In 1431 the Portuguese navigator Velho set sail into the Atlantic, establishing a trade route to the Azores and marking the beginning of commerce with the West as we know it today.
Author: Peter J. Hugill
Publisher: JHU Press
In 1431 the Portuguese navigator Velho set sail into the Atlantic, establishing a trade route to the Azores and marking the beginning of commerce with the West as we know it today. Equipped with reliable maps and instruments for open-ocean navigation and highly sea-worthy, three-masted, cannon-armed ships, Portugal soon dominated the Atlantic trade routes - until the diffusion of Portuguese technologies to wealthier polities made Holland the eventual successor, owing to its geographic position and its immense commercial fleet.
74 Peter Hugill, World Trade since 1431, p. 151. 75 Reader's Digest, The Last
Two Million Years, p. 315. 76 Pomeranz and Topik, The World that Trade Created
, p. 49. 77 Reader's Digest, The Last Two Million Years, p. 315. 78 Ibid., p. 315.
Author: Greg Buckman
Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
Trade, along with the free movement of capital, is at the heart of today's international economy. But international trade is an intensely political and contested subject. In this book, Greg Buckman details possible future directions in global energy supplies and balance-of-payments imbalances. He argues that, just as current trading arrangements have been the product of past decisions emerging out of apparently unrelated considerations, so factors like future fossil fuel costs, global warming, and the economic imbalances between North and South are likely to impel a radical reshaping of the WTO and the principles enshrined in its agreements as well as the global trading system in general. A key contribution to thinking about possible trade policy reforms are the reforms and alternatives - themselves not always agreed or sufficiently thought through -- advocated by the global justice movement. This book outlines these diverse proposals to make global trade more sustainable in some detail. This book has been written to be both informative and empowering. It is an important contribution to clearer thinking, more effective campaigning, and fundamental policy reform in the field of international trade.
GEOGRAPHY/HISTORY A JOHNS HOPKINS PAPERBACK In World Trade since
1431, Peter Hugill showed how the interplay of technology and geography
guided the evolution of the modern global capitalistic system. Now, in the
Author: Peter J. Hugill
Publisher: JHU Press
He traces the steps that led to the British surrender of world hegemony to the United States at the end of World War II.
Hirst , Paul und Grahame Thompson ( 1999 ) , Globalization in question : The
international economy and the possibilities of governance , 2 . Aufl . , Cambridge
. Hugill , Peter J . ( 1993 ) , World trade since 1431 : Geography , technology , and
Author: Alfred Schüller
Publisher: Lucius & Lucius DE
"Dieser Thematik war die 35. Tagung des "Forschungsseminars Radein e. V." gewidmet"--Vorwort.
______ (1993) World Trade since 1431: Geography, Technology, and Capitalism
. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ______ (2005) “Trading States,
Territorial States, and Technology: Mackinder's Contribution to the Discourse on
Author: Stanley D. Brunn
Now that Wal-Mart has conquered the US, can it conquer the world? As Wal-Mart World shows, the corporation is certainly trying. For a number of years, Wal-Mart has been the largest company in the United States. Now, though, it is the largest company in the world. Its global labor practices and outsourcing strategies represent for many what contemporary economic globalization is all about. But Wal-Mart is not standing still, and is opening up stores everywhere. From Germany to Beijing to Mexico City to Tokyo, more than a billion shoppers can now hunt for bargains at a Wal-Mart superstore. Wal-Mart World is the first book to look at this incredibly important phenomenon in global perspective, with chapters that range from its growth in the US and impact on labor relations here to its fortunes overseas. How Wal-Mart manages this transition in the near future will play a significant role in the determining the character of the global economy. Wal-Mart World's impressively broad scope makes it necessary reading for anyone interested in the global impact of this economic colossus.
CHAPTER 2: NEW ECONOMY, NEW SOCIAL CONTRACT 59 Denis Papin: Peter
J. Hugill, World Trade Since 1431: Geography, Technology, and Capitalism (
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993), p. 125. 60 "creative
Author: Ted Halstead
Record numbers of Americans describe themselves as “independents” and reject the conventional agendas of Left and Right. In this widely acclaimed book, Ted Halstead and Michael Lind explain why today’s ideologies and institutions are so ill-suited to the Information Age, and offer a groundbreaking blueprint for updating all sectors of America society. Taking on partisans and experts on both sides of the political divide, they propose far-reaching reforms for the way we provide health and retirement security, collect taxes, organize elections, enforce civil rights, and educate our children. Twice before the United States has dramatically reconfigured itself, shifting from an agrarian to an industrial society after the Civil War and successfully adapting to the massive technological and demographic changes of the early twentieth century during the New Deal era. Uniting a sweeping historical vision with bold policy proposals, The Radical Center shows us how to reinvent our nation once again so that all Americans can reap the benefits of the Information Age. From the Trade Paperback edition.
Author: Alan J. S. Paterson
Publisher: John Donald
One of the classic works on this great river, this book tells of the railway's invasion of the coast services and of the rival steamer fleets which included some of the most beautiful ships ever built.
World Trade Organization. concerned a share of the TRQ with the aim to
achieving "a distribution of trade in such product[s] approaching as closely as ...
was allocated in accordance with the quantities shown in Annex 1 of Regulation
1431/94 and in compliance with the provisions ... The quantities allocated to
Groups 1 (Brazil) and 2 (Thailand) were specific to those countries since licences
carried with ...
Author: World Trade Organization
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
The authorized, paginated WTO Dispute Settlement Reports in English: cases for 1998.
U.S. Foreign Trade Policy Since 1776 Alfred E. Eckes Jr. ... Vol. 2, pp. 1431–51.
New York: Chelsea House, 1980. Peterson, Merrill D. “Thomas Jefferson and
Commercial Policy, 1783–1793. ... In Economics and World Power: An
Assessment of American Diplomacy since 1789, edited by William Becker and
Samuel F. Wells ...
Author: Alfred E. Eckes Jr.
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
Despite the passage of NAFTA and other recent free trade victories in the United States, former U.S. trade official Alfred Eckes warns that these developments have a dark side. Opening America's Market offers a bold critique of U.S. trade policies over the last sixty years, placing them within a historical perspective. Eckes reconsiders trade policy issues and events from Benjamin Franklin to Bill Clinton, attributing growing political unrest and economic insecurity in the 1990s to shortsighted policy decisions made in the generation after World War II. Eager to win the Cold War and promote the benefits of free trade, American officials generously opened the domestic market to imports but tolerated foreign discrimination against American goods. American consumers and corporations gained in the resulting global economy, but many low-skilled workers have become casualties. Eckes also challenges criticisms of the 'infamous' protectionist Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of 1930, which allegedly worsened the Great Depression and provoked foreign retaliation. In trade history, he says, this episode was merely a mole hill, not a mountain.
... 100-600 CE , followed by several other inland kingdoms of Chenla ( 600-790
CE ) , Pagan ( 849-1287 CE ) , Khmer ( 790-1431 CE ) ... Srivijaya maritime
power ( 600–1290 CE ) took effective control over the main trading routes of
Melaka strait and Java Sea . ... down in the coastal cities of Southeast Asia since
as early as the twelfth century , and getting more intensive from the fifteenth
century onward .
Author: Rahil Ismail
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Illustrated by a series of international case studies, this book provides an interdisciplinary cover view of heritage, culture and identity in this dynamic region and demonstrates how the forces of 'post-colonialism' in their various manifestations are accelerating social change and creating new and 'imagined' communities.
Despite the changes at court, Zheng He remained in command of his ships and
their crews and served as commandant at Nanjing until 1431. ... 13 Tribute had
arrived but sporadically from the countries on Zheng He's regular itinerary since
the virtual cessation of diplomatic activity ... It's a measure of the global reach of
the trade networks of the monsoon world that the Yongle and Xuande emperors
Author: Brian Fagan
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
In Beyond the Blue Horizon, bestselling science historian Brian Fagan tackles his richest topic yet: the enduring mystery of the oceans, the planet's most forbidding terrain.This is not a tale of Columbus or Hudson, but of much earlier mariners. From the moment when ancient Polynesians first dared to sail beyond the horizon, Fagan vividly explains how our mastery of the oceans has changed history, even before history was written. Beyond the Blue Horizon delves into the very beginnings of humanity's long and intimate relationship with the sea. It willl enthrall readers who enjoyed Longitude, Simon Winchester's Atlantic, or in its scope and its insightful linking of technology and culture, Guns, Germs, and Steel. What drove humans to risk their lives on open water? How did early sailors unlock the secrets of winds, tides, and the stars they steered by? What were the earliest ocean crossings like? With compelling detail, Brian Fagan reveals how seafaring evolved so that the vast realms of the sea gods were transformed from barriers into highways that hummed with commerce. Indeed, for most of human history, oceans have been the most vital connectors of far-flung societies. From bamboo rafts in the Java Sea to the caravels of the Age of Discovery, from Easter Island to Crete, Brian Fagan crafts a captivating narrative of humanity's urge to seek out distant shores, of the daring men and women who did so, and of the mark they have left on civilization.