it “wider boundaries of daring” for women and other people previously disadvantaged by racial, ethnic, or religious identifications, has profound implications for the way we read and understand Canadian literary and cultural history and for the shape of both national and international modernisms.
Manning, M. 2004. Torture and the Politics of Ambiguity: Project Syndicate.
Retrieved from <www.projectsyndicate.org/commentary/
tortureandthepoliticsofambiguity>. March, J. G. 2010. The Ambiguities of
Experience. Ithaca: Cornell University ...
Author: Mark Bovens
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Over the past two decades public accountability has become not only an icon in political, managerial, and administrative discourse but also the object of much scholarly analysis across a broad range of social and administrative sciences. This handbook provides a state of the art overview of recent scholarship on public accountability. It collects, consolidates, and integrates an upsurge of inquiry currently scattered across many disciplines and subdisciplines. It provides a one-stop-shop on the subject, not only for academics who study accountability, but also for practitioners who are designing, adjusting, or struggling with mechanisms for accountable governance. Drawing on the best scholars in the field from around the world, The Oxford Handbook of Public Accountability showcases conceptual and normative as well as the empirical approaches in public accountability studies. In addition to giving an overview of scholarly research in a variety of disciplines, it takes stock of a wide range of accountability mechanisms and practices across the public, private and non-profit sectors, making this volume a must-have for both practitioners and scholars, both established and new to the field.
They set out to wrestle with the ambiguities of experience, in order to offer the "
best explanations" for what is observed. Both the sciences and religion may
therefore be described as offering interpretations of experience. This is not to say
Author: Alister E. McGrath
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Now thoroughly updated to reflect the latest debates, this popular textbook introduces readers to the central questions in the field of science and religion. Ideally suited to those who have little or no prior knowledge in either area, it incorporates numerous student-friendly features, including maps, summaries, and historical references, resulting in the most up-to-date introduction to the study of religion and the natural sciences available. Examines the historical, theological, philosophical and scientific aspects of the interaction between religion and science Fully updated to reflect current, cutting-edge debates on scientific atheism and the limits of scientific method, and discussions about the relationship between science and religion in major world faiths Includes a historical component to enable readers to orientate themselves within the subject Takes a topic based approach which fits into the existing structure of most courses, and includes explanatory material not found in other works of this kind, making it highly accessible for those with little scientific or religious background knowledge Incorporates illustrations, tables, maps, summaries and questions for a lively and engaging approach to the subject Written by world-renowned theologian, Alister McGrath; author of bestselling books such as Dawkins? God, and an acknowledged expert in the field of science and religion
The war against terror imagined as a war of good against evil creates enemies
everywhere; the very ambiguities of life raise the specter of the enemy. This book
is ... The ambiguities of experience continue to needle the extreme rhetoric of war
Author: Kelly Oliver
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Ever since Eve tempted Adam with her apple, women have been regarded as a corrupting and destructive force. The very idea that women can be used as interrogation tools, as evidenced in the infamous Abu Ghraib torture photos, plays on age-old fears of women as sexually threatening weapons, and therefore the literal explosion of women onto the war scene should come as no surprise. From the female soldiers involved in Abu Ghraib to Palestinian women suicide bombers, women and their bodies have become powerful weapons in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. In Women as Weapons of War, Kelly Oliver reveals how the media and the administration frequently use metaphors of weaponry to describe women and female sexuality and forge a deliberate link between notions of vulnerability and images of violence. Focusing specifically on the U.S. campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq, Oliver analyzes contemporary discourse surrounding women, sex, and gender and the use of women to justify America's decision to go to war. For example, the administration's call to liberate "women of cover," suggesting a woman's right to bare arms is a sign of freedom and progress. Oliver also considers what forms of cultural meaning, or lack of meaning, could cause both the guiltlessness demonstrated by female soldiers at Abu Ghraib and the profound commitment to death made by suicide bombers. She examines the pleasure taken in violence and the passion for death exhibited by these women and what kind of contexts created them. In conclusion, Oliver diagnoses our cultural fascination with sex, violence, and death and its relationship with live news coverage and embedded reporting, which naturalizes horrific events and stymies critical reflection. This process, she argues, further compromises the borders between fantasy and reality, fueling a kind of paranoid patriotism that results in extreme forms of violence.
Coherence is, however, limited by the ambiguity of experience, by
communication, and by the need to delegate. We often underestimate these
ambiguities and their usefulness, and give more than its due to rational action
aimed at achieving ...
Author: James G. March
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
In this series of lectures, previously unpublished in English, andhere translated from a French reconstruction and interpretation bynoted scholar Thierry Weil, leading organizational scholar JamesMarch uses great works of literature to explore the problems ofleadership. Uses great works of literature to explore the problems ofleadership, for example War and Peace, Othello, and DonQuixote. Presents moral dilemmas related to leadership, for example thebalance between private life and public duties, and between theexpression and the control of sexuality. Encourages readers to explore ideas that are sometimessubversive and unpalatable but may allow organizations to adapt ina rapidly changing world.
Writings by avowed Leftists aimed to tackle questions of race, ethnicity, gender,
and the ambiguities of experience that were not containable within the narrow
structures of form or thought emanating from an official ideology. This record of ...
Author: Alan M. Wald
Publisher: UNC Press Books
American Night, the final volume of an unprecedented trilogy, brings Alan Wald's multigenerational history of Communist writers to a poignant climax. Using new research to explore the intimate lives of novelists, poets, and critics during the Cold War, Wald reveals a radical community longing for the rebirth of the social vision of the 1930s and struggling with a loss of moral certainty as the Communist worldview was being called into question. The resulting literature, Wald shows, is a haunting record of fracture and struggle linked by common structures of feeling, ones more suggestive of the "negative dialectics" of Theodor Adorno than the traditional social realism of the Left. Establishing new points of contact among Kenneth Fearing, Ann Petry, Alexander Saxton, Richard Wright, Jo Sinclair, Thomas McGrath, and Carlos Bulosan, Wald argues that these writers were in dialogue with psychoanalysis, existentialism, and postwar modernism, often generating moods of piercing emotional acuity and cosmic dissent. He also recounts the contributions of lesser known cultural workers, with a unique accent on gays and lesbians, secular Jews, and people of color. The vexing ambiguities of an era Wald labels "late antifascism" serve to frame an impressive collective biography.
... rather than the apparent 'certainties' of expository and observational films,
there is often an emphasis on the ambiguities of experience, and this can be
seen as a form of commentary on the epistemological bases of documentary as a
Author: Paul Ward
Publisher: Columbia University Press
In using case studies such as Touching the Void (2003) and the films of Nick Broomfield, this timely introduction to the growing field of documentary explores the definition and understanding of the form, as well as the relationship between documentary and drama, specifically the notion of reconstruction and reenactment. Paul Ward also discusses animated documentaries, the fertile genre of comedy, and feature-length contemporary works that have achieved widespread cinematic release.
For Berger the quest for authenticity is not a quest for essences but for
ambiguities: 'Authenticity comes from a single faithfulness: that to the ambiguity of
experience' (Berger 1992: 216). He draws a distinction between 'mystification'
Author: Kim Dovey
Publisher: Psychology Press
Framing Places investigates how the built forms of architecture and urban design act as mediators of social practices of power. It is an account of how our lives are 'framed' within the clusters of rooms, buildings, streets and cities we inhabit. Kim Dovey contends that the nature of architecture and urban design, their silent framings of everyday life, lend them to practices of coercion, seduction and authorization. The book draws from a broad range of social theories and deploys three primary analyses of built form, namely the analysis of spatial structure, the interpretation of constructed meanings and the interpretation of lived experience. These approaches to programme text and place, are woven together through a series of narratives on specific cities (Berlin, Beijing and Canberra and Melbourne) and building types (this corporate tower, shopping mall and domestic house).
As a form , the fragment is exposed to all the ambiguities of which its history since
Romanticism , if not since the moralists ' maxims , has made us perfectly aware .
These are the ambiguities of a freedom represented simultaneously as ...
Author: Jean-Luc Nancy
Publisher: Stanford University Press
The most systematic, radical, and lucid treatise on freedom that has been written in contemporary Continental philosophy, this book combats the renunciation of freedom attested in modern history by articulating the experience of freedom at work in thought itself.
For one thing, it inadequately reflects the lived experience of in- and out-migrants
to a locality, a region, or the nation.33 Second, overemphasizing people's
geographical marginality to some real or imagined centre makes us think that
Author: David Blackbourn
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
What makes a person call a particular place 'home'? Does it follow simply from being born there? Is it the result of a language shared with neighbours or attachment to a familiar landscape? Perhaps it is a piece of music, or a painting, or even a travelogue that captures the essence of home. And what about the sense of belonging that inspires nationalist or local autonomy movements? Each of these can be a marker of identity, but all are ambiguous. Where you were born has a different meaning if, like so many modern Germans, you have moved on and now live elsewhere. Representing the 'national interest' in parliament becomes more difficult when voters demand attention to local and regional issues or when ethnic tensions erupt. In all these situations the landscape of 'home' takes on a more elusive meaning. Localism, Landscape, and the Ambiguities of Place is about the German nation state and the German-speaking lands beyond it, from the 1860s to the 1930s. The authors explore a wide range of subjects: music and art, elections and political festivities, local landscape and nature conservation, tourism and language struggles in the family and the school. Yet they share an interest in the ambiguities of German identity in an age of extraordinarily rapid socio-economic change. These essays do not assume the primacy of national allegiance. Instead, by using the 'sense of place' as a prism to look at German identity in new ways, they examine a sense of 'Germanness' that was neither self-evident nor unchanging.
18 It would seem that the ambiguities here are multiple. The other—the neighbor
or the stranger—is both close at hand, in union with us, and also set apart,
opaque and strange to us. And yet, this experience of ambiguity does not simply
Author: Gavin Hyman
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
In recent philosophy, theology, and critical theory, postmodern thought has been much criticized on specifically ethical and political grounds. In particular, it has been argued that postmodernism has induced passivity and is impotent in the face of the challenges presented by the hegemonic global market. In response numerous thinkers have called for the "return of the metanarrative" or have insisted on the necessity of the domain of the "universal." In this book, Gavin Hyman accepts the diagnosis, while contesting the cure. Through detailed engagements with the work of Alain Badiou, Slavoj Žižek, and John Milbank--as well as discussions of the work of Simon Critchley, Michael Hardt, and Antonio Negri--Hyman argues that many contemporary thinkers merely invert the problems intrinsic to postmodernism and therefore do not effectively escape them. He argues that the ethical and political are best preserved and perpetuated through the negotiating of an ongoing tension between the domains of the universal, the particular, and the singular. To proceed thus would be to traverse the terrain of the middle--ethically, politically, and religiously.
'Experience', Of All The Words in the philosophic vocabulary is the most difficult to
manage;" warns Michael Oakeshott, "and it must be the ambition of every writer
reckless enough to use the word to escape the ambiguities it contains."1 Such ...
Author: Martin Jay
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Few words in both everyday parlance and theoretical discourse have been as rhapsodically defended or as fervently resisted as "experience." Yet, to date, there have been no comprehensive studies of how the concept of experience has evolved over time and why so many thinkers in so many different traditions have been compelled to understand it. Songs of Experience is a remarkable history of Western ideas about the nature of human experience written by one of our best-known intellectual historians. With its sweeping historical reach and lucid comparative analysis—qualities that have made Martin Jay's previous books so distinctive and so successful—Songs of Experience explores Western discourse from the sixteenth century to the present, asking why the concept of experience has been such a magnet for controversy. Resisting any single overarching narrative, Jay discovers themes and patterns that transcend individuals and particular schools of thought and illuminate the entire spectrum of intellectual history. As he explores the manifold contexts for understanding experience—epistemological, religious, aesthetic, political, and historical—Jay engages an exceptionally broad range of European and American traditions and thinkers from the American pragmatists and British Marxist humanists to the Frankfurt School and the French poststructuralists, and he delves into the thought of individual philosophers as well, including Montaigne, Bacon, Locke, Hume and Kant, Oakeshott, Collingwood, and Ankersmit. Provocative, engaging, erudite, this key work will be an essential source for anyone who joins the ongoing debate about the material, linguistic, cultural, and theoretical meaning of "experience" in modern cultures.
What initially brought primitive Christians together was the “appeal to common
experience”2 which eventually needed some form of concrete expression, while
allowing for conflicting ambiguity. This is the ongoing issue for the church today.
Author: Bryce McProud
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
The Anglican Communion is facing schism, ostensibly over the ordination of a non-celibate bishop and the blessing of same sex relationships. As Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams is committed to holding this fissiparous Communion together. This little book is an attempt at understanding Williams' determination to maintain unity while Anglicanism teeters on the brink of schism.
His methods had the authentic seductive stamp of a moral-legal ambiguity that
flourished beyond precedent in America. The best lawyers of his day, men of the
highest legal ethics, were employed by Rockefeller to devise his most dubious ...
Author: Daniel J. Boorstin
Winner of the Pulitzer Prize. A study of the last 100 years of American history.