The Leibniz Clarke Correspondence

In 1715 the German philosopher Leibniz warned his friend the Princess of Wales of the dangers posed to religion by Newton's ideas. This book presents extracts from Leibniz's letters to Newtonian scientist Samuel Clarke.

The Leibniz Clarke Correspondence

Author: Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz

Publisher: Manchester University Press

ISBN: 9780719006692

Page: 200

View: 328

In 1715 the German philosopher Leibniz warned his friend the Princess of Wales of the dangers posed to religion by Newton's ideas. This book presents extracts from Leibniz's letters to Newtonian scientist Samuel Clarke.

Leibniz and Clarke

This penetrating book is the first to offer a comprehensive overview and commentary on the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence.

Leibniz and Clarke

Author: Ezio Vailati

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195354256

Page: 268

View: 451

The correspondence between Leibniz and Samuel Clarke was the most influential philosophical exchange of the eighteenth century, and indeed one of the most significant such exchanges in the history of philosophy. Carried out in 1715 and 1716, the debate focused on the clash between Newtonian and Leibnizian world systems, involving disputes in physics, theology, and metaphysics. The letters ranged over an extraordinary array of topics, including divine immensity and eternity, the relation of God to the world, free will, gravitation, the existence of atoms and the void, and the size of the universe. This penetrating book is the first to offer a comprehensive overview and commentary on the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence. Building his narrative around general subjects covered in the exchange--God, the soul, space and time, miracles and nature, matter and force--Ezio Vailati devotes special attention to a question crucial for Leibniz and Clarke alike. Both philosophers, worried by the advance of naturalism and its consequences for morality, devised complex systems to counter naturalism and reinforce natural religion. However, they not only deeply disagreed on how to answer the naturalist threat, but they ended up seeing in each other's views the germs of naturalism itself. Vailati rigorously tracks the twists and turns of this argument, shedding important new light on a critical moment in modern philosophy. Lucid, taut, and energetically written, this book not only examines the Leibniz-Clarke debate in unprecedented depth but also situates the views advanced by the two men in the context of their principal writings. An invaluable reference to a fascinating exchange of ideas, Leibniz and Clarke makes vital reading for philosophers and historians of science and theology.


After Leibniz's death in 1716, Clarke published an edition of their philosophical correspondence--a wide-ranging discussion of the nature of God, human souls, free will and indifference of choice, space and time, the vacuum, miracles, and ...


Author: Gottfried Wilhelm Freiherr von Leibniz

Publisher: Hackett Publishing

ISBN: 9780872205246

Page: 110

View: 271

After Leibniz's death in 1716, Clarke published an edition of their philosophical correspondence--a wide-ranging discussion of the nature of God, human souls, free will and indifference of choice, space and time, the vacuum, miracles, and matter and force. Clarke included his own letters, his translations of Leibniz's letters, and some translated passages from Leibniz's French and Latin works that helped to illuminate their exchanges.

Time Eternity

Alexander, ed., The Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence, 22 C ii, sec. 6 and 7 (my
emphasis). 88. See, for example, Gerhardt, Die philosophischen Schriften, 357f.
L ii: “La simple production de tout marqueroit bien la puissance de Dieu; mais
elle ...

Time   Eternity

Author: Antje Jackelen

Publisher: Templeton Foundation Press

ISBN: 1932031898

Page: 345

View: 138

What is time? Is there a link between objective knowledge about time and subjective experience of time? And what is eternity? Does religion have the answer? Does science? Antje Jackelén investigates the problem and concept of time. Her analysis of the subject includes: The notion of time and eternity as it is narrated through Christian hymn books stemming from Germany, Sweden, and the English-speaking world, with insights into changes of the concept and understanding of time in Christian spirituality over the past few decades; Theological approaches to time and eternity, as well as a look at Trinitarian theology and its relation to time; The discussion of scientific theories of time, including Newtonian, relativistic, quantum, and chaos theories; The formulation of a "theology of time," a theological-mathematical model incorporating relational thinking oriented towards the future, the doctrine of trinity, and the notion of eschatology. --From publisher's description.

The Eternal Covenant

117 I specifically mean that Leibniz's argument in The Leibniz-Clarke
Correspondence is premised on an assumption that divine action is ordered to
an end. The arguments for the existence of God Leibniz pursued elsewhere are
beyond my ...

The Eternal Covenant

Author: Daniel James Pedersen

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110541289

Page: 199

View: 956

Schleiermacher’s readers have long been familiar with his proposal for an ‘eternal covenant’ between theology and natural science. Yet there is disagreement both about what this ‘covenant’ amounts to, why Schleiermacher proposed it, and how he meant it to be persuasive. In The Eternal Covenant, Pedersen argues, contrary to received wisdom, that the ‘eternal covenant’ is not first a methodological or political proposal but is, rather, the end result of a complex case from the doctrine of God, the notion of a world, and an account of divine action. With his compound case against miracles, Schleiermacher secures the in-principle explicability of everything in the world through natural causes. However, his case is not only negative. Far from a mere concession, the eternal covenant is an argument for what Schleiermacher calls, ‘the essential identity of ethics and natural philosophy.’ Indeed, because the nature system is both intended for love and wisely ordered, the world is a supremely beautiful divine artwork and is, therefore, the absolute self-revelation of God. Schleiermacher’s case is a challenging alternative to reigning accounts of God, nature, divine action, and the relationship between religion and science.

The Cambridge Companion to Newton

DOMENICO BERTOLONI MELI 16 Newton and the Leibniz - Clarke
correspondence INTRODUCTION Between 1715 and 1716 Gottfried Wilhelm
Leibniz and Samuel Clarke were engaged in a theological and philosophical
dispute mediated ...

The Cambridge Companion to Newton

Author: Smith

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521656962

Page: 500

View: 953

Newton's philosophical analysis of space and time /Robert Disalle --Newton's concepts of force and mass, with notes on the Laws of Motion /I. Bernard Cohen --Curvature in Newton's dynamics /J. Bruce Brackenridge and Michael Nauenberg --Methodology of the Principia /George E. Smith --Newton's argument for universal gravitation /William Harper --Newton and celestial mechanics /Curtis Wilson --Newton's optics and atomism /Alan E. Shapiro --Newton's metaphysics /Howard Stein --Analysis and synthesis in Newton's mathematical work /Niccolò Guicciardini --Newton, active powers, and the mechanical philosophy /Alan Gabbey --Background to Newton's chymistry /William Newman --Newton's alchemy /Karin Figala --Newton on prophecy and the Apocalypse /Maurizio Mamiani --Newton and eighteenth-century Christianity /Scott Mandelbrote --Newton versus Leibniz : from geomentry to metaphysics /A. Rupert Hall --Newton and the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence /Domenico Bertoloni Meli.

The Riddle of Hume s Treatise

Clarke closely follows ​Newton's position in the General Scholium (Leibniz and
Clarke, LeibnizClarke Correspondence, 167). 27. Leibniz and Clarke, Leibniz
Clarke Correspondence, 47; compare 34; Clarke, Works, 2:539–41, 569, 756–8.

The Riddle of Hume s Treatise

Author: Paul Russell

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019988045X

Page: 442

View: 465

Although it is widely recognized that David Hume's A Treatise of Human Nature (1729-40) belongs among the greatest works of philosophy, there is little aggreement about the correct way to interpret his fundamental intentions. The solution to this riddle depends on challenging another, closely related, point of orthodoxy: namely, that before Hume published the Treatise he removed almost all material concerned with problems of religion. Russell argues, contrary to this view, that irreligious aims and objectives are fundamental to the Treatise and account for its underlying unity and coherence. It is Hume's basic anti-Christian aims and objectives that serve to shape and direct both his skeptical and naturalistic commitments. When Hume's arguments are viewed from this perspective we can solve, not only puzzles arising from his discussion of various specific issues, we can also explain the intimate and intricate connections that hold his entire project together. This "irreligious" interpretation provides a comprehensive fresh account of the nature of Hume's fundamental aims and ambitions in the Treatise. It also presents a radically different picture of the way in which Hume's project was rooted in the debates and controversies of his own time, placing the Treatise in an irreligious or anti-Christian philosophical tradition that includes Hobbes, Spinoza and freethinking followers. Considered in these terms, Hume's Treatise constitutes the crowning achievement of the Radical Enlightenment.

Space Time and Theology in the Leibniz Newton Controversy

... in Clarke's replies, made under pressure from a critic of Leibniz's stature, than it
was before the date of the Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence.21 As well, my
account will be based on Newton's own earlier pronouncements in the
philosophical ...

Space  Time  and Theology in the Leibniz Newton Controversy

Author: Edward J. Khamara

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110328305

Page: 157

View: 290

In the famous Correspondence with Clarke, which took place during the last year of Leibniz’s life, Leibniz advanced several arguments purporting to refute the absolute theory of space and time that was held by Newton and his followers. The main aim of this book is to reassess Leibniz’s attack on the Newtonian theory in so far as he relied on the principle of the identity of indiscernibles. The theological side of the controversy is not ignored but isolated and discussed in the last three chapters, which deal with problems connected with the notions of omnipotence and omniscience.

The Achilles of Rationalist Psychology

Prominent in the 18th century was a discussion of the argument by Samuel
Clarke, best known for his correspondence with Leibniz, and Anthony Collins.
Collins was a freethinker, materialist, and deist well-known at the time in England

The Achilles of Rationalist Psychology

Author: Thomas M. Lennon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402068935

Page: 290

View: 260

In his Second Paralogism of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant described what he called the "Achilles of all dialectical inferences in the pure doctrine of the soul". This argument, which he took to be powerful yet fatally flawed, purports to establish the simplicity of the human mind, or soul, on the basis of the unity of consciousness. It is the aim of this volume to treat the major figures who have advanced the Achilles argument, or who have held views bearing on it.

Millenarianism and Messianism in Early Modern European Culture

[See The Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence, ed. H.G. Alexander (New York, 1956),
“Mr. Leibnitz's First Paper,” 11, and “Dr. Clarke's Second Reply,” 22.] As Newton
stresses in 1713 in his “General Scholium” to the second edition of the Principia ...

Millenarianism and Messianism in Early Modern European Culture

Author: J.E. Force

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940172282X

Page: 198

View: 306

The influence of millenarian thinking upon Cromwell's England is well-known. The cultural and intellectual conceptions of the role of millenarian ideas in the `long' 18th century when, so the `official' story goes, the religious sceptics and deists of Enlightened England effectively tarred such religious radicalism as `enthusiasm' has been less well examined. This volume endeavors to revise this `official' story and to trace the influence of millenarian ideas in the science, politics, and everyday life of England and America in the 17th and 18th centuries.


Leibniz ' s introduction of the vinculum substantiale has thus often been seen
more as the concession of a diplomatist than as the creed of a philosopher (


Author: Nicholas Jolley

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415283380

Page: 260

View: 281

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was hailed as one of the supreme intellects of all time. A towering figure in seventeenth-century philosophy, his complex thought has been championed and satirized in equal measure, most famously in Voltaire's Candide. Jolley introduces Leibniz's theories of mind, knowledge, and innate ideas, showing how Leibniz anticipated the distinction between conscious and unconscious states, before examining his theory of free will and the problem of evil. An important feature of the book is its introduction to Leibniz's moral and political philosophy.

Space from Zeno to Einstein

READING The Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence Mr. Leibniz's First Paper 1.
Natural religion itself, seems to decay (in England) very much. Many will have
human souls to be material: others make God himself a corporeal being. 2. Mr.
Locke ...

Space from Zeno to Einstein

Author: Nick Huggett

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262581691

Page: 274

View: 945

Space From Zeno to Einstein collects a dozen classic readings that are generally accepted as the most significant contributions to the philosophy of space.

Atom and Individual in the Age of Newton

CORRESPONDENCE The discussion between Leibniz and Newton on the
theory of space was to the greatest extent carried out in an exchange of letters
between Leibniz ...

Atom and Individual in the Age of Newton

Author: G. Freudenthal

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400945000

Page: 288

View: 494

In this stimulating investigation, Gideon Freudenthal has linked social history with the history of science by formulating an interesting proposal: that the supposed influence of social theory may be seen as actual through its co herence with the process of formation of physical concepts. The reinterpre tation of the development of science in the seventeenth century, now widely influential, receives at Freudenthal's hand its most persuasive statement, most significantly because of his attention to the theoretical form which is charac teristic. of classical Newtonian mechanics. He pursues the sources of the parallels that may be noted between that mechanics and the dominant philosophical systems and social theories of the time; and in a fascinating development Freudenthal shows how a quite precise method - as he descriptively labels it, the 'analytic-synthetic method' - which underlay the Newtonian form of theoretical argument, was due to certain interpretive premisses concerning particle mechanics. If he is right, these depend upon a particular stage of con ceptual achievement in the theories of both society and nature; further, that the conceptual was generalized philosophically; but, strikingly, Freudenthal shows that this concept-formation itself was linked to the specific social relations of the times of Newton and Hobbes.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy in Early Modern Europe

The central debate about space and time in the early modern period was the
celebrated exchange between Leibniz and Newton, recorded in the Leibniz/
Clarke correspondence. Samuel Clarke was Newton's mouthpiece; he was
Newton's ...

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy in Early Modern Europe

Author: Desmond M. Clarke

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191654256

Page: 616

View: 494

In this Handbook twenty-six leading scholars survey the development of philosophy between the middle of the sixteenth century and the early eighteenth century. The five parts of the book cover metaphysics and natural philosophy; the mind, the passions, and aesthetics; epistemology, logic, mathematics, and language; ethics and political philosophy; and religion. The period between the publication of Copernicus's De Revolutionibus and Berkeley's reflections on Newton and Locke saw one of the most fundamental changes in the history of our way of thinking about the universe. This radical transformation of worldview was partly a response to what we now call the Scientific Revolution; it was equally a reflection of political changes that were no less fundamental, which included the establishment of nation-states and some of the first attempts to formulate a theory of international rights and justice. Finally, the Reformation and its aftermath undermined the apparent unity of the Christian church in Europe and challenged both religious beliefs that had been accepted for centuries and the interpretation of the Bible on which they had been based. The Handbook surveys a number of the most important developments in the philosophy of the period, as these are expounded both in texts that have since become very familiar and in other philosophical texts that are undeservedly less well-known. It also reaches beyond the philosophy to make evident the fluidity of the boundary with science, and to consider the impact on philosophy of historical and political events—explorations, revolutions and reforms, inventions and discoveries. Thus it not only offers a guide to the most important areas of recent research, but also offers some new questions for historians of philosophy to pursue and to have indicated areas that are ripe for further exploration.

Body and Practice in Kant

Most frequently discussed today, perhaps, is the controversy between Leibniz
and Newton on the nature of space, discussed in the so called Leibniz-Clarke
correspondence, published in 1711, in which Samuel Clarke (1675-1729) acted
as a ...

Body and Practice in Kant

Author: Helge Svare

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402041181

Page: 328

View: 381

Kant is conceived to have offered little attention to the fact that we experience the world in and through our bodies. Arguing that this image of Kant is wrong, and that his work "Critique of Pure Reason" may be read as a critical reflection aimed at exploring some significant philosophical implications of the fact that human life is embodied.

The Waning of the Renaissance 1640 1740

In 1712 Leibniz referred to gravity as “an occult quality” which could not be
reduced to principles of matter and motion; and in 1715 he crossed swords with
Samuel Clarke on the question of vitalism.” The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence,

The Waning of the Renaissance 1640   1740

Author: John Hoyles

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401030081

Page: 266

View: 508

It is not always easy to maintain a proper balance between the delineation of cultural development within a given literary field and the claims of practical criticism. And yet if the history of ideas is to be more than a pastime for the student of literature, it must be rooted in the precise art of discrimination. The following chapters attempt to describe and evaluate a particular cultural development by relating the background of ideas to the literary achievement of three writers. It will be sufficient here to out line the nature of the problem, and the method and approach employed. The concept of cultural development implies a recognition of the con nections between ideology and aesthetics. There are at least two ways of exploring such connections. The one, pioneered by Basil Willey, seeks to situate the critical moments of our cultural development in the back ground of ideas, without which the contribution of a particular author cannot be justly evaluated. The danger of such an approach is that the task of discrimination comes to depend over-heavily on extra-literary criteria.

Leibniz and the Natural World

eds., G W Leibniz: Philosophical Essays, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1989. Alex H. T.
Alexander, tr., The Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence, Manchester: Manchester
University Press, 1956. Ariew R. Ariew, tr., G W Leibniz and Samuel Clarke: ...

Leibniz and the Natural World

Author: Pauline Phemister

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402034008

Page: 293

View: 212

In the present book, Pauline Phemister argues against traditional Anglo-American interpretations of Leibniz as an idealist who conceives ultimate reality as a plurality of mind-like immaterial beings and for whom physical bodies are ultimately unreal and our perceptions of them illusory. Re-reading the texts without the prior assumption of idealism allows the more material aspects of Leibniz's metaphysics to emerge. Leibniz is found to advance a synthesis of idealism and materialism. His ontology posits indivisible, living, animal-like corporeal substances as the real metaphysical constituents of the universe; his epistemology combines sense-experience and reason; and his ethics fuses confused perceptions and insensible appetites with distinct perceptions and rational choice. In the light of his sustained commitment to the reality of bodies, Phemister re-examines his dynamics, the doctrine of pre-established harmony and his views on freedom. The image of Leibniz as a rationalist philosopher who values activity and reason over passivity and sense-experience is replaced by the one of a philosopher who recognises that, in the created world, there can only be activity if there is also passivity; minds, souls and forms if there is also matter; good if there is evil; perfection if there is imperfection.

The Bloomsbury Companion to Leibniz

The dispute with Newton took a positive turn of sorts, however, for Leibniz
became engaged in a proxy war with Newton's friend and collaborator, Samuel
Clarke. The result, the LeibnizClarke correspondence, contains some of
Leibniz's ...

The Bloomsbury Companion to Leibniz

Author: Brandon C. Look

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472524853

Page: 352

View: 741

The Bloomsbury Companion to Leibniz presents a comprehensive and authoritative introduction to the life, thought and work of one of the great polymaths of the modern world, G.W. Leibniz. This guide enriches the reader's understanding of Leibniz by establishing the philosophies of, and Leibniz's reactions to, his most important philosophical contemporaries from Descartes to Malebranche. While addressing current philosophical research in Leibniz studies such as his metaphysics, logic and theory of free will, a leading team of experts in the field demonstrate that Leibniz's work was wider in scope. Examining new directions in this field they cover a number of Leibniz's concerns outside of philosophy including mathematics, physics, and the life sciences. The Companion concludes by offering analysis of Leibniz's legacy; his impact on further study, particularly on his successor Immanuel Kant, and how he has subsequently been understood. Together with extended biographical sketches and an up-to-date and fully comprehensive bibliography, The Bloomsbury Companion to Leibniz is an extremely valuable study tool for students and scholars interested in Leibniz and the era in which he wrote.