For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen.
Author: Henri Atlan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen. Clonal selection was the name of the theory based on this idea and it has provided the main concepts to account for the known features of the immune response. More recently, immunologists have discovered a wealth of new facts, in the form of different regulatory cells (helpers, suppressors, antigen presenting cells), genetic determinations of immune responses such as those involved in graft re jections, different molecular structures responsible for intercellular interactions such as interleukins, cytokins, idiotype-antiidiotype recognition and others. While furthering our understanding of the local interactions (molecular and cellular) in volved in the immune response, these discoveries have led to a questioning of the simplicities of the classical clonal selection theory. It is clear today that every single immune response is a cooperative phenomenon involving several different molecular and cellular interactions taking place in a coupled manner. In addition, cross reactivity to different antigens has shown that responses of the whole im mune system to different antigens are not completely isolated from one another and that the history of encounters with different antigens plays a crucial role in the maturation of the whole system. Thus, problems of complexity, generation of di versity and self-organization have entered the field of immunology.
( 4 ) H. Atlan , and I.R. Cohen , eds . , Theories of Immune Networks , Springer -
Verlag , Berlin , 1989 . ( 5 ) A.S. Perelson , “ Immune network theory ” , Immunol .
ogy Review , no . 10 , pp . 5-36 , 1989 . ( 6 ) T. Ikegami , “ Dynamical behavior of ...
Proceedings of the May 1997 symposium. MVL researchers from around the world present 37 papers in sessions on algebra, device technology, circuits, fuzzy logic, logic design, philosophical aspects, spectral techniques, testing and fault simulation, and applications. In addition, three invited addresses--recent developments in DNA- computing; many-valuedness and uncertainty; and ternary decision diagrams (survey)--further illustrate the diverse nature of multiple-valued research. Topics of the papers include finding composition trees for multiple-valued functions; hyperclones on a finite set; and multiple-valued logic as a programming language. No index. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.
9012740 Theories of immune networks / H. Atlan , I.R. Cohen ( eds . ) ... Immune
System - physiology - congresses 2 . ... 9010244 Theory and practice of
histological techniques / edited by John D. Bancroft , Alan Stevens ; foreword by
Author: National Library of Medicine (U.S.)
First multi-year cumulation covers six years: 1965-70.
Introduction The vertebrate immune system has several useful mechanisms from
the viewpoint of of information processing . Among the many immunological
models , we can stress the immune network theory [ 6 ] and the clonal selection
Author: Carlos H. C. Ribeiro
With 46 papers from the November 2000 conference in Rio de Janeiro, this volume represents the work of computer scientists, artificial intelligence researchers, and engineers from around the world. They address issues like neurosymbolic processing, neural computation, scalars, CDMA and TCMA based neural nets, genetic algorithms, PARMA modeling, hierarchical neural models, web text mining, inverse kinematics problems in robot control, image compression, and morphological rules of similarity. Also included are abstracts of 24 other papers, originally written in Portugese or Spanish. Name index only. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.
References ( 1 ) Goran Moller ( ed ) , Immunological Memory , Immunological
Reviews , No150 ( 1996 ) O( 2 ) Stephan ... I . R . Cohen ( ed ) : ” Theories of
Immune Networks ” , Springer - Verlag ( 1989 ) ( 5 ) William F . Loamis , An essay
on the ...
Publisher: Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers(IEEE)
The major focus of this symposium is on strategic initiatives for the promotion of micro machine and human science technologies.
to immune network theory . In Theoretical Immunology , Part Two ( ed . A . S .
Perelson ) , pp . 321 - 43 . Addison - Wesley , Redwood City , CA . Segel , L . A .
and Perelson , A . S . ( 1989a ) A paradoxical instability caused by relatively short
Author: A. Goldbeter
"These papers were first presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop 'Theoretical Models for Cell to Cell Signalling' held in Knokke-Zoute, Belgium, during September 1988. The Workshop was further supported by the Commission of the European Communities."--Preliminary page.
The Concept of Idiotypic Network : Deficient or Premature ? In Theories of
Immune Networks , ed . H . Atlan and I . R . Cohen , 38 – 52 . Berlin :
SpringerVerlag . - 1993 . Cellular Tolerance as a Dynamic State of the Adaptable
Author: Professor of Philosophy Emeritus Zoltan Kohn Professor Emeritus of Medicine Alfred I Tauber
In recent decades immunology has been one of the most exciting--and successful--fields of biomedical research. Over the past thirty years immunologists have acquired a detailed understanding of the immune system's unique recognition mechanism and of the cellular and chemical means used to destroy or neutralize invading organisms. This understanding has been formulated in terms of the clonal selection theory, the dominant explanation of immune behavior. That story is the subject of The Generation of Diversity. A major problem for immunologists had long been to determine how cells of the immune system could produce millions of distinct antibodies--and produce them on demand. The clonal selection theory explains that cells with genetic instructions to produce each antibody exist in the body in small numbers until exposure to the right molecule--the antigen--triggers the selective cloning that will reproduce exactly the cell needed. But how can so many different antibody-producing cells be generated from such limited genetic material? The solution to this question came from new applications of molecular biology, and, as the authors argue, the impact of the new techniques changed both the methods and the concepts of immunology. The Generation of Diversity is an intellectual history of the major theoretical problem in immunology and its resolution in the post-World War II period. It will provide for immunologists essential background for understanding the conceptual conflicts occurring in the field today.
Network Regulation of Autoimmunity : An Automaton Model . J . Autoimmunity , 2
, 1989 , pp . 613 - 625 . 15 ) H . Atlan and S . H . Snyder . Simulation of the
Immune Cellular Response by Small Neural Networks , in : Theories of Immune ...
Author: C. Rossi
Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited
A great debate has arisen about the necessity to distinguish between different physical chemistry approaches for investigating the behavior of natural systems. On the one side, it is necessary to recognize that the use of time-reversible classical and quantum physical chemistry approaches for studying molecular systems yields a big improvement in man's knowledge. On the other hand it is imperative to have new approaches, new time-irreversible theories, able to describe these relationships. Ecological physical chemistry is a new transdisciplinary field of study that addresses the relationships between complex molecular systems and/or organisms. This new field goes beyond the normal conceptions of scientific disciplines and tries to integrate and harmonize many different disciplinary perspectives. Ecological physical chemistry thus, wants to develop new theories and strategies for investigating the complexity of nature, and the present book is the first report on this intriguing new scientific discipline.
Multi - level Selection and Immune Networks : Preliminary Discussion of an
Abstract Model Tom Lenaerts , Anne ... is the number of ways of the immune
network theory proposed inability of artificial models to construct functional hier
by N . K ...
Consists of the proceedings of: 1987, Interdisciplinary Workshop on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems; 1990-1992, Artificial Life Workshop; 1994-1996, International Workshop on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems; 1998- , International Conference on Artificial Life.