Wild Fruits from the Amazon VI

The remaining 94 families belong to the Dicotyledoneae.Volumes II - VII are treating over one-hundred plant families from the larger lowland Amazonian Basin in alphabetical order, whether or not they belong to the Chlamydospermae or the ...

Wild Fruits from the Amazon VI

Author: Marc G. M. Van Roosmalen

Publisher: Independently Published

ISBN: 9781793176936

Page: 210

View: 644

Volume I of Wild Fruits from the Amazon depicts the fruits of almost all known Guianan plants covering about 100 families, 546 genera, and over 2,000 species. Moreover, the fruits of a few important edible-fruit producing families that occur in the larger Brazilian Amazon and not in the Guianas are included, such as Lecythidaceae and Myristicaceae (both depicted in colour), and Sapotaceae (depicted in black&white line drawings). Furthermore, besides the fruits of all Amazonian trees of the families Lecythidaceae and Myristicaceae, all fruits that have been cultivated for food and/or spread across the Amazon over the past 11,000 years by now extinct Neolithic Amerindian hunter-gatherers and/or terra preta anthrosol farming peoples, are depicted in colour. The catalogue is restricted to woody plants, i.e. trees and shrubs reaching over 1.5 m in height when fullgrown, lianas, vines, (hemi)-epiphytic climbing shrubs, and (sub)-ligneous epiphytes. Some rare plants too poorly collected or described in literature are omitted. Among the Chlamydospermae, only the family Gnetaceae is treated. The remaining 98 families belong to the Angiospermae. Among the Monocotyledoneae, the families Araceae, Musaceae/Strelitziaceae, Liliaceae, and Arecaceae (Palmae) are included. The remaining 94 families belong to the Dicotyledoneae.Volumes II - VII are treating over one-hundred plant families from the larger lowland Amazonian Basin in alphabetical order, whether or not they belong to the Chlamydospermae or the Angiospermae (Monocotyledoneae or Dicotyledoneae). Each family is headed by a short family description based mainly on the more practicable field characters of leaves, inflorescences, flowers, and fruits. The section Notes includes remarks on habit, secretory systems, and seed dispersal - only when one may generalize on family level. Following a family description, each genus within the family is numbered and mentioned together with the author's name. A genus description is given when more than one species within the genus are described. Each genus is followed by the species in alphabetical order and subnumbered. This facilitates a quick determination of both the number of genera treated within a certain family and the number of species treated within a certain genus. The species name is followed by the author's name according to up-to-date taxonomic literature, while one or more synonyms may be added in brackets. When known to the author, vernacular names used by the most prominent sections of the population, such as Aruak-Amerindian (A), Caraib-Amerindian (C), Surinamese Dutch (SD), Spanish (Sp.), English (E), Brazilian Portuguese (B), Sranan-tongo or Surinamese (S), and Bushland-Creole, Quilombola or Paramaccan (P), have been included. When a fruit species is depicted in Volume I, plate and figure numbers are given in bold. Plates are numbered 1-208; figures are numbered within each plate. The species descriptions as presented in Volumes II - VII usually include four sections, the first word of each section being printed in italics (see example below). The first section gives simple leaf characters as far as they are practicable in the field, using for instance a pair of binoculars. The second section describes main characters of inflorescence, infructescence, (fruiting) calyx, flowering and/or fruiting pedicel. The third section describes, as detailed as possible, external and internal characters of fruit and seed(s). The fourth section, "Notes," gives various remarks that may be useful in the field, such as plant habit, presence of secretory systems, bark features, seed dispersal strategy, phenology, occurrence (based on data from literature, samples examined in the Utrecht Herbarium and INPA - Manaus-AM plant collection, and the internet), habitat and soil type, and geographical distribution within the Guianas and the entire Amazonian lowland region. Vol. VI treats plant families MYRISTICACEAE - ROSACEAE.

English and Irish Settlement on the River Amazon 1550 1646

Urucu/Annotto or Bixa Orellana, and the black dye from the unripe fruit of the
genipapa or Genipa amencana. See Lévi-Strauss, 'Use of wild plants', in HSAI,
1963, VI, 477-9. 4 Presumably one of the many palms which provide edible fruits,
oils ...

English and Irish Settlement on the River Amazon  1550   1646

Author: Joyce Lorimer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317143221

Page: 526

View: 776

From as early as the middle of the 16th century Englishmen were interested in the possibility of exploring the fabled resources of the great river of the Amazons. During the first half of the 17th century English and Irish projectors made persistent efforts to maintain trading factories and plantation there. From at least 1612 to 1632 they inhabited settlements along the north channel of the estuary from Cabo do Norte to the Equator, making very considerable profits from tobacco, dyes and hardwoods. The profitability of their holdings was such that, when the Portuguese made the river too risky for foreign interlopers after 1630, former English and Irish planters sought to return there under licence of first the Spanish and then the Portuguese crown. The Irish may actually have been permitted to do so in the mid-1640s. Almost half a century has elapsed since J.A. Williamson and Aubrey Gwynne first published studies of these colonies. New material from English, Portuguese and Spanish archives has now made it possible to re-evaluate their significance. The Irish ventures, although begun in partnership with the English, can now be seen to have developed into a quite distinct initiative. They are probably the earliest example of independent Irish colonial projects in the New World. By the early 1620s the Irish were known for their experience of the river and their expertise in Indian languages, proving far more efficient in their approach to exploiting Amazonia than the English. The tenacity with which both groups, the English and the Irish, pursued their goal of settlement also forces us to re-assess assumptions about the seemingly 'inevitable' priority of North America for such activity in this period. The Amazon undertakings were in many ways more hopeful than contemporaneous enterprises in North America. They failed because their interests were sacrificed, at critical junctures, to the foreign policy priorities of the English crown, not because the Amazon was an unsuitable environment for northern Europeans.

Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon and Andes

... 'the volcanic hills—Edible wild fruits of Santarem . . . . . I 34 CHAPTER VI FROM
SANTAREM TO THE RIO NEGRO Take passage in a very small vessel—Sounds
of life on the Amazon—Conversation with a forest rat—Obyclos— Abundance ...

Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon and Andes

Author: Richard Spruce

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108069207

Page: 584

View: 804

Having previously embarked on a collecting expedition to the Pyrenees, backed by Sir William Hooker and George Bentham, the botanist Richard Spruce (1817-93) travelled in 1849 to South America, where he carried out unprecedented exploration among the diverse flora across the northern part of the continent. After his death, Spruce's writings on fifteen fruitful years of discovery were edited as a labour of love by fellow naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), whom Spruce had met in Santarém. This two-volume work, first published in 1908, includes many of the author's exquisite illustrations. Showing the determination to reach plants in almost inaccessible areas, Spruce collected hundreds of species, many with medicinal properties, notably the quinine-yielding cinchona tree, as well as the datura and coca plants. Volume 1 contains Wallace's biographical introduction and a list of Spruce's published works. The narrative includes discussion of Pará, Santarém, and the Negro and Orinoco rivers.

The Amazon and Madeira Rivers

This wild cacáo , with its large lancet - shaped hanging leaves , and its cucumber
- like fruit springing directly from the stem ... unheeded in the forests , and VI
above a score of other rich oily seeds , at 122 THE AMAZON AND MADEIRA
RIVERS .

The Amazon and Madeira Rivers

Author: Franz Keller

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 210

View: 955

Palms and People in the Amazon

In many parts of Amazonia, however, some fruit trees, including several palms,
appear to have fallen in and out of ... Le ́vi-Strauss captured this state of affairs in
his usual eloquent prose: “It is not always easy to distinguish between wild and ...

Palms and People in the Amazon

Author: Nigel Smith

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319055097

Page: 500

View: 285

This book explores the degree to which landscapes have been enriched with palms by human activities and the importance of palms for the lives of people in the region today and historically. Palms are a prominent feature of many landscapes in Amazonia, and they are important culturally, economically, and for a variety of ecological roles they play. Humans have been reorganizing the biological furniture in the region since the first hunters and gatherers arrived over 20,000 years ago.

Commercial Tariffs and Regulations of the Several States of Europe and America

Together with the Commercial Treaties Between England and Foreign Countries,
Pt. IV-[VI, VIII-XXI, XXIII] John Macgregor ... During the same year , the first
expedition to ascend the Amazon was equipped under the command of Pedro
Teixeira , who , with seventy soldiers , 1200 natives ... Wild ' fruits and succulent
plants now became their only food ; reduced by hunger , they soon fell victims to
disease .

Commercial Tariffs and Regulations of the Several States of Europe and America

Author: John Macgregor

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 193

Ecology and Evolution of Plants under Domestication in the Neotropics

and 10 adult plants in a nearby forested area (wild population); 3 km was the
average distance between paired populations. ... (2008), who studied
domestication of Inga edulis in Western Amazonia. ... per bunch (mean of five
bunches), (ii) fruit length (cm), (iii) fruit diameter (cm), (iv) fruit mass (g), (v) seed
mass (g), (vi) peel ...

Ecology and Evolution of Plants under Domestication in the Neotropics

Author: Alejandro Casas

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889630471

Page:

View: 992

The Neotropical area is a main setting of the earliest experiences of domestication ofplants, and evolutionary processes guided by humans, which continue being active inthe area. Studies comprised in this Research Topic show a general panorama aboutsimilarities and particularities of processes of domestication for different plant groupsand regions, some of them illustrate how the domestication processes originated anddiffused, how landscape domestication has operated and continues being practicedand others discuss some of the main challenges for designing policies for biosafetyand conservation of plant genetic resources. It is an attempt to identify main topicsfor research on evolution under domestication, and opportunities that researcherscan find in the Neotropics to understand how and why these processes occurredin the past and present.

On the Banks of the Amazon

Or, a Boy's Journal of His Adventures in the Tropical Wilds of South America
William Henry Giles Kingston ... Wild mountains - Encamped on side of mountain
- Send back the mules - Build huts - Sindicaspi , or “ wood that burns " - -
Humming ... 145 CHAPTER VI . ... An Indian maiden - A kind reception - A re .
past set before us - Refreshing fruits - We construct a raft - Voyage down the
igarape - Hear a ...

On the Banks of the Amazon

Author: William Henry Giles Kingston

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 830

The Amazon Rubber Boom 1850 1920

... of occupation to substantiate their claims, they diligently registered every fruit
tree, manioc patch, and cacao grove on their holdings, ... Cultivated crops, not
wild rubber trees, served as proof of possession. ... only a coffee grove in his de
□ International boundaries • State boundaries Leading Zones of Rubber
Production VI.

The Amazon Rubber Boom  1850 1920

Author:

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804766746

Page: 356

View: 955

The first complete account of the rise and fall of the rubber economy in Brazil provides a dramatic example of one of the boom and bust cycles traditionally associated with Brazilian economic history. The Amazon rubber trade was one of the most important export booms in the history of Latin America, dominating the economic life of the Amazon for 70 years until the successful cultivation of rubber trees by the British in Southeast Asia. Yet this long period of vigorous economic activity left the basic structure of Amazonian society relatively unchanged. One of the author's main concerns is to explore why rubber exports did not generate substantial growth in either the industrial or the agricultural sector, and she finds the answers primarily in the relations of production and exchange that characterized the Amazon's extractive economy. The study also considers the impact of political decentralization and regionalism on the Amazonian economy, draws comparisons with the coffee boom in Sao Paulo that induced sustained industrial growth in that area, and traces the consequences of the rubber economy's collapse on the social, political, and economic life in the Amazon.

On the Banks of the Amazon Or A Boy s Journal of His Adventures in the Tropical Wilds of South America

Wild mountains —Encamped on side of mountain—Send back the mules— Build
huts —-Sindicaspi, or ' ' wood that burns ... caught — Nimble —-Ma,c(wo
Barrigudo —- A monkey for dinner—Vampire bats—Nimble makes himself at
home—Our canoes CHAPTER VI. ... to Duppo's mother—A native huts—An
Indian maiden—A kind reception—A repast set before us—Refreshing fruits—We
construct a ...

On the Banks of the Amazon  Or  A Boy s Journal of His Adventures in the Tropical Wilds of South America

Author: William Henry Giles Kingston

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 512

View: 249