The Extended Organism

However counterintuitive the idea might first seem, physiological ecologist Scott Turner demonstrates in this book that many animals construct and use structures to harness and control the flow of energy from their environment to their own ...

The Extended Organism

Author: J Scott Turner

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674044494

Page: 256

View: 326

Can the structures that animals build--from the humble burrows of earthworms to towering termite mounds to the Great Barrier Reef--be said to live? However counterintuitive the idea might first seem, physiological ecologist Scott Turner demonstrates in this book that many animals construct and use structures to harness and control the flow of energy from their environment to their own advantage. Building on Richard Dawkins's classic, The Extended Phenotype, Turner shows why drawing the boundary of an organism's physiology at the skin of the animal is arbitrary. Since the structures animals build undoubtedly do physiological work, capturing and channeling chemical and physical energy, Turner argues that such structures are more properly regarded not as frozen behaviors but as external organs of physiology and even extensions of the animal's phenotype. By challenging dearly held assumptions, a fascinating new view of the living world is opened to us, with implications for our understanding of physiology, the environment, and the remarkable structures animals build.

The Extended Phenotype

Shows that the influence of genes can extend far beyond the bodies in which they reside, manipulating the environment and the behaviour of other individuals.

The Extended Phenotype

Author: Richard Dawkins

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198788916

Page: 496

View: 117

In The Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins crystallized the gene's eye view of evolution developed by W.D. Hamilton and others. The book provoked widespread and heated debate. Written in part as a response, The Extended Phenotype gave a deeper clarification of the central concept of the gene as theunit of selection; but it did much more besides. In it, Dawkins extended the gene's eye view to argue that the genes that sit within an organism have an influence that reaches out beyond the visible traits in that body - the phenotype - to the wider environment, which can include other individuals.So, for instance, the genes of the beaver drive it to gather twigs to produce the substantial physical structure of a dam; and the genes of the cuckoo chick produce effects that manipulate the behaviour of the host bird, making it nurture the intruder as one of its own. This notion of the extendedphenotype has proved to be highly influential in the way we understand evolution and the natural world. It represents a key scientific contribution to evolutionary biology, and it continues to play an important role in research in the life sciences.The Extended Phenotype is a conceptually deep book that forms important reading for biologists and students. But Dawkins' clear exposition is accessible to all who are prepared to put in a little effort.Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.

The Perception of Space and Matter

with , ” the extended sensorium or organism . “ The soul , as it were , occupies
and pervades the sensorium as extended in all directions . ” 1 “ In sensation
proper the soul knows itself as united with the extended sensorium . ” 2 “ If the
soul , in ...

The Perception of Space and Matter

Author: Johnston Estep Walter

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 451

View: 339

"Most of the theories of sense-perception which have been put forth from the earliest days of speculation to the present time have been forms of Representationism, in which the mind is supposed to infer or to know external realities by means of intermediate representatives or agents. Nearly all these theories have owed their existence to one or both of the common doctrines, that the fundamental difference in nature between mind and matter makes the immediate knowledge of the latter impossible, and that the mind can know or act only where it is. The very opposite natures of mind and matter have long been supposed to constitute an entire and unquestionable impossibility of immediate intercourse between them. To explain, then, the possibility of the cognition of material objects by the immaterial mind, a great variety of theories of images, ideas, or mediate agencies, differing in nature, origin, place, and operation, have in successive ages been propounded by philosophers. The other doctrine, that the mind can know or act only where it is, has also made itself greatly felt, and has given rise to similar, or confirmed the apparent necessity of the same, theories of images or vicarious agents to explain perception across an interval of space"--Book. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

The Extended Mind

14 Culture as an Organism and the Emergence of Universal Culture Is Culture an
Organism? In this chapter we will examine the possibility that culture, like
language, evolved as an organism that was easy for the human mind to grasp
and, ...

The Extended Mind

Author: Robert K. Logan

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442691808

Page: 320

View: 909

The ability to communicate through language is such a fundamental part of human existence that we often take it for granted, rarely considering how sophisticated the process is by which we understand and make ourselves understood. In The Extended Mind, acclaimed author Robert K. Logan examines the origin, emergence, and co-evolution of language, the human mind, and culture. Building on his previous study, The Sixth Language (2000) and making use of emergence theory, Logan seeks to explain how language emerged to deal with the complexity of hominid existence brought about by tool-making, control of fire, social intelligence, coordinated hunting and gathering, and mimetic communication. The resulting emergence of language, he argues, signifies a fundamental change in the functioning of the human mind - a shift from percept-based thought to concept-based thought. From the perspective of the Extended Mind model, Logan provides an alternative to and critique of Noam Chomsky's approach to the origin of language. He argues that language can be treated as an organism that evolved to be easily acquired, obviating the need for the hard-wiring of Chomsky's Language Acquisition Device. In addition Logan shows how, according to this model, culture itself can be treated as an organism that has evolved to be easily attained, revealing the universality of human culture as well as providing an insight as to how altruism might have originated. Bringing timely insights to a fascinating field of inquiry, The Extended Mind will be sure to find a wide readership.

The Extended Mind

Extended. Cognitive. Systems: Does. the. Scaffolding. of. Language. Extend. the.
Mind? Robert D. Rupert How might it be established that the human mind
extends into the environment surrounding the human organism? The most
promising ...

The Extended Mind

Author: Richard Menary

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262014033

Page: 382

View: 414

Leading scholars respond to the famous proposition by Andy Clark and David Chalmersthat cognition and mind are not located exclusively in the head.

The Elements of Intellectual Science

How is it shown to be correlative so far as to be extended , except it is taken to be
the analogon of the extended organism , i . e . , like it in being spatial in many
percepts , etc. , etc. , but unlike it in respect to other sense - percepts , as we have
 ...

The Elements of Intellectual Science

Author: Noah Porter

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 565

View: 307

The Perceptionalist

... defines sensation “ a subjective experience of the soul as animating an
extended sensorium , " and when he says that “ in each sensation the soul knows
itself to be affected in some separate part of the extended organism which it
pervades ...

The Perceptionalist

Author: Edward John Hamilton

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 416

View: 221

"The general system of doctrine in the service of which both "The Human Mind" and "Mental Science" have been composed, might be styled Perceptionalism. For some such term may properly designate a form of philosophy which maintains, from an analytical and theoretical point of view, that mankind are not deluded in claiming that they perceive fact and truth, and that what they call their perceptions are true perceptions of those very things which they say that they perceive. The word "perception" is sometimes limited in its application: we now use it in its most unrestricted meaning. For we have perceptions of simple fact and perceptions of necessary relations; presentational perceptions and inferential perceptions; the perceptions of sense and of consciousness, and perceptions concomitant of these; the perceptions of the intuitive, and those of the discursive, reason: we perceive what is true actualistically and what is true hypothetically; we perceive the possible and the necessary, and the contingent and the probable. Our doctrine is that all these perceptions, when made by a sound mind and under proper conditions, are trustworthy; and our philosophy finds justification for this doctrine in the critical investigation of every mode of human cognition or conviction. Perceptionalism does not assert that the mind of man is infallible. On the contrary, recognizing the frequent recurrence of error, it seeks to understand the sources and laws of mistaken belief as well as those of correct belief. But it emphasizes the truth that man is capable of knowledge, or well-grounded certainty, about many things; and that where this is not attainable, he may often wisely form a judgment of probability"--Preface. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

Mental Science

... defines sensation " & subjective experience of the soul as animating an
extended sensorium , ” and when he says that " in each sensation the soul knows
itself to be affected in some separate part of the extended organism which it
pervades ...

Mental Science

Author: Edward John Hamilton

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 416

View: 674

""Mental Science," therefore, is now offered as an educational manual, and as a compend for the reading of those who would inform themselves respecting the doctrines of an earnest philosophy without entering upon non-essential details. The majority of the discussions have been not merely abridged, but simplified; a considerable number have been entirely re-written. Some chapters, too, which are devoted to logical questions, and which may prove serviceable in connection with some future effort, have been omitted. It has, however, been the aim to present a true theory of every normal activity of the intellect"--Preface.

Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind

The most uncontroversial of these contextual factors reside in the organism itself.
Developmental systems theorists go one further, however, arguing that
determination involves the entire host of factors shaping the phenotype—the
entire host ...

Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind

Author: Robert D. Rupert

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199702144

Page: 288

View: 218

Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind surveys philosophical issues raised by the situated movement in cognitive science, that is, the treatment of cognitive phenomena as the joint products of brain, body, and environment.

Selections from Berkeley

Yet both Mill and Dr. Bain seem to allow that when the extended area is very
small ( less than to of an inch in diameter ) ... of intensity — and that we are
originally and properly sentient and percipient of our own extended organism
and of that ...

Selections from Berkeley

Author: George Berkeley

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 402

View: 815

The Living Age

An extended organism is the condition of our passing into a state where there is
no extension. A human being is an extended and material thing, attached to
which is the power of becoming alive to feeling and thought, the extreme remove
from ...

The Living Age

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 250

Selections from Berkeley Annotated

... are originally given as external to one another in place - in short , that we
cannot have any organic sensation without an implied perception of extension —
that sensation proper in our organism , and perception proper of the extended
object ...

Selections from Berkeley  Annotated

Author: George Berkeley

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 336

View: 319

The Great Adventure

J . Scott Turner , biologist and environmental scientist , associate professor
biology department State University of New York College of Environmental
Science and Forestry , author of The Extended Organism : The Physiology of
Animal - Built ...

The Great Adventure

Author: David Loye

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791459232

Page: 346

View: 551

Outlines how a new working partnership between psychologists and evolutionary systems scientists can help create a more humanistic evolutionary theory.

The World s Cyclopedia of Science

... relation between outward manner , we must yet deprive it of the almost agents
and the human feelings that renders invincible association of union in place , it
possible to discuss human interests from An extended organism is the condition
of ...

The World s Cyclopedia of Science

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 537

Humboldt library of science no 7 1880

... relation between outward manner , we must yet deprive it of the almost agents
and the human feelings that renders invincible assuciation of union in place . it
possible to discuss human interests from An extended organism is the condition
of ...

Humboldt library of science  no  7  1880

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 223

The Conservation of Energy

An extended organism is the condition of our passing into a state where there is
no extension . A human being is an extended and material thing , attached to
which is the power of becoming alive to feeling and thought , the extrenie remove
 ...

The Conservation of Energy

Author: Balfour Stewart

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 239

View: 695

The Conservation of Energy

An extended organism is the condition of our passing into a state where there is
no extension. A human being is an extended and material thing, attached to
which is the power of becoming alive to feeling and thought, the extreme remove
from ...

The Conservation of Energy

Author: The International Scientific Series

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 646

The Conversation of Energy

An extended organism is the condition of our passing into a state where there is
no extension . A human being is an extended and material thing , attached to
which is the power of becoming alive to feeling and thought , the extrenie remove
 ...

The Conversation of Energy

Author: Balfour Stewart

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 455

Archaeology After Interpretation

The Extended Organism: The Physiology of Animal-Built Structures. Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press Turner, J. 2004. Extended phenotypes and
extended organisms. Biology and Philosophy 19, 327–52 Viveiros de Castro, E.
2004.

Archaeology After Interpretation

Author: Benjamin Alberti

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315434245

Page: 417

View: 778

A new generation of archaeologists has thrown down a challenge to post-processual theory, arguing that characterizing material symbols as arbitrary overlooks the material character and significance of artifacts. This volume showcases the significant departure from previous symbolic approaches that is underway in the discipline. It brings together key scholars advancing a variety of cutting edge approaches, each emphasizing an understanding of artifacts and materials not in terms of symbols but relationally, as a set of associations that compose people’s understanding of the world. Authors draw on a diversity of intellectual sources and case studies, paving a dynamic road ahead for archaeology as a discipline and theoretical approaches to material culture.

Genes and the Agents of Life

THE ExtENDED PHENotype AND wide systEMs The chief idea of Dawkins's The
Extended Phenotype is that the phenotypes that express particular genes or
genetic fragments do not stop at the boundary of the organism, but extend into
the ...

Genes and the Agents of Life

Author: Robert A. Wilson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521544955

Page: 296

View: 232

This book undertakes to rethink the place of the individual in the biological sciences, drawing parallels with the cognitive and social sciences. It includes highly accessible discussions of genetic encoding, species and natural kinds, and pluralism above the levels of selection, drawing on work from across the biological sciences.The book is a companion to the author's Boundaries of the Mind, also available from Cambridge, where the focus is the cognitive sciences. It will appeal to professionals and students in philosophy, biology, and the history of science.