The Diachrony of Verb Meaning

This innovative volume offers a comprehensive account of the study of language change in verb meaning in the history of the English language.

The Diachrony of Verb Meaning

Author: Elly van Gelderen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351719025

Page: 294

View: 892

This innovative volume offers a comprehensive account of the study of language change in verb meaning in the history of the English language. Integrating both the author’s previous body of work and new research, the book explores the complex dynamic between linguistic structures, morphosyntactic and semantics, and the conceptual domain of meaning, employing a consistent theoretical treatment for analyzing different classes of predicates. Building on this analysis, each chapter connects the implications of these findings from diachronic change with data from language acquisition, offering a unique perspective on the faculty of language and the cognitive system. In bringing together a unique combination of theoretical approaches to provide an in-depth analysis of the history of diachronic change in verb meaning, this book is a key resource to researchers in historical linguistics, theoretical linguistics, psycholinguistics, language acquisition, and the history of English.

Diachrony of Verb Morphology

Grammaticalization is usually defined as a diachronic process leading from
lexemes to grammatical markers, ... For example, an original verb of causation
pTEA *ki- still reflected in Turkic and Mongolic independent verbs meaning 'do,
make' ...

Diachrony of Verb Morphology

Author: Martine Robbeets

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110399946

Page: 568

View: 685

This book deals with shared verb morphology in Japanese and other languages that have been identified as Transeurasian (traditionally: “Altaic”) in previous research. It analyzes shared etymologies and reconstructed grammaticalizations with the goal to provide evidence for the genealogical relatedness of these languages.

The Diachrony of Ditransitives

... led to a lexical change, narrowing the range of meanings of such verbs as a
consequence of the elimination of those syntactic uses in which the direct object (
typically human) seems to have the same properties as the P of monotransitives.

The Diachrony of Ditransitives

Author: Chiara Fedriani

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110701375

Page: 327

View: 333

While ample studies exist on ditransitives in various languages, notably from a typological perspective, more work needs to be done on identifying the main processes and factors that trigger and constrain the changes they undergo over time. The goal of this volume is to help fill this gap by bringing together data and information on individual languages that have thus far been left out of the discussion and by expanding our knowledge of already studied linguistic traditions so as to achieve a broader diachronic description. Since one of the distinctive features of ditransitives is their synchronic variability in terms of structural alternation and alignment split, diachronic research can throw up new insights into developmental dynamics that are eminently complementary; namely, on the one hand, the emergence, development and loss of construction alternation and, on the other, the acquisition of new functions over time. The analyses offered in the book yield different and interconnected answers to the general question of how ditransitives change by drawing on different functional principles that play a role in the diachronic reorganization of this dynamic domain and by providing a number of original theoretical suggestions.

The Diachrony of Negation

... the conjugated element of the final part of the negator derives from a
monoconsonantal verb meaning 'will, want'. This verb still exists as iri in
Moroccan Berber (Tashelhit in the South as well as dialects of central Morocco),
and as әr or äru in ...

The Diachrony of Negation

Author: Maj-Britt Mosegaard Hansen

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9027269882

Page: 258

View: 359

Despite intensive research, negation remains elusive. Its expression across languages, its underlying cognitive mechanisms, its development across time, and related phenomena, such as negative polarity and negative concord, leave many unresolved issues of both a definitional and a substantive nature. Such issues are at the heart of the present volume, which presents a twofold contribution. The first part offers a mix of large-scale typological surveys and in-depth investigation of the evolution of negation in individual languages and language families that have not frequently been studied from this point of view, such as Chinese, Berber, Quechua, and Austronesian languages. The second part centers on French, a language whose early stages are comparatively richly documented and which therefore provides an important test case for hypotheses about the diachrony of negative marking. Representing, moreover, a variety of theoretical approaches, the volume will be of interest to researchers on negation, language change, and typology.

Diachronic and Typological Perspectives on Verbs

This study deals with the argument structure of the Latin verb habere and its
possible role in the subsequent changes. ... like in Old or Modern French and
Italian, the descendants of habere also functioned as a full lexical verb meaning '

Diachronic and Typological Perspectives on Verbs

Author: Folke Josephson

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 902727181X

Page: 443

View: 707

This volume applies a diachronic perspective to the verb and mainly deals with typological change affecting tense, aspect, mood and modality in a variety of Indo-European languages (Latin, Romance, Celtic, Germanic, Slavic, Indo-Iranian, Hittite, and Semitic) and the non-Indo-European Turkic, Amerindian and some Australian languages. The analyses of the structural changes and the interchange between the different grammatical categories that cause them which are presented in the chapters of this volume yield astonishing results. The diachronic perspective combined with a comparative approach provides profound knowledge of the typology of the verb and other typological issues and will serve researchers, as well as advanced and beginning of linguistics students in a way that has rarely been encountered before.

Middle English Verbs of Emotion and Impersonal Constructions

With a careful use of dictionary materials and modern linguistic approaches, this book investigates why some Middle English verbs of emotion are attested in impersonal constructions while others are not, even though they look almost ...

Middle English Verbs of Emotion and Impersonal Constructions

Author: Ayumi Miura

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199947155

Page: 290

View: 641

Impersonal constructions in the history of English form a puzzling category, in that there has been uncertainty as to why some verbs are attested in such constructions while others are not, even though they look almost synonymous. In this book, Ayumi Miura tackles this under-discussed question with special reference to verbs of emotion in Middle English. Through a careful study of the behaviour of impersonal and near-synonymous non-impersonal verbs, she identifies the factors that determined the presence, absence, and spread of impersonal usage with the verbs concerned. Miura utilizes modern linguistic approaches, including theories and methodologies adopted in the study of psych-verbs in modern languages, which bear close relevance to impersonal verbs of emotion but have traditionally been researched separately. She also draws on categorizations in the Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary and harnesses the online Middle English Dictionary in a novel way, demonstrating that dictionary materials are in fact a valuable tool in the study of early English syntax and semantics. Miura concludes that a range of factors - such as causation, transitivity, animacy of the target of emotion, and duration of the emotion - influenced the choice of impersonal constructions with Middle English verbs of emotion. We can therefore make reasonable generalizations about when impersonal usage was licensed in these verbs. This careful analysis of the correlation between Middle English verbs of emotion and use or non-use in impersonal constructions represents a new empirical and theoretical contribution to the busy research area of impersonal constructions in the history of English.

A Synchronic and Diachronic Study of the Grammar of the Chinese Xiang Dialects

The meaning of 'volition' and 'possibility' evolved from 'to obtain an action'. Only
animate things can obtain an ... de] evolved from the re-analysis. The word de in
the structure [V + de] with an auxiliary meaning is still at the stage of a free verb.

A Synchronic and Diachronic Study of the Grammar of the Chinese Xiang Dialects

Author: Yunji Wu

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110927489

Page: 460

View: 103

This is the first book in Chinese linguistics which discusses the grammar of a dialect group, in this case the Xiang dialect spoken in Hunan, from both a synchronic and diachronic prespective. The author uses new data and new frameworks to present her analysis. The synchronic part covers contemporary grammar across localities within the Xiang-speaking area by using the methods and theories of comparative and typological linguistics. The diachronic analysis reconstructs earlier grammatical systems based mainly on modern data but also on historical written records, and analyses the development of the syntactic systems of the Xiang dialects, adopting the methods and theories of historical linguistics and grammaticalization. The discussions in this book raise new issues on dialect research which have not yet been fully acknowledged by Chinese dialectologists. The author shows, for example, how the earlier layers of grammar may be reconstructed on the basis of modern data, and how the path of grammaticalization of functional words may be traced. The discussions reveal that the Xiang dialect group forms a transitional zone between northern and southern dialects. The syntactic constructions in these two areas often co-exist or are mingled in Xiang. Thus, the grammatical constructions in different localities of the Xiang dialect group often provide a bridge connecting the constructions of northern and southern Chinese, or Modern Chinese and Chinese of earlier periods. This book is of interest to scholars and students who are working on grammar, dialectology, historical linguistics, comparative linguistics, typological linguistics, and grammaticalization, as well as those researchers focusing on language policy, language acquisition, and education.

Verbs and Diachronic Syntax

DO-INSERTION In this section we will discuss the history of the dummy verb do in
English. The section is ... When it is an overt NP, do acts as an Exceptional Case-
marking (ECM) verb, and is clearly causative in meaning; this is ECM do.

Verbs and Diachronic Syntax

Author: I.G. Roberts

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 079231705X

Page: 373

View: 765

This book analyses the development of a number of English and French constructions involving various kinds of subject-verb inversion. The analysis is framed in terms of the principles-and-parameters approach to syntactic theory, and provides strong support for the adoption of this approach in the description and explanation of language change. The book falls into three parts. The first presents an overall framework for the analysis of inversion constructions and motivates, on the basis of synchronic data, several parameters which distinguish among the various Romance and Germanic languages. The second part shows how several near-simultaneous syntactic changes in the history of French can be explained as a change in one of the parameters introduced in Chapter One. A notable aspect of this analysis is the way in which the distribution of null subjects is shown to relate to verb-placement. The third part of the book treats verb-movement in the history of English, arguing in detail that the attested changes in this area are due to a change in the internal structure of `Infl', a proposal which has important ramifications for the theory of functional heads. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on the theoretical questions raised by language change. In this connection the two notions of diachronic reanalysis and parametric change are distinguished. Verbs and Diachronic Syntax will interest all theoretical linguists as well as specialists in the history of English, history of French, Germanic philology and Romance philology.

Historical Change in Serial Verb Constructions

However, from a diachronic viewpoint, the choice of features we decide to rule in
or out of our syndrome's definition is not ... There are strong parallels across
languages in the meanings of the verbs that make up this set, and in the functions

Historical Change in Serial Verb Constructions

Author: Carol Lord

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027229139

Page: 273

View: 660

This work examines both historical and comparative evidence in documenting the sweep of diachronic change in the context of serial verb constructions. Using a wide range of data from languages of West Africa, Asia and the Caribbean, it demonstrates how shifts in meaning and usage result in syntactic, morphological and lexical change.The process by which verbs lose lexical semantic content and develop case-marking functions is described; it is argued that the change is directional, from verb to preposition (or postposition) to affix, along a grammaticalization continuum. This same grammaticalization process is shown to result in the development of complementizers, adverbial subordinators, conjunctions, adverbs and auxiliaries from verbs. Strong parallels across languages are found in the meanings of the verbs that become “defective” and in the functions they come to mark. The changes are documented in detail, with examples from a number of languages illustrating the effect of the changes on typology and word order, implications for the encoding of definiteness and aspect, and the relevance of notions such as discourse topic, foreground and transitivity.With respect to theoretical assumptions and terminology, the author has taken a relatively nonpartisan approach, and the discussion is accessible to students of language as well as of interest to theoreticians.

Transitivity Alternations in Diachrony

In this chapter, I attempt to give an overall interpretation of the diachrony of
transitivity with reference to data and the ... Commenting on the innovative
passive meaning of middle transitive verbs, Parker (1976) observes that the
structural ...

Transitivity Alternations in Diachrony

Author: Nikolaos Lavidas

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443818100

Page: 325

View: 597

Τhis book offers a new approach to the theory of change in argument structure and voice morphology. It investigates the diachrony of transitivity, and especially the changes in causative verbs and transitivity alternations, based on data mainly from the Greek and English diachrony (all historical data are transcribed and accompanied by glosses and translations into Modern English). Data from earlier periods provide new information on burning questions in both Historical and Theoretical Linguistics. The study shows that (a) causativisations are the result of reanalysis of intransitive verbs as transitive on the basis of the linguistic cue of Case; (b) the changes in voice morphology do not depend on the derivation and direction of new transitivity alternations. Finally, the study demonstrates that the generalisation that guides the changes in voice demands morphological differentiation of the anticausative from the passive types.

Words in Time

The collection focuses on meaning change as a topic of interdisciplinary research.

Words in Time

Author: Regine Eckardt

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110176759

Page: 415

View: 325

Meanings of words are constantly changing, and the forces driving these changes are varied and diverse. Linguistic analyses are usually concerned with language-internal processes, while investigations of language-external historical developments tend to disregard linguistic considerations. It is evident, however, that an investigation of diachronic semantics will have to consider both sides: a specific theory of meaning including a proper place for lexical semantics on the one hand, and incorporate knowledge about the world and the social and cultural environment of speakers who use language as a tool for communication on the other. The collection focuses on meaning change as a topic of interdisciplinary research. Distinguished scholars in diachronic semantics, general linguistics, classical philology, philosophy of language, anthropology and history offer in depth studies of language internal and external factors of meaning change. This broad range of perspectives, unprecedented in research publications of recent years, is a pioneering attempt to mirror the multi-facetteous nature of language as a formal, social, cognitive, cultural and historical entity. The contributions, each exploring the research issues, methods and techniques of their particular field, are directed towards a broader audience of interested readers, thus enhancing interdisciplinary exchange.

Corpus based Analysis and Diachronic Linguistics

A Preliminary Analysis of Arabic Derived Verbs in the Leeds Quran Corpus —
With Special Reference to Stem III (CaaCaC) Robert R. RATCLIFFE 1.
Introduction 1.1. Productivity Productivity is commonly defined “as the extent to
which a ...

Corpus based Analysis and Diachronic Linguistics

Author: Yuji Kawaguchi

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027207704

Page: 292

View: 507

Nowadays, linguists do not question the existence of synchronic variation, and the dichotomy between synchrony and diachrony. They recognize that synchrony can be motivated regionally (diatopic variation), sociolinguistically (diastratic variation), or stylistically (diaphasic variation). But, further, they can also recognize the hybrid nature of synchrony, which is referred to as "dynamic synchrony." This conception of synchrony assumes that similar patterns of usage can coexist in a community during a certain period and that their mutual relations are not static but conflicting enough to result in a future systematic change through symptomatic synchronic variation. Emergence of a large corpus of written texts for some languages has enabled quantitative as well as qualitative analyses of the synchronic conditions for diachronic changes, over both long and short spans of time. Most of the 14 papers in this volume represent studies on synchronic and diachronic variations based on such corpus data. For sale in all countries except Japan. For customers in Japan: please contact Yushodo Co.

Motion and the English Verb

This work is a study of how motion is expressed in medieval English.

Motion and the English Verb

Author: Judith Huber

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190657804

Page: 384

View: 346

In Motion and the English Verb, a study of the expression of motion in medieval English, Judith Huber provides extensive inventories of verbs used in intransitive motion meanings in Old and Middle English, and discusses these in terms of the manner-salience of early English. Huber demonstrates how several non-motion verbs receive contextual motion meanings through their use in the intransitive motion construction. In addition, she analyzes which verbs and structures are employed most frequently in talking about motion in select Old and Middle English texts, demonstrating that while satellite-framing is stable, the extent of manner-conflation is influenced by text type and style. Huber further investigates how in the intertypological contact with medieval French, a range of French path verbs (entrer, issir, descendre, etc.) were incorporated into Middle English, in whose system of motion encoding they are semantically unusual. Their integration into Middle English is studied in an innovative approach which analyzes their usage contexts in autonomous Middle English texts as opposed to translations from French and Latin. Huber explains how these verbs were initially borrowed not for expressing general literal motion, but in more specific, often metaphorical and abstract contexts. Her study is a diachronic contribution to the typology of motion encoding, and advances research on the process of borrowing and loanword integration.

Meaning and Force

This argument will not work , because it implicitly assumes that the illocutionary
use of a performative verb cannot be ... two properties in performative verbs
poses no problem and need not be taken into account in the diachronic
reconstruction ...

Meaning and Force

Author: Frangois Recanati

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521303538

Page: 278

View: 954

Professor Recanati's book is a major new contribution to the philosophy of language. Its point of departure is a refutation of two views central to the work of speech-act theorists such as Austin & Searle: that speech acts are essentially conventional, & that the force of an utterance can be made fully explicit at the level of sentence-meaning & is in principle a matter of linguistic decoding. The author argues that no utterance can be fully understood simply in terms of its linguistic meaning, but that only a contextual inference can provide an adequate framework. In pursuit of this argument, he deals with the major issues of pragmatics & speech-act theory: conversational implicatives & indirect speech acts, the classification of illocutionary forces, the performative/constative distinction, delocutivity, locutionary meaning, non-literal uses of languages, the principle of expressibilty, & the difference between institutional & communicative illocutionary acts.

COME and GO off the Beaten Grammaticalization Path

... showing howmotion verbsmay acquirea general (non-motion) directive
function, and secondly we will completethe pictureby comparing these paths
withother diachronic scenarios involving motion verbs as sources of grammatical
meanings ...

 COME  and  GO  off the Beaten Grammaticalization Path

Author: Maud Devos

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110371995

Page: 351

View: 514

This edition brings together some lesser known grammaticalization paths travelled by ‘come’ and ‘go’ in familiar and less familiar languages. No single book volume has been dedicated to the topic of grammatical targets different from tense and aspect so far. This study will increase our insight in grammaticalization processes in general as they force us to rethink certain aspects of grammaticalization.

Synchronic and Diachronic Approaches to Linguistic Variation and Change

For example , we now know that future markers commonly develop from verbs of
desire and motion , as in English where the auxiliary will was previously a verb
meaning want and the verb go is frequently used with future meaning . Similarly ...

Synchronic and Diachronic Approaches to Linguistic Variation and Change

Author: Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistic



Page: 357

View: 280

Historical Linguistics 2001

Meaning. change. in. verbs. The. case. of. strike. Nick Riemer Australian National
University 1. Introduction It is now well ... lexemes' diachronic semantic behaviour
consists in reconfigurations to the set of polysemous meanings rather than in ...

Historical Linguistics 2001

Author: Barry J. Blake

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 902729660X

Page: 444

View: 825

This is a selection of papers from the 15th International Conference on Historical Linguistics held in Melbourne 13-17 August 2001, hosted by the Linguistics Program at La Trobe University. The papers range from the general theoretical to the study of particular languages and embrace most areas of linguistics, particularly morpho-syntax.

Modal Adjectives

In the diachronic research on modal categories, much attention has been
devoted to modal auxiliary verbs (e.g., ... As discussed in section 1.2.2, it is
common for modal auxiliaries to develop from descriptive, non-modal meaning
over dynamic ...

Modal Adjectives

Author: An Van Linden

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110252945

Page: 383

View: 457

The book revisits the notion of deontic modality from the perspective of an understudied category in the modal domain, viz. adjectives. On the basis of synchronic and diachronic corpus studies, it analyses the semantics of English adjectives like essential and appropriate, and uses this to refine traditional definitions of deontic modality, which are mainly based on the study of modal verbs. In a first step, it is shown that the set of meanings expressed by extraposition constructions with deontic adjectives is quite different from the set of meanings identified in the literature on modal verbs. Adjectival complement constructions lack the directive meanings of obligation or permission, which are traditionally regarded as the core deontic categories, and they have semantic extensions towards non-modal meanings in the evaluative domain. In a second step, the analysis of adjectives is used to propose an alternative definition of deontic modality, which covers both the meanings of verbs and adjectives, and which can deal with the different extensions towards modal and non-modal categories. This is integrated into a conceptual map, which works both in diachrony, defining pathways of change from premodal to modal to evaluative meaning, and in synchrony, accommodating refinements within each set of meanings. In the process, this study points to the emergence of partially filled constructions, and it offers additional evidence for well-established changes in the history of English, such as the decline of the subjunctive and the rise of the to-infinitive in complement constructions. The book is of particular interest to researchers and graduate students with a focus on mood and modality, and the interface between syntax, semantics and pragmatics, as well as that between synchrony and diachrony.