The Brain Defense

Called “the best kind of nonfiction” by Michael Connelly, this riveting new book combines true crime, brain science, and courtroom drama.

The Brain Defense

Author: Kevin Davis

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0698183355

Page: 336

View: 470

Called “the best kind of nonfiction” by Michael Connelly, this riveting new book combines true crime, brain science, and courtroom drama. In 1991, the police were called to East 72nd St. in Manhattan, where a woman's body had fallen from a twelfth-story window. The woman’s husband, Herbert Weinstein, soon confessed to having hit and strangled his wife after an argument, then dropping her body out of their apartment window to make it look like a suicide. The 65-year-old Weinstein, a quiet, unassuming retired advertising executive, had no criminal record, no history of violent behavior—not even a short temper. How, then, to explain this horrific act? Journalist Kevin Davis uses the perplexing story of the Weinstein murder to present a riveting, deeply researched exploration of the intersection of neuroscience and criminal justice. Shortly after Weinstein was arrested, an MRI revealed a cyst the size of an orange on his brain’s frontal lobe, the part of the brain that governs judgment and impulse control. Weinstein’s lawyer seized on that discovery, arguing that the cyst had impaired Weinstein’s judgment and that he should not be held criminally responsible for the murder. It was the first case in the United States in which a judge allowed a scan showing a defendant’s brain activity to be admitted as evidence to support a claim of innocence. The Weinstein case marked the dawn of a new era in America's courtrooms, raising complex and often troubling questions about how we define responsibility and free will, how we view the purpose of punishment, and how strongly we are willing to bring scientific evidence to bear on moral questions. Davis brings to light not only the intricacies of the Weinstein case but also the broader history linking brain injuries and aberrant behavior, from the bizarre stories of Phineas Gage and Charles Whitman, perpetrator of the 1966 Texas Tower massacre, to the role that brain damage may play in violence carried out by football players and troubled veterans of America’s twenty-first century wars. The Weinstein case opened the door for a novel defense that continues to transform the legal system: Criminal lawyers are increasingly turning to neuroscience and introducing the effects of brain injuries—whether caused by trauma or by tumors, cancer, or drug or alcohol abuse—and arguing that such damage should be considered in determining guilt or innocence, the death penalty or years behind bars. As he takes stock of the past, present and future of neuroscience in the courts, Davis offers a powerful account of its potential and its hazards. Thought-provoking and brilliantly crafted, The Brain Defense marries a murder mystery complete with colorful characters and courtroom drama with a sophisticated discussion of how our legal system has changed—and must continue to change—as we broaden our understanding of the human mind.

The Brain and Host Defense

Neural and Non-Neural Stem Cells as Novel Therapeutic Modalities for Brain
Injury 59 Ronen R. Leker and Éva Mezey 6. ... Gender Issues in Host Defense
145 Matthias W. Wichmann and Martin K. Angele Section IV How the Brain
Defends ...

The Brain and Host Defense

Author:

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444535450

Page: 358

View: 419

It is now well recognized that the brain, and especially the hypothalamus, plays an important role in the regulation of immune reactions and inflammation. This book aims to review our current state of knowledge of this important field. Key historical findings are presented, and the reciprocal interactions between the brain and the immune system are examined. Particular emphasis is placed on inflammation, a critical host defense reaction that serves as an effector response for both the adaptive and innate immune systems. Mechanisms implicated in brain defense, as well as in more general host defense, are discussed. The regulatory influences of the brain on inflammatory responses are included with particular reference to the role of the hypothalamus, which is also the main director the hormonal regulation of immune/inflammatory. Gender-related differences in immune responsiveness, circadian modulator of immune responses, and evidence that behavioral conditioning (e.g. reward) of immune responses is possible are used as examples to reinforce the notion that the neuroendocrine system exerts a fundamental and complex regulatory influence on the immune system. * Presents timely issues such as immunological aspects of the blood-brain-barrier and the role of inflammatory mediators in the evolution of strokes and degenerative diseases * Includes analysis of the role of the brain in the adaptive responses to disease * Evaluates the argument that further knowledge of the influence of the brain on the immune system will provide new insights to the pathophysiology infectious and autoimmune diseases

In Defense of Brain inspired Cognitive Models

The human brain excels at recognizing objects across modalities.

In Defense of Brain inspired Cognitive Models

Author: Christopher Kanan

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781303197963

Page: 94

View: 262

The human brain excels at recognizing objects across modalities. In my research I seek to harness the neurocomputational principles that underlie these cognitive abilities by building brain-inspired cognitive models of attention and object recognition. My models have given insight into human cognition while also excelling at machine perception. Specifically, in this dissertation I describe four brain-inspired models. I first describe SUN, a saliency-based model of task-driven visual search. SUN uses independent component analysis (ICA) to learn image filters with properties that are qualitatively similar to simple cells in primary visual cortex, and it uses these filters to predict human eye movements. Then I describe NIMBLE, an approach to active object recognition using SUN and simulated eye movements. Subsequently, I describe Gnostic Fields, a brain-inspired model that attacks the universal stimulus recognition problem. Gnostic Fields achieve state-of-the-art performance on benchmark datasets for music, image, and odor classification. Lastly, I combine Gnostic Fields with a space-variant model of visual processing learned using ICA and assess the model's ability to classify objects and faces in images.

Focus on Brain Mapping Research

137-154 2005 Nova Science Publishers , Inc. Chapter 5 BRAINSTEM
MECHANISMS IN ANXIETY AND PANIC ... In this chapter we summarize the
evidence linking the brain's defense response systems to the concept of fear -
anxiety - panic .

Focus on Brain Mapping Research

Author: F. J. Chen

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781594545788

Page: 220

View: 415

This book includes research derived from non-invasive brain imaging modalities used to explore the spatial and temporal organisation of the neural systems supporting human behaviour. Imaging modalities of interest include positron emission tomography, event-related potentials, electro-and magnetoencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, and single-photon emission tomography. Coverage includes novel brain imaging methods, analyses for detecting or localising neural activity, synergistic uses of multiple imaging modalities, and strategies for the design of behavioural paradigms and neural-systems modelling.

A Defense of Abortion

And if you discovered that someone you thought had a brain like ours was in
factan automaton with no brain at all , you would ... A newborn infant , moreover ,
has a brain as well , and so is in this sense like you and me and unlike the zygote
.

A Defense of Abortion

Author: David Boonin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521520355

Page: 350

View: 764

The most thorough and detailed case for the moral permissibility of abortion yet published.

Immune mediated Antiviral Defense Against Polyomavirus Infection of the Brain

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an often-fatal demyelinating disease of the brain caused by JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) in immunocompromised individuals.

Immune mediated Antiviral Defense Against Polyomavirus Infection of the Brain

Author: Taryn Mockus

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 580

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an often-fatal demyelinating disease of the brain caused by JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) in immunocompromised individuals. Initially rare, PML has increased in prevalence with the rise of immunomodulatory therapies used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, many of which impede the movement or function of immune cells. Despite increased incidence, PML pathogenesis remains poorly understood; the only treatment available for PML is to reconstitute the immune response, which can cause immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Most studies of PML to date have utilized post mortem brains of PML patients or immunocompromised humanized mouse models, leaving many unresolved questions regarding the mechanisms of demyelination and the content and contribution of anti-polyomavirus (PyV) immunity. The aim of our work is to provide insight into PyV pathogenesis and defense in the brain using intracerebral (i.c.) infection of immunocompetent mice with mouse polyomavirus (MuPyV), a naturally occurring mouse pathogen, as a novel brain PyV infection model. To this end, we first investigated the contribution of CD4 T cells to the development of antiviral brain-resident CD8 T cells (bTRM). We found that CD4 T cells are required for MuPyV-specific CD8 bTRM development, as demonstrated by decreased expression of canonical tissue-resident memory surface markers, continued dependence on CD8 T cells in the circulation, and decreased ability to control reinfection in CD8 T cells that develop in the absence of CD4 T cells. Furthermore, acquired CD4 T cell deficiency, modeled by delaying systemic CD4 T cell depletion until after the infiltration of MuPyV-specific CD8 T cells into the brain, also impacted the differentiation of CD8 bTRM and decreased the ability of these cells to control reinfection. Together, these findings reveal an intimate association between CD4 T cells and homeostasis of functional CD8 bTRM to brain polyomavirus infection. In conjunction with investigating the nature of the adaptive immune response to MuPyV, we also documented the role of type I, II, and III interferons (IFNs) in anti-PyV defense in the brain. Previous work has shown that IFNs induce an antiviral state in the infected cell and modulate the immune response. We found that type I IFNs mediated viral control during acute brain infection, but no single IFN contributed substantially to PyV control during persistent MuPyV infection. However, mice deficient in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), the common downstream effector of the IFN family, developed severe hydrocephalus, likely resulting from a loss of intrinsic viral control and a prolonged immune response consisting of inflammatory myeloid cells and polyfunctional CD8 T cells. These findings show that STAT1 is a critical component of the antiviral defense against MuPyV infection. Furthermore, we characterized the infection of brain resident cells and damage following MuPyV infection in the mouse brain. Histological and imaging analysis of MuPyV-infected mouse brains demonstrated histopathological abnormalities similar to those found in PML patients, such as demyelination and infection of glial cells, and a critical role of T cells in preventing PyV encephalitis. Together, our work documents the components of host defense against brain PyV infection and provides insight into the mechanisms of immunological control of PML progression and PyV infection in the brain. A better understanding of polyomavirus infection in the brain is necessary to alleviate the morbidity and mortality that result from polyomavirus-associated diseases.

Inside the Brain

146 How the Brain Fixes Itself a type of fat commonly found in brain - cell
membranes , Routtenberg fed various oils to mice ... because they cannot cross
the blood - brain barrier , the brain's defense against potentially harmful
compounds .

Inside the Brain

Author: Ronald Kotulak

Publisher: Andrews McMeel Publishing

ISBN: 9780836232899

Page: 222

View: 682

Describes recent scientific understanding of how the brain gets built, providing insight into human behavior and the effects of nature and nurture; and discusses how the brain gets damaged by environmental, internal, and external influences.

Micronutrients and Brain Health

Defense. of. Brain. Microglial. Cells. Ralf. Dringen1,2. and. Johannes. Hirrlinger3.
1Centre for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen, University of Bremen, Bremen,
Germany 2School of Psychology, Psychiatry, and Psychological Medicine, ...

Micronutrients and Brain Health

Author: Lester Packer

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420073522

Page: 460

View: 184

Micronutrients and Brain Health addresses cutting-edge research related to processes of oxidative stress that affect brain function, an area of increasing significance for those concerned and involved with public health and translational medicine. Edited by four leading micronutrient researchers, the book brings together the investigative work of more than 70 leading researchers from across the world. Chapters identify brain-specific micronutrients that support function as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying their neuroprotectant activity. These explore age-related metabolic pathways, mitochondrial nutrients, neurodegeneration and micronutrients, cell signaling, and neuronal functions. General chapters are included on brain structure, function, and metabolism, while several other chapters are devoted to the role of specific micronutrients. The book explores how brain micronutrients are found to be both metabolic and redox regulators, thereby establishing a cross-talk between the major pathways involved in modulation of cell signaling and gene expression. Specific areas of research covered include: Uses of nutritional interventions to target age-related neuronal and behavioral deficits Effects of various micronutrients on Alzheimer’s disease, including lipoic acid, green tea, and Ginkgo biloba extracts Nutrients specific to essential mitochondrial functions Cognitive and behavioral consequences of iron deficiency with specific emphasis on women of reproductive age Omega-3 fatty acids and their relation to brain function in the elderly Challenges inherent in the development of neuroprotective-neurorescue drugs This book belongs to the groundbreaking CRC Press Series on Oxidative Stress and Disease. The series now includes more than two dozen volumes that address increasing evidence regarding the multiple ways that oxidative stress initiates and accelerates disease mechanisms. Most importantly, this book, like the series, offers invaluable information regarding nutritional and lifestyle choices, and pharmaceutical interventions that can be employed to prevent, control, and even ameliorate disease processes attributed to oxidative stress.

Conscious and Unconscious Programs in the Brain

The thesis to be developed in this chapter holds that in humans, as in all
mammals, the primitive brain stem defense mechanism against excessive levels
of arousal operates as a first level of defense. However, in humans further
modulation of ...

Conscious and Unconscious Programs in the Brain

Author: Benjamin Kissin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461321875

Page: 406

View: 983

For almost a century now, since Freud described the basic motivations and Pavlov the basic mechanisms of human behavior, we have had a reasonable concept of the forces that drive us. Only recently have we gained any real insight into how the brain really works to produce such behavior. The new developments in cognitive psychology and neuroscience have taught us things about the function of the brain that would have been inconceivable even ten years ago. Yet, there still remains a tremendous gap between the two studies-human behavior and brain function-a gap which often seems irrec oncilable in view of the basic differences in the methodologies and approaches of the two fields. Students of behavior are frequently disinterested in the underlying neu rophysiology while neurophysiologists tend to consider the concepts of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists too vague and theoretical to be applicable to their own more limited schemata. Several valiant attempts have been made by experimentalists to develop a theoretical context in which behavior is described, not separately from brain function but rather as its direct outgrowth. This present work is still another attempt to develop a theoretical system which, given the limitations of our present knowledge, as completely as possible, the underlying brain mechanisms that influ will describe ence and determine human behavior. The main emphasis of this work, however, will be not on normal behavior but rather on more neurotic manifestations.

The Brain Fog Fix

Brain scans showed the mile-a-day walkers had increased volume in the all-so-
important brain areas like the ... both the gut and the blood-brain barrier—your
brain's defense system that keeps the bad stuff out—more permeable to toxins.

The Brain Fog Fix

Author: Mike Dow

Publisher: Hay House, Inc

ISBN: 1401948057

Page: 304

View: 567

Is stress preventing you from enjoying your daily life? Do you find that you’re becoming more distracted or forgetful? Are "the blues" sapping your spirits? Or do you simply feel not quite like yourself? If you want to reclaim you focus, memory, and joy, you’re not alone. There are millions of people fighting against the epidemic of brain fog that’s sweeping the nation. The good news: It’s not an irreparable condition; rather it’s a side effect of modern-day living. Many of the foods we eat and the habits we have do not support our brains. We no longer get what we need in order to produce essential brain chemicals that keep us energized, calm, focused, optimistic, and inspired. And even worse, our choices could lead to long-term problems, like dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and anxiety. Sadly, if you look at the way most of us live, it seems almost as though we’ve chosen a lifestyle deliberately intended to undermine our brain chemistry and our health. Fortunately, there is a solution. The Brain Fog Fix is an easy-to-follow three-week program designed to help naturally restore three of your brain’s most crucial hormones: serotonin, dopamine, and cortisol. Rebalancing these chemicals will in turn enable the rest of your brain’s chemistry to reach optimal levels. Each week of the program focuses on a different element of your life: • In week 1, you’ll improve your mood by modifying your diet and using cognitive strategies to overcome pitfall thought patterns. • In week 2, you’ll increase your energy by focusing on sleep, exercise, and memory-boosting games. • In week 3, you’ll enhance your spirit through practices that help you connect to something larger than yourself and enable you to rediscover your joy in life. By the end of this simple program, you’ll be thinking more clearly, remembering more accurately, learning more quickly, and unleashing the floodgates of your creativity. And you’ll simply feel better – for now and in the long term.

Biomarkers for Antioxidant Defense and Oxidative Damage

The human brain contains about 20mg cholesterol/g tissue, exceeding that of any
other organ in the body. The central nervous system accounts for 2% of the whole
body mass, yet contains 25% of the total unesterified body cholesterol.

Biomarkers for Antioxidant Defense and Oxidative Damage

Author: Giancarlo Aldini

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470961759

Page: 380

View: 424

Biomarkers for Antioxidant Defense and Oxidative Damage: Principles and Practical Applications critically evaluates the basic concepts and methodologies of conventional biomarkers as well as current state-of-the-art assays for measuring antioxidant activity/oxidative stress and their practical applications. . Biomarkers for Antioxidant Defense and Oxidative Damage: Principles and Practical Applications will be of a great interest to scientists who are involved in basic research on oxidation, applied scientists evaluating the effects of nutraceuticals or pharmaceutical compounds on antioxidant activity/oxidative stress, and physicians who want to understand the degree of oxidative damage in patients with certain chronic diseases. Discovering sensitive and specific biomarkers for systemic oxidative damage is essential to understand the role of oxidative stress in human disease. Once these roles are clearly understood, we are able to identify novel drug and nutraceutical targets. This volume goes beyond conventional analytical methods of measuring overall antioxidant activity and provides insight to the discovery of biomarkers that reveal information on specific areas of oxidative stress. Contributed by an international list of experts, Biomarkers for Antioxidant Defense and Oxidative Damage: Principles and Practical Applications describes both conventional biomarkers and recent developments in this area. Special Features: Discusses conventional biomarkers as well as recent advances for measuring antioxidants and oxidative stress Biomarkers for lipid peroxidation: isoprostane, hydroxyloctadecaenoic acid, oxysterols, and reactive carbonyl species from lipid peroxidation Biomarkers for protein oxidation: carbonylation, tyrosine oxidation, ubiquitin-conjugation Biomarkers for DNA oxidative damage: comet assay, hydroxylated nucleotides, and exocylcic DNA adducts Recently developed biomarkers from cutting-edge technology

Nutritional Self Defense

Ethanol concentrations in 300 mg / 100 ml of blood reduces brain oxygen uptake
by 30 % . This in part accounts for the giddy feeling that alcohol creates .
Reduced oxygen uptake is also responsible for death of brain cells . serotonin
and has ...

Nutritional Self Defense

Author: Lily Splane

Publisher: Anaphase II Publishing

ISBN: 9780945962137

Page: 344

View: 912

Get a fighting chance with "Nutritional Self-Defense." Readers will find the knowledge and tools to combat the daily onslaught of processed fast-foods, pollution, and stress here with authoritative, up-to-date, tables for instant reference.

In Defense of Dolphins

There's even evidence that certain parts of our brain are more active when we lie
than when we tell the truth.20 Since dolphin communication may require
considerable sensitivity to posture and body movements, the average dolphin
may be ...

In Defense of Dolphins

Author: Thomas White

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405157798

Page: 229

View: 594

Have humans been sharing the planet with other intelligent life for millions of years without realizing it? In Defense of Dolphins combines accessible science and philosophy, surveying the latest research on dolphin intelligence and social behavior, to advocate for their ethical treatment. Encourages a reassessment of the human–dolphin relationship, arguing for an end to the inhuman treatment of dolphins Written by an expert philosopher with almost twenty–years of experience studying dolphins Combines up–to–date research supporting the sophisticated cognitive and emotional capacities of dolphins with entertaining first–hand accounts Looks at the serious questions of intelligent life, ethical treatment, and moral obligation Engaging and thought–provoking

Great Myths of the Brain

On this occasion, the judge scored a first for her country by allowing the
submission of brain imaging and genetic evidence, which was used by the
defense to argue that a convicted female murderer had brain abnormalities,
including reduced ...

Great Myths of the Brain

Author: Christian Jarrett

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118312708

Page: 232

View: 468

Great Myths of the Brain introduces readers to the fieldof neuroscience by examining popular myths about the humanbrain. Explores commonly-held myths of the brain through the lens ofscientific research, backing up claims with studies and otherevidence from the literature Looks at enduring myths such as “Do we only use 10% ofour brain?”, “Pregnant women lose their mind”,“Right-brained people are more creative” and manymore. Delves into myths relating to specific brain disorders,including epilepsy, autism, dementia, and others Written engagingly and accessibly for students and lay readersalike, providing a unique introduction to the study of thebrain Teaches readers how to spot neuro hype and neuro-nonsenseclaims in the media

Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience

Glossary Cytokines – Pleiotropic cell-to-cell-signaling proteins or glycoproteins
that are produced by different cell types in the periphery and the brain. Defensive
rage behavior – A naturally occurring behavior that takes place in the presence ...

Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience

Author:

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080914551

Page: 1816

View: 688

Behavioral Neuroscientists study the behavior of animals and humans and the neurobiological and physiological processes that control it. Behavior is the ultimate function of the nervous system, and the study of it is very multidisciplinary. Disorders of behavior in humans touch millions of people’s lives significantly, and it is of paramount importance to understand pathological conditions such as addictions, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, autism among others, in order to be able to develop new treatment possibilities. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience is the first and only multi-volume reference to comprehensively cover the foundation knowledge in the field. This three volume work is edited by world renowned behavioral neuroscientists George F. Koob, The Scripps Research Institute, Michel Le Moal, Université Bordeaux, and Richard F. Thompson, University of Southern California and written by a premier selection of the leading scientists in their respective fields. Each section is edited by a specialist in the relevant area. The important research in all areas of Behavioral Neuroscience is covered in a total of 210 chapters on topics ranging from neuroethology and learning and memory, to behavioral disorders and psychiatric diseases. The only comprehensive Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience on the market Addresses all recent advances in the field Written and edited by an international group of leading researchers, truly representative of the behavioral neuroscience community Includes many entries on the advances in our knowledge of the neurobiological basis of complex behavioral, psychiatric, and neurological disorders Richly illustrated in full color Extensively cross referenced to serve as the go-to reference for students and researchers alike The online version features full searching, navigation, and linking functionality An essential resource for libraries serving neuroscientists, psychologists, neuropharmacologists, and psychiatrists

Aggression and Defense

In man as well as in animals , little is known about the anatomical and
physiological correlates of social behavior , including aggression and defense ,
because it has been difficult to experiment on the brains of animals without
disturbing the ...

Aggression and Defense

Author: Carmine D. Clemente

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN:

Page: 361

View: 397

Thinking about the Insanity Defense

Dorothy Otnow Lewis has been another frequently cited participant in the insanity
defense. ... They are the combination of a history of early ongoing abuse coupled
with some kind of brain dysfunction and psychotic symptoms, particularly ...

Thinking about the Insanity Defense

Author: Ellsworth Fersch

Publisher: iUniverse

ISBN: 0595344127

Page: 276

View: 505

Thinking About the Insanity Defense answers ninety-seven frequently asked questions and presents sixteen case examples in easily understood language. This volume provides a clear and compelling introduction to one of the most important topics in the relation between psychology and law. Compiled by members of a Harvard seminar, it directs attention to the issues most often raised by the general public and by students of social science and criminal justice. The frequently asked questions about the insanity defense address: its history and psychological aspects; the effects of different standards for determining insanity; the arguments for its retention, abolition, and revision; media and other responses to it; controversies around pre- and post-conviction commitment; and the roles of psychologists, psychiatrists, and lawyers. The case examples illustrate a variety of outcomes and include individuals who were: found not guilty by reason of insanity; found guilty even though mentally ill; and not charged because of mental illness. The extensive bibliography directs students and citizens interested in psychology, law, and criminal justice to further cases and analyses. The insanity defense is one of the most significant topics in psychoforensics. This brief and readable book is the first place to look for what most people want to know about the insanity defense.

Neural and Neuroendocrine Mechanisms in Host Defense and Autoimmunity

Introduction The early hypothesis that the brain and immune system
communicated with each other was first proposed from the results of a study on
the effect of taste aversion conditioning of humoral immune responsiveness (
Ader and Cohen, ...

Neural and Neuroendocrine Mechanisms in Host Defense and Autoimmunity

Author: C. Jane Welsh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387483349

Page: 280

View: 925

This book provides a lucid summary of behavioral, neural and endocrine regulation of immune responses and of the effects of immune system activity on neural and endocrine functions and behavior. The underlying premise is that the brain and immune system represent a single, integrated system of defense. The discussion includes such topics and stress induced modulation of innate resistance and adaptive immunity in influenza viral infections.

Philosophy in Defense of Common Sense

In experiencing a mountain one does not have a little mountain in one's brain or
skull. Consciousness is a matter of awareness not size in space (extension).
Some have objected that consciousness is in itself a “configuration of brain mass”
.

Philosophy in Defense of Common Sense

Author:

Publisher: Ford Oxaal

ISBN:

Page:

View: 218

An Unashamed Defense of Coffee

Sleep is an extremely special activity of the brain, controlled by elaborate and
precise mechanisms that we do not yet know. As one of the leading scientists on
sleep research, Dr. J. Allan Hobson from Harvard Medical School wrote,
rephrasing ...

An Unashamed Defense of Coffee

Author: Roseane M. Santos

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 1453534245

Page:

View: 521

The first coffee of the day is a make-or-break moment. A robust, flavorful cup can clear the mind, cheer the soul, and boost self-confidence. A watery, bitter brew almost guarantees gloom. More than one billion people start their day by drinking a cup of coffee, making it the most popular drink worldwide, after water, and the coffee industry second in the worldwide economy, after oil. However, most people still consider coffee a guilty pleasure. One reason is that many think coffee contains only caffeine and is detrimental to health. In fact, coffee is far more than caffeine-it contains a complex mixture of bioactive compounds that can affect health positively, such as antioxidants, minerals, niacin, and lactones. This book debunks the myths surrounding coffee and proves that coffee in moderation can actually prevent many diseases. Extensive research has been conducted in the last twenty years, but the findings have been relegated to highly specialized journals which are inaccessible to most readers. Now, coffee drinkers rejoice-this book articulates the massive body of research that's been done in a way that everyone can understand and enjoy! Coffee has been and continues to be an important part of human history-economically, physiologically, and socially. It is the favorite drink of many celebrities and innovators, such as Britney Spears, Halle Berry, Jennifer Jones, Bill Gates, Robin Williams, Kevin Spacey, Jon Stewart, Dave Chapelle, and Madonna, as well as numerous historical figures, like Benjamin Franklin, Napoleon, Lord Byron, Chopin, Bach, Beethoven, Voltaire, Casanova, Goethe, Hemingway, Picasso, Balzac, and Wyatt Earp. There are lots of reasons to drink coffee every day, as the millions of customers who flock to coffeehouses to order a "special," double espresso or latte will attest. Wake up, smell and read all about coffee. 101 Reasons to Drink Coffee without Guilt provides an accessible, engaging, and illuminating exploration of this beloved beverage. Better than this book, only a coffee talk with the doc.