Turbulent Heating and Anisotropy in the Solar Wind

Miyake W, Mukai T, Terasawa T, Hirao K (1988) Stream interaction as a heat
source in the solar wind. Sol Phys 117(1):171–178. https://doi.org/10.1007/
BF00148580 Narita Y, Glassmeier KH, Sahraoui F, Goldstein ML (2010) Wave-
vector ...

Turbulent Heating and Anisotropy in the Solar Wind

Author: Victor Montagud-Camps

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 3030303837

Page: 123

View: 338

This book presents two important new findings. First, it demonstrates from first principles that turbulent heating offers an explanation for the non-adiabatic decay of proton temperature in solar wind. Until now, this was only proved with reduced or phenomenological models. Second, the book demonstrates that the two types of anisotropy of turbulent fluctuations that are observed in solar wind at 1AU originate not only from two distinct classes of conditions near the Sun but also from the imbalance in Alfvén wave populations. These anisotropies do not affect the overall turbulent heating if we take into account the relation observed in solar wind between anisotropy and Alfvén wave imbalance. In terms of the methods used to obtain these achievements, the author shows the need to find a very delicate balance between turbulent decay and expansion losses, so as to directly solve the magnetohydrodynamic equations, including the wind expansion effects.

Basics of the Solar Wind

The topics are treated at various levels of difficulty both qualitatively and quantitatively. This book will appeal to graduate students and researchers in earth and atmospheric sciences, and astrophysics.

Basics of the Solar Wind

Author: Nicole Meyer-Vernet

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139461559

Page:

View: 560

The Sun continually ejects matter into space, blowing a huge bubble of supersonic plasma. This solar wind bathes the whole solar system and shapes all planetary environments. The growth of space technology has considerably increased our knowledge of this medium. This 2007 book presents an introduction to the subject, starting with basic principles and including all the latest advances from space exploration and theory. It contains a short introduction to plasma physics and discusses the structure of the solar interior and atmosphere, the production of solar wind and its perturbations. It explains the objects of the Solar System, from dust to comets and planets, and their interaction with the solar wind. The final sections explore the astrophysical point of view. The topics are treated at various levels of difficulty both qualitatively and quantitatively. This book will appeal to graduate students and researchers in earth and atmospheric sciences, and astrophysics.

Performative Analysis of an Eccentric Solar wind Combined System for Steady Power Yield

Likely performance of hybridized model is evaluated in terms of various characteristics and effective performance indicators. Obtained results are compared with the testified results of existent solar–wind technologies.

Performative Analysis of an Eccentric Solar   wind Combined System for Steady Power Yield

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 349

Highlights: Aims to examine the alternate mechanism for hybridization of solar and wind resources to obtain a steady power output. Likely performance of hybridized model is evaluated in terms of various characteristics and effective performance indicators. Obtained results are compared with the testified results of existent solar–wind technologies. Wind and solar energy fraction of the plant reaches up to 84% and 16% for this study. Annual average efficiency of wind turbine unit and solar thermal unit are found to be 4.21% and 65.52% respectively. Abstract: The solar and wind power generation is stochastic in nature. Consequently, it is difficult to obtain steady power output from these renewable sources. Storage element (mainly battery) used in typical solar/wind hybrid system has also its inherent shortcomings. However, power generation from renewable energy sources like solar and wind is having paramount significance in the context of impending fossil fuel shortage, environmental degradation, remote electricity supply, etc. Hence, an alternate mechanism for hybridization of solar and wind resources to obtain a steady power output could undoubtedly be a great accomplishment in prevailing energy scenario across the world. The present paper analyses the performance of such an eccentric solar–wind hybridized model with spring storage system which is capable of delivering steady power yield despite intermittency of the sources. The likely annual performance of this unusual solar–wind hybridized model is evaluated under a sub-tropical climatic condition in north-east India in terms of various characteristics and effective performance indicators such as energy generation characteristics, effect of storage capacity, efficiency of the generating system, capacity factor of the plant, energy to load ratio, normalized power yield, and plant utilization factor. The considered system in the paper has been designed and simulated in LabVIEW graphical programming environment. It has been found for the given climatic condition that maximum wind energy and solar energy fraction of the plant reaches up to 84% and 16% respectively with annual average efficiency of 24.21% for wind turbine unit and 65.52% for solar thermal unit. To make evident the success of the system, a performative comparison has been drawn with obtained results in the proposed scheme and the testified results in existent solar–wind renewable energy system. The analysis in the study substantiates that performance of the proposed hybridized model is considerably superior to that of conventional and established solar–wind based hybrid technologies.

The Sun the Solar Wind and the Heliosphere

Astrophys J 703:311–324 Burlaga LF, Ness NF, Acuna MH, Richardson JD,
Stone EC, McDonald FB (2009) Observations of the heliosheath and solarwind
near the termination shock by Voyager 2. Astrophys J 692:1125–1130 Decker RB
et al ...

The Sun  the Solar Wind  and the Heliosphere

Author: Mari Paz Miralles

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048197873

Page: 384

View: 902

This volume represents the state of the art of the science covered by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division IV: Solar Wind and Interplanetary Field. It contains a collection of contributions by top experts addressing and reviewing a variety of topics included under the umbrella of the division. It covers subjects that extend from the interior of the Sun to the heliopause, and from the study of physical processes in the Sun and the solar wind plasma to space weather forecasts. The book is organized in 6 parts: the solar interior, the solar atmosphere, the heliosphere, heliophysical processes, radio emissions, and coordinated science in the Sun-Earth system. In addition, we highlight some of the results presented during the IAGA Division IV symposia in the 11th Scientific Assembly of IAGA in Sopron, Hungary, on 23-30 August 2009, which was planned simultaneously with this book.

Exploring the Solar Wind

The solar wind is a continuous outward stream of energetic charged particles
from the Sun's hot corona. The high temperature in the solar corona measures
more than one million degrees causing ionization of the hydrogen and formation
of a ...

Exploring the Solar Wind

Author: Marian Lazar

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9535103393

Page: 474

View: 373

This book consists of a selection of original papers of the leading scientists in the fields of Space and Planetary Physics, Solar and Space Plasma Physics with important contributions to the theory, modeling and experimental techniques of the solar wind exploration. Its purpose is to provide the means for interested readers to become familiar with the current knowledge of the solar wind formation and elemental composition, the interplanetary dynamical evolution and acceleration of the charged plasma particles, and the guiding magnetic field that connects to the magnetospheric field lines and adjusts the effects of the solar wind on Earth. I am convinced that most of the research scientists actively working in these fields will find in this book many new and interesting ideas.

The Solar Wind

THE SOLAR WIND . J . R . Herring and A . L . Licht . ( Presented at the First
International Space Symposium , Nice , France , January 1960 . ) September
1960 . 111 , 14p . OTS price , $ 0 . 50 . ( NASA TECHNICAL NOTE D - 487 ) ,
NASA TN D ...

The Solar Wind

Author: J. R. Herring

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 14

View: 643

"Parker's model of a spherically expanding corona, the "solar wind," is compared with D.E. Blackwell's observations of the 1954 minimum equatorial corona. A significant discrepancy is found between the predicted and the observed electron densities at distances from the sun greater than 20 solar radii. Blackwell's data are found to be consistent with a model in which the corona expands mostly within a disk less than 25 solar radii thick, lying within the sun's equatorial plane. The thickness of the disk as a function of distance from the sun is qualitatively explained in terms of magnetic pressure. The solar wind is found to have a considerable effect on the lunar atmosphere. First, the calculated density of the lunar atmosphere is greatly reduced by collisions with protons in the solar wind. If the flux of particles in this wind has the conventional values ranging between 10(exp 10) to 10(exp 11) per sq cm-sec, the calculations yield a lunar pressure of 10(exp -13) atmosphere of argon, in agreement with the value predicted by Elsmore and Whitfield on the basis of observations on the occultation of radio stars. Second, following a suggestion by Gold, it was found that the collisions of solar-wind protons with the lunar surface produce an atmosphere of cold neutral hydrogen with a density of 10(exp 5) per cu cm at the lunar surface. The density falls off at greater distances in accordance with the inverse-square law. Estimates indicate that the interaction of solar particles with the neutral hydrogen will produce an extended lunar ionosphere with a density of the order of 400 protons/cu cm in the vicinity of the moon."

Mars Magnetism and Its Interaction with the Solar Wind

Hydrodynamic waves are predicted to be excited by the solar wind/ionosphere
interaction and their influence on the electron densities can be observed with the
radar. Neutral density and temperature profiles are required to understand the ...

Mars    Magnetism and Its Interaction with the Solar Wind

Author: Daniel Winterhalter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402020483

Page: 262

View: 757

Given that the question of an internal magnetic field is of fundamental importance to the understanding of Mars' formation and thermal evolution, and of the evolution of Mars' atmosphere, surprisingly few of the many spacecraft sent to Mars were equipped with instrumentation for such investigations. Of the 9 or so orbiters that have successfully archived Mars orbit, even if for a short period of time, only two have returned useful data about the magnetic field and about the plasma environment near Mars: The Phobos 2 spacecraft, and more recently, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). With the discovery by MGS that Mars has large remnant magnetic field structures indicating an internal dynamo long extinct, the true nature of the past and present interaction between Mars and the solar wind comes, for the first time, into sharp focus. This work, detailing the integration and new interpretation of the MGS and Phobos results, is a primary reference for the researcher studying solar wind/planet interactions.

Coronal Holes and Solar Wind Acceleration

SOLAR WIND MODELS FROM THE SUN TO 1 AU : CONSTRAINTS BY IN SITU
AND REMOTE SENSING MEASUREMENTS E. MARSCH Max - Planck - Institut
für Aeronomie , D - 37191 Katlenburg - Lindau , Germany Abstract . There are ...

Coronal Holes and Solar Wind Acceleration

Author: John Kohl

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792358282

Page: 356

View: 636

The SOHO-7 Workshop was held from 28 September through 1 October 1998 at the Asticou Inn in Northeast Harbor, Maine. The primary topic of this Workshop was the impact of SOHO observations on our understanding of the nature and evolution of coronal holes and the acceleration and composition of the solar wind. The presentations and discussions occasionally went beyond this topic to include the impact of the reported research on other solar structures and the heliosphere. SOHO (the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA, was launched in December 1995 and began its science operations during the first few months of 1996. To many solar and space physicists, it was a great advantage that SOHO began itscomprehensive look at the Sun during the 1996 solar minimum. The qualitatively simple two-phase corona, with polar coronal holes expanding into the high-speed solar wind, and a steady equatorial streamer belt related somehow to the stochastic slow-speed solar wind, allowed various SOHO diagnostics to be initiated with a reasonably well understoodcircumsolar geometry. The analysis of subsequentSOHO measurements made during the rising phase of solar cycle 23 will continue to benefit from what has been learned from the first two years of data.

The Mystery of the Solar Wind

RUM!” The kite sail rose again from the waves and pulled upwards. Ronan's
eyesfollowed it.Its cables shortenedand itwas hauled in.The Solar Wind crashed
down into another trough, and spray gushed aboard. Ronan suddenly worried
about ...

The Mystery of the Solar Wind

Author: Lyz Russo

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 1479743747

Page: 357

View: 102

The year is 2116. Captain Radomiur Lascek sails his pirate ship, the Solar wind, around the oceans, collecting outlaws and fugitives and dodging the authorities. But then he hires three young musicians in Dublin – the Donegal Troubles. Radomir Lascek, with all his wily schemes, is about to learn the real meaning of “trouble”.

Lunar Dusty Plasma A Result of Interaction of the Solar Wind Flux and Ultraviolet Radiation with the Lunar Surface

Abstract: One of the main problems of future missions to the Moon is associated with lunar dust. Solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation interact with the lunar surface.

Lunar Dusty Plasma  A Result of Interaction of the Solar Wind Flux and Ultraviolet Radiation with the Lunar Surface

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 907

Abstract: One of the main problems of future missions to the Moon is associated with lunar dust. Solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation interact with the lunar surface. As a result, there is a substantial surface change and a near-surface plasma sheath. Dust particles from the lunar regolith, which turned in this plasma because of any mechanical processes, can levitate above the surface, forming dust clouds. In preparing of the space experiments "Luna-Glob" and "Luna-Resource" particle-in-cell calculations of the near-surface plasma sheath parameters are carried out. Here we present some new results of particle-in-cell simulation of the plasma sheath formed near the surface of the moon as a result of interaction of the solar wind and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface. The conditions of charging and stable levitation of dust particles in plasma above the lunar surface are also considered.

Encyclopedia of the Solar System

Coronal and Solar Wind Stream Structure 5. The Heliospheric Current Sheet and
Solar Latitude Effects 6. Evolution of Stream Structure with Heliocentric Distance
7. Coronal Mass Ejections and Transient Solar Wind Disturbances 8. Variation ...

Encyclopedia of the Solar System

Author: Lucy-Ann McFadden

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080474984

Page: 992

View: 585

Long before Galileo published his discoveries about Jupiter, lunar craters, and the Milky Way in the Starry Messenger in 1610, people were fascinated with the planets and stars around them. That interest continues today, and scientists are making new discoveries at an astounding rate. Ancient lake beds on Mars, robotic spacecraft missions, and new definitions of planets now dominate the news. How can you take it all in? Start with the new Encyclopedia of the Solar System, Second Edition. This self-contained reference follows the trail blazed by the bestselling first edition. It provides a framework for understanding the origin and evolution of the solar system, historical discoveries, and details about planetary bodies and how they interact—and has jumped light years ahead in terms of new information and visual impact. Offering more than 50% new material, the Encyclopedia includes the latest explorations and observations, hundreds of new color digital images and illustrations, and more than 1,000 pages. It stands alone as the definitive work in this field, and will serve as a modern messenger of scientific discovery and provide a look into the future of our solar system. · Forty-seven chapters from 75+ eminent authors review fundamental topics as well as new models, theories, and discussions · Each entry is detailed and scientifically rigorous, yet accessible to undergraduate students and amateur astronomers · More than 700 full-color digital images and diagrams from current space missions and observatories amplify the chapters · Thematic chapters provide up-to-date coverage, including a discussion on the new International Astronomical Union (IAU) vote on the definition of a planet · Information is easily accessible with numerous cross-references and a full glossary and index

Venus II geology Geophysics Atmosphere and Solar Wind Environment

GLOBAL MODELS OF THE SOLAR WIND INTERACTION WITH VENUS J. G.
LUHMANN University of California at Berkeley S. H. BRECHT Berkeley Research
Associates J. R. SPREITER Stanford University S. S. STAHARA RMA Associates
 ...

Venus II  geology  Geophysics  Atmosphere  and Solar Wind Environment

Author: Stephen Wesley Bougher

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816518302

Page: 1362

View: 495

The final orbit of Venus by the Magellan spacecraft in October 1994 brought to a close an exciting period of Venus reconnaissance and exploration. The scientific studies resulting from data collected by the Magellan, Galileo, and Pioneer missions are unprecedented in their detail for any planet except Earth. Venus II re-evaluates initial assessments of Venus in light of these and other spacecraft missions and ground-based observations conducted over the past 30 years. More than a hundred contributors summarize our current knowledge of the planet, consider points of disagreement in interpretation, and identify priorities for future research. Topics addressed include geology, surface processes, volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, geodynamics, upper and lower atmospheres, and solar wind environment. The diversity of the coverage reflects the interdisciplinary nature of Venus science and the breadth of knowledge that has contributed to it. A CD-ROM developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory accompanies the book and incorporates text, graphics, video, software, and various digital products from selected contributors to the text. A multimedia interface allows users to navigate the text and the extensive databases included on the disk. Venus II is the most authoritative single volume available on the second planet. Its contents will not only help shape the goals of future Venus missions but will also enhance our understanding of current Mars explorations.

Solar Wind Seven

PREFACE The International Conference Solar Wind Seven was held in Goslar (
Germany) from September 15 to 21, 1991. The large number of 214 participating
scientists from 22 countries exceeded all our expectations. What attracted them ...

Solar Wind Seven

Author: E. Marsch

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483287807

Page: 740

View: 535

The third COSPAR Colloquium entitled Solar Wind Seven was held in Goslar, Germany in September 1991. Twenty-two countries were represented by scientists, many of whom are leading experts in the area of heliospheric physics. The Proceedings reflect current research on solar wind and particularly emphasizes the source regions. The main topics covered encompass Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Acceleration; Large-Scale Structure of the Interplanetary Medium; Minor Ions, Neutrals and Cosmic Rays in the Heliosphere; Kinetic Physics, Waves and Turbulence and finally Heliospheric Dynamic Phenomena.

Solar Wind

The U.S. Department of Energy unveils plans to tap the enormous power of the
solar wind using state-of-the-art satellite technology combined with a recent
discovery by an eminent atmospheric physicist. As a multi-billion-dollar power
station ...

Solar Wind

Author: P. Julian Blau

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 1462817726

Page: 334

View: 890

Driven by the nation’s growing thirst for energy, Project Aurora takes shape in the pristine wilderness of northern Alaska. The U.S. Department of Energy unveils plans to tap the enormous power of the solar wind using state-of-the-art satellite technology combined with a recent discovery by an eminent atmospheric physicist. As a multi-billion-dollar power station takes shape on the Artic Circle, oil interests and environmental groups plot to destroy it. Project Director Alvin Brewer and his team must not only overcome the technical challenges of harvesting energy from space, but also must cope with sabotage from foreign terrorists. Unbeknownst to the director, the military has its own plans for the Department of Energy’s satellite network, and unwittingly becomes party to the greatest manmade disaster ever to beset North America. Can Brewer and his team decode the software that sent their high-energy satellite system out of control before our own military destroys the newborn product of years of research and engineering?

Nanotechnology Solar Wind and Hybrid Alternative Energy

Yale University Leadership and politics affect solar, wind, and hybrid energy
Leadership styles' affect the introduction of solar, wind, or hybrid energy to an
organization, to a nation, or to the global village; and can be defined as the
nebulous ...

Nanotechnology  Solar  Wind  and Hybrid Alternative Energy

Author: Joseph U. Aluya

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 1452004293

Page: 100

View: 500

In this book, the global implications of solar, wind, or hybrid as an alternative energy is critically examined and explained. In Brazil, China, Canada, Cuban, Germany, Nigeria, Swiss, and the United States, leadership styles affect finding alternative sources of energy that will complement fossil fuels, hydro, or nuclear power supply. We explain, contrast, and compare various global leadership perspectives as its affect alternative energy sources. Leadership styles and political considerations become the trajectories in the introduction of innovative disruptive technologies. Seven billion people worldwide have inadequate supply of energy (United Nations, 2010). In developing nations, hydropower supply has resulted in consistent brown outs. In developed nations, the lack of clean nuclear power raises safety concerns. In rural areas in developed nations, fossil fuels, hydropower, and nuclear power have not met the demand for energy supply (Jeter, 2004; Ogden, 1999).The background of solar, wind, and nanotechnologies are congruently explained. Nanotechnology is introduced and elements within the innovative systems are considered disruptive technologies. Nanotechnology as a disruptive technology includes capability of self-replicating machines, robots, and the production of molecular sized computers (Merkle, 2009; Uldrich, 2006). Nanotechnology as a disruptive technology also has the capacity to improve human lives globally.Hypothesis deduced from this study revealed that solar, wind, or hybrid could not replace hydropower or nuclear power, rather should complement the existing energy supply. Solar, wind, or hybrid should however disrupt the existing systems to the point of setting new paradigm; to shifting new frontiers in global mindset and reasoning (Martins, Ruther, Pereira, & Abreu, 2008). Situational leadership style trumps other form of leadership styles in the implementations of alternative energy and while introducing nanotech from proposal to fruition. We conclude this study by explaining factors embedded in the decision-making processes of introducing the benefits of alternative energy globally.

Handbook of the Solar Terrestrial Environment

This theorem implies that, if the electrical conductivity were practically infinite
everywhere, plasmas of solar wind and of the magnetosphere cannot mix, so that
the interaction between the solar wind and the geomagnetic field would be
limited ...

Handbook of the Solar Terrestrial Environment

Author: Yohsuke Kamide

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540463143

Page: 539

View: 789

As a star in the universe, the Sun is constantly releas- cover a wide range of time and spatial scales, making ?? ing energy into space, as much as ?. ? ?? erg/s. Tis observations in the solar-terrestrial environment c- energy emission basically consists of three modes. Te plicated and the understanding of processes di?cult. ?rst mode of solar energy is the so-called blackbody ra- In the early days, the phenomena in each plasma diation, commonly known as sunlight, and the second region were studied separately, but with the progress mode of solar electromagnetic emission, such as X rays of research, we realized the importance of treating and UV radiation, is mostly absorbed above the Earth’s the whole chain of processes as an entity because of stratosphere. Te third mode of solar energy emission is strong interactions between various regions within in the form of particles having a wide range of energies the solar-terrestrial system. On the basis of extensive from less than ? keV to more than ? GeV. It is convenient satellite observations and computer simulations over to group these particles into lower-energy particles and thepasttwo decades, it hasbecomepossibleto analyze higher-energy particles, which are referred to as the so- speci?cally the close coupling of di?erent regions in the lar wind and solar cosmic rays, respectively. solar-terrestrial environment.

The Heliosphere through the Solar Activity Cycle

3.6 THE ULYSSES PICTURE: THE SOLAR WIND IN FOUR DIMENSIONS When
Ulysses was launched some 17 years ago our picture of the solar wind in the
heliosphere was that of a ballerina skirt: frilled, flapping up and down, complex,
yet ...

The Heliosphere through the Solar Activity Cycle

Author: A. Balogh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540743026

Page: 286

View: 931

Understanding how the Sun changes though its 11-year sunspot cycle and how these changes affect the vast space around the Sun – the heliosphere – has been one of the principal objectives of space research since the advent of the space age. This book presents the evolution of the heliosphere through an entire solar activity cycle. The last solar cycle (cycle 23) has been the best observed from both the Earth and from a fleet of spacecraft. Of these, the joint ESA-NASA Ulysses probe has provided continuous observations of the state of the heliosphere since 1990 from a unique vantage point, that of a nearly polar orbit around the Sun. Ulysses’ results affect our understanding of the heliosphere from the interior of the Sun to the interstellar medium - beyond the outer boundary of the heliosphere. Written by scientists closely associated with the Ulysses mission, the book describes and explains the many different aspects of changes in the heliosphere in response to solar activity. In particular, the authors describe the rise in solar activity from the last minimum in solar activity in 1996 to its maximum in 2000 and the subsequent decline in activity.

Physics of the Solar Corona

electrons 1 10 100 heliocentric distance (in R,.) Figure 9.13: Summary of
temperature measurements in coronal holes and of the high-speed solar wind:
electron temperatures (solid lines), hydrogen (dotted lines), and oxygen O VI, VII (
dashed ...

Physics of the Solar Corona

Author: Markus Aschwanden

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540307655

Page: 908

View: 653

A thorough introduction to solar physics based on recent spacecraft observations. The author introduces the solar corona and sets it in the context of basic plasma physics before moving on to discuss plasma instabilities and plasma heating processes. The latest results on coronal heating and radiation are presented. Spectacular phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections are described in detail, together with their potential effects on the Earth.